Posted in Art

perspective and shading

Recently my laptop broke so I ¬†started using a tablet instead, however this is not compatible with MSPaint so in order to draw I have had to start using an Android compatible Art program instead (it also explains the horrendous number of typo’s as well ūüėÄ *rolls eyes*). So to practice I have started drawing again with the aim of drawing Steam Locomotives and lots of other things eventually. I decided to experiment with perspective and shading on the latest drawing, it’s not quite right and looks like an optical illusion‚Ķ


Posted in locomotives, steam locomotives

tribute to Sir John Fowler KCMG LLD

1English¬†civil engineer Sir John Fowler, 1st Baronet¬†KCMG¬†LLD was born 15 Jly 1817. in¬†Wadsley,¬†Sheffield, Yorkshire, England, to land surveyor John Fowler and his wife Elizabeth (n√©e Swann). He was educated privately at¬†Whitley Hall¬†nearEcclesfield. He trained under John Towlerton Leather, engineer of the Sheffield waterworks, and with Leather’s uncle, George Leather, on the¬†Aire and Calder Navigation¬†an railway surveys. From 1837 he worked for¬†John Urpeth Rastrick¬†on railway projects including theLondon and Brighton Railway¬†and the unbuilt West Cumberland and Furness Railway.¬†He then worked again for George Leather as resident engineer on the¬†Stockton and Hartlepool Railway¬†and was appointed engineer to the railway when it opened in 1841. Fowler initially established a practice as a consulting engineer in the Yorkshire and Lincolnshire area, but, a heavy workload led him to move to London in 1844. He became a member of theInstitution of Mechanical Engineers¬†in 1847, the year the Institution was founded, and a member of the¬†Institution of Civil Engineers¬†in 1849

He specialised in the construction of railways and railway infrastructure . In 1853, he became chief engineer of the¬†Metropolitan Railway¬†in London, the world’s first underground railway, which opened between¬†Paddington¬†and¬†Farringdon¬†in 1863. Fowler was also engineer for the associated¬†Metropolitan District Railway¬†and theHammersmith and City Railway. They were built by the¬†“cut-and-cover”¬†method under city streets. To avoid problems with smoke and steam overwhelming staff and passengers on the covered sections of the Metropolitan Railway, Fowler proposed a¬†fireless locomotive. The locomotive was built by¬†Robert Stephenson and Company¬†and was a¬†broad gauge¬†2-4-0 tender engine. The boiler had a normal¬†firebox¬†connected to a large¬†combustion chamber containing¬†fire bricks¬†which were to act as a heat reservoir. The combustion chamber was linked to the¬†smokebox¬†through a set of very short¬†firetubes. Exhaust steam was re-condensed instead of escaping and feed back to the boiler. The locomotive was intended to operate conventionally in the open, but in tunnels dampers would be closed and steam would be generated using the stored heat from the fire bricks.Fowler’s A class locomotiveThe first trial on the Great Western Railway in October 1861 was a failure. The condensing system leaked, causing the boiler to run dry and pressure to drop, risking a boiler explosion. A second trial on the Metropolitan Railway in 1862 was also a failure, and the fireless engine was abandoned, becoming known as “Fowler’s Ghost”. The locomotive was sold to¬†Isaac Watt Boulton¬†in 1865; he intended to convert it into a standard engine but it was eventually scrapped.On opening, the Metropolitan Railway’s trains were provided by the Great Western Railway, but these were withdrawn in August 1863. After a period hiring trains from the Great Northern Railway, the Metropolitan Railway introduced its own, Fowler designed,¬†4-4-0¬†tank engines¬†in 1864. The design, known as the¬†A class¬†and, with minor updates, the¬†B class, was so successful that the Metropolitan and Metropolitan District Railways eventually had 120 of the engines in use and they remained in operation until electrification of the lines in the 1900s. Today these railways form the majority of the¬†London Underground’s¬†Circle line

Victoria Bridge
Victoria Bridge

Fowler established a busