Trafalgar Day

Trafalgar Day  is held annually on 21 October to commemorate  the victory won by the Royal Navy, commanded by Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, over the combined French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October 1805. The formation of the Navy League in 1894 gave added impetus to the movement to recognise Nelson’s legacy, and grand celebrations were held in Trafalgar Square on Trafalgar Day, 1896. It was commemorated by parades, dinners and other events throughout much of the British Empire in the 19th century and early 20th century. It continues to be celebrated by navies of the Commonwealth of Nations.

Its public celebration declined after the end of World War I in 1918. The massive casualties and upheaval had changed the general public perception of war as a source of glorious victories to a more sombre view of it as a tragedy, for which the newly instituted Armistice Day on 11 November was created. However, Trafalgar Day was still marked as a public day each year. Around 1993, it was rumoured that John Major’s government might make it a public holiday in place of May Day, and this plan has been revived in the 2011 Tourism Strategy created by the current coalition government. The year 2005 was the bicentennial of the Battle of Trafalgar, and the Royal Navy led Trafalgar 200 celebrations. The 2005 International Fleet Review held off Spithead in the Solent on 28 June was the first since 1999 and the largest since Her Majesty The Queen’s 1977 Silver Jubilee. Sea Cadets of the United Kingdom also celebrate this day usually with a parade of a town.

In Birmingham, the anniversary is celebrated by a ceremony at the statue of Lord Nelson in the Bull Ring. The statue is the oldest statue to Lord Nelson in the United Kingdom. The ceremony is led by the Lord Mayor of Birmingham and involves men and women of HMS Forward, Sea Cadet Units from across the West Midlands and various civic organisations including The Nelson Society and The Birmingham Civic Society. Afterwards there is a wreath laying by naval and civic organisations and a parade marches off to Victoria Square, the public square in front of the seat of local government, where the Lord Mayor takes the salute. the statue is also regaled with swags of laurel and flowers, possibly due to its location by the wholesale flower markets of the city. This tradition was carried on throughout most of the nineteenth century and was revived in 2004.

In Edinburgh, the Nelson Monument on Calton Hill was built in memory of Admiral Lord Nelson. Weather permitting, the Trafalgar flag signal ‘England expects that every man will do his duty’ is flown on Trafalgar Day. Looking like a tall stone telescope, the Nelson Monument contains a time ball which drops at 1 o’clock daily. In Gibraltar, the Trafalgar Day service is held at the Trafalgar Cemetery where the senior Naval Commander reads an extract from the Gibraltar Chronicle Newspaper, the first periodical to report on the Battle. Some sailors who died of wounds received in Trafalgar whilst in Gibraltar are buried there, while HMS Victory, with Nelson’s body onboard, was repaired in Gibraltar prior to sailing for Britain.

John Carin (Pink Floyd & The Who)

Jon Carin, American singer-songwriter and musician (Pink Floyd, The Who, and Industry was born 21 October 1964. Pink Floyd were founded in 1965 and originally consisted of students Roger Waters, Nick Mason,Richard Wright, and Syd Barrett. They first became popular playing in London’s underground music scene in the late 1960s. Under Barrett’s leadership they released two charting singles, “Arnold Layne” and “See Emily Play”, and a successful début album, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn . In 1968 Syd Barratt departed from the group due to his deteriorating mental health & Gilmour joined Pink Fl syd as the fifth member several months prior to this. Following the loss of their principal songwriter, Pink Floyd bassist and vocalist Roger Waters became the band’s lyricist and conceptual leader, with Gilmour assuming lead guitar, taking on most of the band’s music composition, and sharing lead vocals.With this line-up Pink Floyd achieved worldwide critical and commercial success with their progressive and psychedelic rock music, which used philosophical lyrics, sonic experimentation, innovative album art, and elaborate live shows. and release of many concept albums such as concept albums such as The Dark Side of the Moon, Wish You Were Here, Animals and The Wall.

Since Pink Floyd disbanded David Gilmour has released a few solo albums such as “On An Island” which entered the UK Music charts at Number One in 2006. Pink Floyd is ranked at number 51 on Rolling Stone magazine’s list of “The 100 Greatest Artists of All Time”, with David Gilmour ranking 14th in the greatest guitarists list. Largely due to the success of their albums the band was ranked No. 3 in Colin Larkin’s the ‘Top 50 Artists Of All Time’, a ranking based on the cumulative votes for each artist’s albums that appear in the All Time Top 1000 Albums.

Sadly though Richard Wright passed away in 2008 but Pink Floyd still remain popular and numerous artists have been influenced by their work: David Bowie has called Syd Barrett a major inspiration, The Edge (U2) also bought his first delay pedal after hearing the opening to Animals; and the Pet Shop Boys paid homage to The Wall during a performance in Boston; Marillion guitarist Steve Rothery has cited Wish You Were Here as a major inspiration; and many other bands, such as the Foo Fighters, Dream Theater, My Chemical Romance, Porcupine Tree, The Mars Volta, The La’s, Queen, Oasis, Iron Maiden, Stone Temple Pilots, Coheed and Cambria, Tool, Queensryche, 30 Seconds to Mars, Scissor Sisters, Rush, Radiohead, Gorillaz, Mudvayne, Nine Inch Nails, Korn, Primus and the Smashing Pumpkins, some of whom have recorded Pink Floyd covers, have been influenced by them.

Pink Floyd have been nominated for and won multiple awards Technical awards include a “Best Engineered Non-Classical Album” Grammy in 1980 for The Wall and BAFTAs award for ‘Best Original Song’ (awarded to Waters) and ‘Best Sound’ (awarded to James Guthrie, Eddy Joseph, Clive Winter, Graham Hartstone and Nicholas Le Messurier) in 1982 for the The Wall film. They won A Grammy in 1995 for “Rock Instrumental Performance” on “Marooned”and In 2008 Pink Floyd were awarded the Polar Music Prize for their contribution to contemporary music; Waters and Mason accepted the prize from King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on 17 January 1996, the UK Music Hall of Fame on 16 November 2005 and the Hit Parade Hall of Fame in 2010 and are one of the most commercially successful and influential rock music groups of all time, having sold over 230 million albums worldwide. The band were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996. Since then they have continued to enjoy worldwide success and are one of the most commercially successful and influential rock music groups of all time.

Pink Floyd are also releasing an eagerly awaited new album called The Endless River in November 2014, which is based on sessions the band recorded in 1994 when they released their last album The Division Bell and consists entirely of previously unreleased material, With contributions from keyboard player Richard Wright, who died in 2008. The album is a mixture of  vocals and instrumental tracks, and will blend the old sessions with new recordings. Recording originally started during The Division Bell sessions (and it was originally titled ‘The Big Spliff’). However David Gilmour and Nick Mason have worked on it considerably since then. The album also features session bassist Guy Pratt.

Jon Carin has also been a member of the Who, (obviously not the original1960’s line-up, which was Formed in 1964 by Roger Daltrey (lead vocals, harmonica and guitar), Pete Townshend, John Entwistle (bass guitar, brass and vocals) and Keith Moon (drums and percussion, but joined later on. So far The Who have sold about 100 million records, and have charted 27 top forty singles in the United Kingdom and United States, as well as 17 top ten albums, with 18 Gold, 12 Platinum and 5 Multi-Platinum album awards in the United States alone. The Who rose to fame in the UK with a series of top ten hit singles, boosted in part by pirate radio stations such as Radio Caroline, beginning in January 1965 with“I Can’t Explain”. The albums My Generation, A Quick One and The Who Sell Out followed, with the first two reaching the UK top five. They first hit the US Top 40 in 1967 with “Happy Jack” and hit the top ten later that year with “I Can See for Miles”.Their fame grew with memorable performances at the Monterey Pop, Woodstock and Isle of Wight music festivals. The 1969 release of Tommy was the first in a series of top ten albums in the US, followed by Live at Leeds, Who’s Next, Quadrophenia, The Who by Numbers, Who Are You, and The Kids Are Alright. Moon died at the age of 32 in 1978, after which the band released two studio albums, the UK and US top five Face Dances and the US top ten It’s Hard, with drummer Kenney Jones, before disbanding in 1983.

They re-formed at events such as Live Aid and for reunion tours such as their 25th anniversary tour and the Quadrophenia tours of 1996 and 1997. In 2000, the three surviving original members discussed recording an album of new material, but their plans temporarily stalled upon Entwistle’s death at the age of 57 in 2002. Townshend and Daltrey continue to perform as The Who, and in 2006 they released the studio album Endless Wire, which reached the top ten in the UK and US.The Who were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990, their first year of eligibility; the display describes them as “Prime contenders, in the minds of many, for the title of World’s Greatest Rock Band.” Time magazine wrote in 1979 that “No other group has ever pushed rock so far, or asked so much from it.” Rolling Stone magazine wrote: “Along with The Beatles and The Rolling Stones, The Who complete the holy trinity of British rock.” They received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the British Phonographic Industry in 1988, and from the Grammy Foundation in 2001, for creative contributions of outstanding artistic significance to the field of recording. In 2008 surviving members Townshend and Daltrey were honoured at the 31st Annual Kennedy Center Honours. That same year VH1 Rock Honours paid tribute to The Who and Jack Black of Tenacious D called them “the greatest band of all time.

Brent Mydland (Grateful Dead)

Grateful_Dead_Tapestry_72004DBrent Mydland, German-American keyboard player (Grateful Dead, Bobby and the Midnites, and Silver) was born 21 October 1952.The G0rateful Dead were fomed in 1965 in the San Francisco Bay Area and were known for their unique and eclectic style, which fused elements of rock, folk, bluegrass, blues, reggae, country, improvisational jazz, psychedelia, and space rock, and for live performances of long musical improvisation. These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead “the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world.” They were ranked 57th in the issue The Greatest Artists of all Time by Rolling Stone magazine. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994 and their Barton Hall Concert at Cornell University was added to the Library of Congress’s National Recording Registry.The founding members of the Grateful Dead were Jerry Garcia (guitar, vocals), Bob Weir (guitar, vocals), Ron “Pigpen” McKernan (keyboards, harmonica, vocals), Phil Lesh (bass, vocals), and Bill Kreutzmann (drums). Lesh was the last member to join the Warlocks before they became the Grateful Dead; he replaced Dana Morgan Jr., who had played bass for a few gigs. With the exception of McKernan, who died in 1973, the core of the band stayed together for its entire 30-year history.Phil Lesh and Jerry Garcia were brought together by Gert Chiarito in 1964 to perform on The Midnight Special.The Grateful Dead began their career as the Warlocks, a group formed in early 1965 from the remnants of a jug band called Mother McCree’s Uptown Jug Champions, although The band changed its name after finding out that another band of the same name had signed a recording contract.The name “Grateful Dead” was chosen from a dictionary, The definition being that there was “the soul of a dead person, or his angel, showing gratitude to someone who, as an act of charity, arranged their burial.”

One of the group’s earliest major performances in 1967 was at the Avalon Ballroom by the San Francisco Hare Krishna temple. The Grateful Dead performed at the event along with the Hare Krishna founder Bhaktivedanta Swami, poet Allen Ginsberg, bands Moby Grape and Big Brother and the Holding Company with Janis Joplin, donating proceeds to the Krishna temple.The band’s first LP, The Grateful Dead, was released in 1967. 1970 included tour dates in New Orleans, Louisiana, where the band performed at The Warehouse for two nights. Mickey Hart quit the Grateful Dead in February 1971, leaving Kreutzmann once again as the sole percussionist. Hart rejoined the Grateful Dead for good in October 1974. Tom “TC” Constanten was added as a second keyboardist from 1968 to 1970, while Pigpen also played various percussion instruments and sang. Following the Grateful Dead’s “Europe ’72″ tour, Pigpen’s health had deteriorated to the point that he could no longer tour with the band. His final concert appearance was June 17, 1972 at the Hollywood Bowl, in Los Angeles;] he died in March, 1973 of complications from alcohol abuse.The Grateful Dead formed their own record group, Grateful Dead Records & Later that year, they released their next studio album, the jazz influenced Wake of the Flood. It became their biggest commercial success thus far.During the late 1970s the band went back to the studio, and the next year released another album, Grateful Dead from the Mars Hotel.

Not long after that album’s release however, the Grateful Dead decided to take a hiatus from live touring so that its members could focus on their solo careers. This hiatus was short lived, though, as they resumed touring in 1976, and released another album Terrapin Station in 1977.During the 1980s the bands sound transformed. Sadly though Garcia’s health began to decline. His drug habits caused him to lose his liveliness on stage. After kicking his drug habit in 1985, he slipped into a diabetic coma for several days in July 1986. After he recovered, the band released In the Dark in 1987, which resulted as their best selling studio album release, and also produced their only top-10 chart single, Touch of Grey. Inspired by Garcia’s improved health and a successful album, the band’s energy and chemistry peaked in the late 1980s and 1990. Performances were vigorous and as a result, every show exceeded its maximum audience capacity. Sadly the band’s “high time” came to a sudden halt when Mydland died after the summer tour in 1990. So Vince Welnick, joined on keyboards and vocals and Bruce Hornsby joined the band as the pianist and vocals on September 15, 1990.The fans of the Grateful Dead, some of whom followed the band from concert to concert for years, are known as “Deadheads” and are known for their dedication to the band’s music. From 2003 to 2009 former members of the Grateful Dead, along with other musicians, toured as The Dead and The Other Ones. There are also many contemporary incarnations of the Dead, with the most prominent touring acts being Furthur and Phil Lesh & Friends.

Rime of the Ancient Mariner

English poet, literary critic and philosopher Samuel Taylor Coleridge was born on 21 October 1772 in the country town of Ottery St Mary, Devon, England was an who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets. In 1781, 8-year-old Samuel was sent to Christ’s Hospital, a charity school founded in the 16th century in Greyfriars, London, where he remained throughout his childhood, studying and writing poetry. At that school Coleridge became friends with Charles Lamb, a schoolmate, and studied the works of Virgil and William Lisle Bowles.From 1791 until 1794, Coleridge attended Jesus College, Cambridge. In 1792, he won the Browne Gold Medal for an ode that he wrote on the slave trade. In December 1793, he left the college and enlisted in the Royal Dragoons using the false name “Silas Tomkyn Comberbache”. Whilst At the university, he was introduced to political and theological ideas then considered radical, including those of the poet Robert Southey. Coleridge joined Southey in a plan, soon abandoned, to found a utopian commune-like society, called Pantisocracy, in the wilderness of Pennsylvania.

Between The years 1797 and 1798, he lived in what is now known as Coleridge Cottage, in Nether Stowey, Somerset, and these were among the most fruitful of Coleridge’s life. In 1795, Coleridge met poet William Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy. (Wordsworth, having visited him and being enchanted by the surroundings, rented Alfoxton Park, a little over three miles [5 km] away.) Besides the Rime of The Ancient Mariner, he composed the symbolic poem Kubla Khan, written—Coleridge himself claimed—as a result of an opium dream, in “a kind of a reverie”; and the first part of the narrative poem Christabel. The writing of Kubla Khan, written about the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan and his legendary palace at Xanadu, was said to have been interrupted by the arrival of a “Person from Porlock” — an event that has been embellished upon in such varied contexts as science fiction and Nabokov’s Lolita. During this period, he also produced his much-praised “conversation” poems This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison, Frost at Midnight, and The Nightingale.I

In 1798, Coleridge and Wordsworth published a joint volume of poetry, Lyrical Ballads, which proved to be the starting point for the English romantic age, the star of the collection was Coleridge’s first version of The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.Coleridge also worked briefly in Shropshire, where he came in December 1797 as locum to its local Unitarian minister, Dr Rowe, in their church in the High Street at Shrewsbury. He is said to have read his Rime of the Ancient Mariner at a literary evening in Mardol and was contemplating a career in the ministry.In the autumn of 1798, Coleridge and Wordsworth left for a stay in Germany. During this period, he became interested in German philosophy, especially the transcendental idealism and critical philosophy of Immanuel Kant, and in the literary criticism of the 18th century dramatist Gotthold Lessing. Coleridge studied German and, after his return to England, translated the dramatic trilogy Wallenstein by the German Classical poet Friedrich Schiller into English.In 1799, Coleridge and Wordsworth stayed at Sockburn, near Darlington. It was here that Coleridge wrote his ballad-poem Love, addressed to Sara. The knight mentioned is the mailed figure on the Conyers tomb in ruined Sockburn church. The figure has a wyvern at his feet, a reference to the Sockburn Worm slain by Sir John Conyers (and a possible source for Lewis Carroll’s Jabberwocky). The poem was a direct inspiration for John Keats’ famous poem La Belle Dame Sans Merci.

Around 1800 he settled with his family and friends at Keswick in the Lake District of Cumberland to be near Grasmere, where Wordsworth had moved. In 1804, he travelled to Sicily and Malta, However he returned to England in 1806 but returned to Malta in 1897 and then travelled in Sicily and Italy, in the hope that leaving Britain’s damp climate would improve his health and thus enable him to reduce his consumption of opium. it was during this period that Coleridge became a full-blown opium addict, using the drug as a substitute for the lost vigour and creativity of his youth.In 1809, Coleridge made his second attempt to become a newspaper publisher and published a weekly journal entitled The Friend, which he wrote, edited, and published almost entirely single-handedly. Despite many financial difficulties The Friend became a highly influential work drawing upon every corner of Coleridge’s remarkably diverse knowledge of law, philosophy, morals, politics, history, and literary criticism, and it ran for 25 issues and was republished in book form a number of times.

Between 1810 and 1820, Coleridge gave a series of lectures in London and Bristol – those on Shakespeare renewed interest in the playwright as a model for contemporary writers. Much of Coleridge’s reputation as a literary critic is founded on the lectures that he undertook in the winter of 1810–11. These lectures were heralded in the prospectus as “A Course of Lectures on Shakespeare and Milton, in Illustration of the Principles of Poetry.” Coleridge’s ill-health, opium-addiction problems, and somewhat unstable personality meant that all his lectures were plagued with problems of delays and a general irregularity of quality from one lecture to the next. However, it was the lecture on Hamlet given on 2 January 1812 that was considered the best and has influenced Hamlet studies ever since. In August 1814, Coleridge was approached by Lord Byron’s publisher, John Murray, about the possibility of translating Goethe’s classic Faust (1808). Coleridge was regarded by many as the greatest living writer on the demonic so he accepted the commission. In 1817,Coleridge, with his addiction worsening, his spirits depressed, and his family alienated, took residence in Highgate, where he finished the Biographia Literaria (1817), a volume composed of 23 chapters of autobiographical notes and dissertations on various subjects, including some incisive literary theory and criticism. He also composed much poetry here and had many inspirations — a few of them from opium overdose, Colerdige remained here for the rest of his life, and the house has since become a place of literary pilgrimage. He published other writings notably Sibylline Leaves (1817), Aids to Reflection (1825), and Church and State (1826). He died in Highgate, London on 25 July 1834 as a result of heart failure compounded by an unknown lung disorder, possibly linked to his use of opium.

Alfred Nobel

Swedish chemist,engineer, innovator, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel was born 21st October 1833, in Stockholm. As a boy he was interested in engineering, particularly explosives, learning the basic principles from his father at a young age. Nobel had private tutors and excelled in his studies, particularly in chemistry and languages, achieving fluency in English, French, German, and Russian, Nobel also attended the Jacobs Apologistic School in Stockholm. As a young man, Nobel studied with chemist Nikolai Zinin; then, in 1850, went to Paris to further the work; and went to the United States for four years to study chemistry, collaborating for a short period under inventor John Ericsson, who designed the American Civil War ironclad USS Monitor. Nobel filed his first patent, for a gas meter, in 1857. The family factory produced armaments for the Crimean War (1853–1856); but, had difficulty switching back to regular domestic production when the fighting ended and they filed for bankruptcy.In 1859, Nobel’s father left his factory in the care of the second son, Ludvig Nobel (1831–1888), who greatly improved the business.

Nobel and his parents returned to Sweden from Russia and Nobel devoted himself to the study of explosives, and especially to the safe manufacture and use of nitroglycerine (discovered in 1847 by Ascanio Sobrero, one of his fellow students under Théophile-Jules Pelouze at the University of Turin). Nobel invented a detonator in 1863 and also designed the blasting cap. On 3 September 1864, Nobel’s younger brother Emila was killed in an explosion at the factory in Stockholm. Dogged by more minor accidents but unfazed, Nobel went on to build further factories, focusing on improving the stability of the explosives he was developing, so he invented dynamite in 1867, a substance easier and safer to handle than the more unstable nitroglycerin. Nobel demonstrated his explosive for the first time that year, at a quarry in Redhill, Surrey, England. In order to help reestablish his name and improve the image of his business from the earlier controversies associated with the dangerous explosives, Nobel had also considered naming the highly powerful substance “Nobel’s Safety Powder”, but settled with Dynamite instead, referring to the Greek word for ‘power’. which is used extensively in mining and the building of transport networks

In 1875 Nobel invented gelignite, a more stable and powerful than dynamite. He then combined nitroglycerin with various nitrocellulose compounds, similar to collodion, but settled on a more efficient recipe combining another nitrate explosive, and obtained a transparent, jelly-like substance, which produced a more powerful explosive than dynamite. ‘Gelignite’, or blasting gelatin, as it was named, was patented in 1876 and in 1887 he also patented ballistite, a forerunner of cordite, this was modified by the addition of potassium nitrate and various other substances. Gelignite was more stable, transportable and conveniently formed to fit into bored holes, like those used in drilling and mining, An off-shoot of this research resulted in Nobel’s invention of ballistite, the precursor of many modern smokeless powder explosives and still used as a rocket propellant.

Nobel was also elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1884, the same institution that would later select laureates for two of the Nobel prizes, and he received an honorary doctorate from Uppsala University in 1893.Concerned that his invention would be used for evil purposes, Nobel signed his last will and testament and set aside the bulk of his estate to establish the Nobel Prizes, to be awarded annually without distinction of nationality. The first three of these prizes are awarded for eminence in physical science, in chemistry and in medical science or physiology; the fourth is for literary work “in an ideal direction” and the fifth prize is to be given to the person or society that renders the greatest service to the cause of international fraternity, in the suppression or reduction of standing armies, or in the establishment or furtherance of peace congresses. There is no prize awarded for mathematics. The formulation for the literary prize being given for a work “in an ideal direction”, is cryptic and has caused much confusion. For many years, the Swedish Academy interpreted “ideal” as “idealistic” (idealistisk) and used it as a reason not to give the prize to important but less Romantic authors, such as Henrik Ibsen and Leo Tolstoy.0

This interpretation has since been revised, and the prize has been awarded to, for example, Dario Fo and José Saramago, who do not belong to the camp of literary idealism. He stipulated that the money go to discoveries or inventions in the physical sciences and to discoveries or improvements in chemistry.In 1891, Nobel moved from Paris to San Remo, Italy, where he died of a cerebral haemorrhage on 10 December 1896. During his life Nobel issued 350 patents internationally and by his death had established 90 armaments factories, despite his belief in pacifism. Unbeknownst to his family, friends or colleagues, he had left most of his wealth in trust, in order to fund the awards that would become known as the Nobel Prizes. The synthetic element nobelium is also named after him and his name also survives in modern-day companies such as Dynamit Nobel and Akzo Nobel, which are descendants of the companies Nobel himself established. He is buried in Norra begravningsplatsen in Stockholm.

Kate Mosse OBE

imageBest selling Novellist Kate Mosse OBE was born 20 October 1961 in Chichester and was educated at Chichester High School For Girls and New College, Oxford. She graduated from university in 1981 with a BA (Hons) in English. After graduation, she spent seven years in publishing in London, working for Hodder & Stoughton, then Century, and finally as an editorial director at Hutchinson, part of the Random House Group. She was a member of the National Union of Journalists (NUJ) and Women in Publishing. She left publishing in 1992, to begin her writing career and to help setting up a new literary prize, and published two works of non-fiction and two novels. Mosse married old school friend Greg, after meeting him again ten years later on a train by chance and currently lives with him and her family in Chichester and Carcassonne after having bought a small house in Carcassonne in the Languedoc region of southwest France, the inspiration for her bestselling trilogy of historical timeslip novels Labyrinth, Sepulchre and Citadel. She moved back to her home town of Chichester in 1998 to take the position of executive director of Chichester Festival Theatre. In 2001, she began writing the first of the series, Labyrinth, which was published in 2005. Her bestselling books have sold millions of copies in more than 40 countries. Although best known for her adventure and ghost fiction, inspired by real history, Mosse’s first two works were non-fiction. Becoming A Mother (in its seventh edition) was published by Virago in 1993, followed in 1995 by The House: Behind the Scenes at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, published by BBC Books to accompany the award-winning BBC 2 fly-on-the-wall documentary series of the same name. She then turned her hand to fiction, publishing two contemporary novels. Eskimo Kissing, about a young, adopted woman searching for her background, was published to critical acclaim in 1996. This was followed in 1998 by the biotech thriller, Crucifix Lane.

In 2005, the first of the Languedoc Trilogy, Labyrinth, was published. A number one bestseller all over the world, it has sold millions of copies, was the bestselling title in the UK for 2006 and won the Richard & Judy Best Book at the British Book Awards 2006 and was named as one of Waterstone’s Top 25 books of the past 25 years. Part of Labyrinth is set in Medieval Carcasonne during 1209 on the night before a brutal civil crusade to rid the land of Cathars and concerns a young woman named Alais (Jessica Brown Findlay) who works as a healer and herbalist and finds a dead man in the river with his thumb cut off. Anais then finds herself custodian of the mysterious Book of Words, Although she cannot understand the symbols and diagrams the book contains, Alais finds out that the book could reveal the location of The Holy Grail itself and knows her destiny lies in protecting their secret, at all costs, Meanwhile back in modern day Languedoc an amatuer Archeologist named Alice Tanner (Vanessa Kirby) discovers two skeletons during an archaeological dig in a mysterious cave which has strange symbols drawn on the walls and contains a Ring. She begins to suspect that that she has unearthed a link with a horrific and brutal past. But it’s not just the sight of the shattered bones that makes her uneasy; there’s an overwhelming sense of evil in the tomb that Alice finds hard to shake off. Puzzled by the words carved inside the chamber, Alice has an uneasy feeling that she has disturbed something which was meant to remain hidden and finds herself drawn into a conspiricy involving an age old mystery concerning The location of the Book of Words and the Holy Grail. Television rights were sold to Scott Free and Tandem Communications and the Labyrinth miniseries was broadcast in 2013. The cast included John Hurt, Janet Suzman, Jessica Brown Findlay, Tom Felton, and Sebastian Stan.

imageIn October 2007, the second novel in the trilogy, Sepulchre, was published. A tale of haunting and Tarot set in 18th Century Paris and Languedoc and 20th-century France, it was also a number one bestseller in the UK and an international bestseller which starts In 1891 and features, Leone Vernier, a young girl living in Paris until an invitation from her uncle’s widow Isolde prompts a journey to Domaine de la Cade, a stately home in Rennes-les-Bains, which is owned by Léonie’s deceased uncle Jules and his wife Isolde. Meanwhile In the present day, an American, Meredith Martin, is in France to research the life of Claude Debussy for a biography she is writing. She is also trying to find out more about her biological mother. During the visit, she visits Domaine de la Cade, which has been turned into a hotel and uncovers information that links her lineage to that of Léonie Vernier and discovers the truth about the events in Carcassonne during that period in history and the terrifying events that occurred in the haunted abandoned Sepulchre which is situated in the grounds of Domaine de la Cade. the stories of Léonie and Meredith are brought together by a series of visions that are related to the Sepulchre, in the grounds of the Domaine de la Cade. Citadel, the third novel in the trilogy, came out in 2013 and was also an international bestseller. Inspired by the real history of the resistance in Carcassonne during World War II, Set in and around Carcassonne and the Languedoc region of France, it features an imagined all-female resistance unit. it explores the incredible history, legends and hidden secrets of the area. Set during World War II in the far south of France, the novel is described as a powerful, action-packed mystery that reveals the secrets of the resistance under Nazi occupation. While war blazed in the trenches at the front, back at home a different battle is waged, full of clandestine bravery, treachery and secrets. And as a cell of resistance fighters, codenamed Citadelle, fight for everything they hold dear, their struggle will reveal an older, darker combat being fought in the shadows. Combining the rugged action of LABYRINTH with the haunting mystery of SEPULCHRE, CITADEL is a story of daring and courage, of lives risked for beliefs and of astonishing secrets buried in time.

While Mosse was researching Citadel, she released The Winter Ghosts in 2009, based on a novella she previously contributed to the Quick Reads Initiative. Film rights have been sold to Ruby Films and in October 2013, Mosse’s collection of short stories, The Mistletoe Bride & Other Haunting Tales, was published – a collection of ghost stories inspired by traditional folk tales and country legends from England and France, throughout Sussex, Brittany and the Languedoc. There has also been a lavish two-part 2013 TV adaptation based on Kate Mosse’s novel Labyrinth which was made by Ridley Scott’s production company, Scott Free.

Bela Lugosi

2013-10-21-22-41-03-1996293285Best known for portraying Count Dracula in the original 1931 film, the Hungarian-American actor Béla Ferenc Dezső Blaskó better known as Béla Lugosi, was born 20 October 1882. He had been playing small parts on the stage in his native Hungary before making his first film in 1917,He also had roles in several films in Weimar Germany before crossing the Atlantic and arriving in America as a seaman on a merchant ship. Lugosi’s first film appearance was in the movie Az ezredes (The Colonel, 1917). When appearing in Hungarian silent films, he used the stage name Arisztid Olt. Lugosi made 12 films in Hungary between 1917 and 1918 before leaving for Germany in 1919, where he began appearing in a small number of well received films, including adaptations of the Karl May novels, Auf den Trümmern des Paradieses (On the Brink of Paradise), and Die Todeskarawane The Caravan of Death), opposite the Jewish actress Dora Gerson (who was murdered at Auschwitz).Lugosi left Germany in October 1920, intending to emigrate to the United States, and entered the country at New Orleans in December 1920. He made his way to New York and was legally inspected for immigration at Ellis Island in March 1921.He declared his intention to become a U.S. citizen in 1928, and on June 26, 1931, he was naturalized.

upon his arrival in America, the 6-foot-1-inch (1.85 m), 180 pounds (82 kg) Lugosi worked for some time as a laborer, then entered the theater in New York City’s Hungarian immigrant colony. With fellow Hungarian actors he formed a small stock company that toured Eastern cities, playing for immigrant audiences. He acted in his first Broadway play, The Red Poppy, in 1922. Three more parts came in 1925–1926, including a five-month run in the comedy-fantasy The Devil in the Cheese. In 1925, he appeared as an Arab Sheik inArabesque which premiered in Buffalo, New York at the Teck Theatre before moving to Broadway.His first American film role came in the 1923 melodrama The Silent Command. Several more silent roles followed, as villains or continental types, all in productions made in the New York area.Lugosi was approached in the summer of 1927to star in a Broadway production of Dracula adapted by Hamilton Deaneand John L. Balderston from Bram Stoker’s novelthis ran for 261 performances before touring. He was soon called to Hollywood for character parts in early talkies.

In 1927, he appeared as Count Dracula in a Broadway adaptation of Bram Stoker’s novel, where he was talent-spotted as a character actor for the new Hollywood talkies. He would appear in the classic 1931 Dracula talkie by Universal Pictures.Through the 1930s, he occupied an important niche in popular horror films, with their East European setting, but his Hungarian accent limited his repertoire, and he tried unsuccessfully to avoid typecasting. he was often paired with Boris Karloff, Among his pairings with Karloff, wereThe Black Cat (1934), The Raven (1935), and Son of Frankenstein (1939) .By this time, Lugosi had been receiving regular medication for sciatic neuritis, and he had become addicted to morphine and methadone. This drug dependence was noted by producers, and the offers eventually dwindled down to a few parts in Ed Wood’s low-budget movies

Despite his critically acclaimed performance on stage, Lugosi was not first choice for the role of Dracula but that , Lon Chaney, was Universal’s first choice for the role, and that Lugosi was chosen only due to Chaney’s death shortly before production. .Chaney and Browning had worked together on several projects , In 1927, Lugosi accepted the titular role in the American theatrical run of Dracula, a play based on Bram Stoker’s gothic novel of the same name.Lugosi’s Dracula was unlike any previous portrayals of the role. Handsome, mysterious and alluring, Lugosi’s Dracula was at once so sexy and so haunting that audiences gasped when he first opened his mouth to speak. After a half-year run on Broadway, Dracula toured the United States to much fanfare and critical acclaim throughout 1928 and 1929.The Dracula of Lugosi did not look like the previous representations. His portrayal of Dracula was so successful that Universal decided to make a movie of Dracula starring Lugosi. The film, The Strangest Passion The World Has Ever Known, was a considerable hit and forever immortalized the portrayal of Lugosi’s Dracula.

During the mid 30’s Lugosi found himself consigned to Universal’s non-horror B-film unit, at times in small roles where he was obviously used for “name value” only. Throughout the 1930s, Lugosi, experiencing a severe career decline despite popularity with audiences (Universal executives always preferred his rival Karloff), accepted many leading roles from independent producers like Nat Levine, Sol Lesser, and Sam Katzman. These low-budget thrillers indicate that Lugosi was less discriminating than Karloff in selecting screen vehicles, but the exposure helped Lugosi financially if not artistically. Lugosi tried to keep busy with stage work, but had to borrow money from the Actors’ Fund to pay hospital bills when his only child, Bela George Lugosi, was born in 1938.His career was given a second chance by Universal’s Son of Frankenstein (1939), when he played the character role of Ygor, who uses the Monster for his own revenge, in heavy makeup and beard. The same year saw Lugosi playing a straight character role in a major motion picture: he was a stern commissar in MGM’s comedy Ninotchka, starring Greta Garbo. This small but prestigious role could have been a turning point for the actor, but within the year he was back on Hollywood’s Poverty Row, playing leads for Sam Katzman. These horror, comedy and mystery B-films were released by Monogram Pictures. At Universal, he often received star billing for what amounted to a supporting part. The Gorilla (1939) had him playing straight man to Patsy Kelly, in a role she told author Boze Hadleighwas her finest part.Lugosi in The Devil Bat

Due to injuries received during military service, Lugosi developed severe, chronic sciatica. Though at first he was treated with pain remedies such as asparagus juice, doctors increased the medication to opiates. The growth of his dependence on pain-killers, particularly morphine and methadone, was directly proportional to the dwindling of screen offers. He was finally cast in the role of Frankenstein’s monster for Universal’s Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man (1943), which this time contained dialogue (Lugosi’s voice had been dubbed over that of Lon Chaney, Jr., from line readings at the end of The Ghost of Frankenstein (1942) because Ygor’s brain had been transplanted into the Monster). Lugosi continued to play the Monster with Ygor’s consciousness but with groping gestures because the Monster was now blind. Ultimately, all of the Monster’s dialogue and all references to his sightlessness were edited out of the released film, leaving a strange, maimed performance characterized by unexplained gestures and lip movements with no words coming out. He also came to recreate the role of Dracula a second and last time on film in Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein (1948). By this time, Lugosi’s drug use was so notorious that the producers were not even aware that Lugosi was still alive, and had penciled in actor Ian Keith for the role.Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein was Bela Lugosi’s last “A” movie. For the remainder of his life he appeared — less and less frequently — in obscure, low-budget features.

From 1947 to 1950, he performed in summer stock, often in productions of Dracula orArsenic and Old Lace, and during the rest of the year made personal appearances in a touring “spook show” and on television. While inEngland to play a six-month tour of Dracula in 1951, he co-starred in a lowbrow movie comedy, Mother Riley Meets the Vampire (also known as Vampire over London and My Son, the Vampire).Following his return to America, Lugosi was interviewed for television, and revealed his ambition to play more comedy, though wistfully noting, “Now I am the boogie man.” Independent producer Jack Broder took Lugosi at his word, casting him in a jungle-themed comedy, Bela Lugosi Meets a Brooklyn Gorilla starring Jerry Lewis lookalike Sammy Petrillo. Another opportunity for comedy came in September 1949 when Milton Berle invited Lugosi to appear in a sketch on Texaco Star Theater.[14] Lugosi memorized the script for the skit, but became confused on the air when Berle began to ad lib.His only television dramatic role was on the anthology seriesSuspense on October 11, 1949 in the episode The Cask of Amontillado

Late in his life, Bela Lugosi again received star billing in movies when filmmaker Ed Wood, a fan of Lugosi, found him living in obscurity and near-poverty and offered him roles in his films, such as an anonymous narrator in Glen or Glenda and a Dr. Frankenstein-like mad scientist in Bride of the Monster. During post-production of the latter, Lugosi decided to seek treatment for his drug addiction, and the premiere of the film was said to be intended to help pay for his hospital expenses. a new Ed Wood film, The Ghoul Goes West. was one of several projects proposed by Wood, including The Phantom Ghoul and Dr. Acula. With Lugosi in his famed Dracula cape, Wood shot impromptu test footage, with no storyline in mind, in front of Tor Johnson’s home, a suburban graveyard and in front of Lugosi’s apartment building on Carlton Way. This footage ended up in Plan 9 from Outer Space, which was mostly filmed after Lugosi’s death. Wood hired Tom Mason, his wife’s chiropractor, to double for Lugosi in additional shots. Mason was noticeably taller and thinner than Lugosi, and had the lower half of his face covered with his cape in every shot, as Lugosi sometimes did in Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein. Lugosi made one final film, in late 1955, The Black Sleep, for Bel-Air Pictures, which was released in the summer of 1956 through United Artists with a promotional campaign that included several personal appearances. To his disappointment, however, his role in this film was of a mute, with no dialogue.

Lugosi was 73 when he died of a heart attack on August 16, 1956, in his Los Angeleshome. .he had married five times, and had one son, Bela George Lugosi.He was buried wearing one of the Dracula Cape costumes, per the request of his son and fifth wife, in the Holy Cross Cemetery in Culver City, California. In Tim Burton’s Ed Wood, Lugosi is played by Martin Landau, who received the 1994 Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Three Lugosi projects were featured on the television show Mystery Science Theater 3000.The Corpse Vanishes, the Phantom Creeps and Bride of the Monster. An episode ofSledge Hammer titled “Last of the Red Hot Vampires” was a homage to Bela Lugosi. A statue of Lugosi can be seen today on one of the corners of the Vajdahunyad Castlein Budapest. The cape Lugosi wore in Dracula is at Universal Studios. The theatrical play Lugosi – a vámpír árnyéka (Lugosi – the Shadow of the Vampire)is based on Lugosi’s life, telling the story of his life and He was played by, Ivan Darvas. Lugosi he is also mentioned in “Bela Lugosi’s Dead”, by Bauhaus, and was a charter member of the American Screen Actors Guild.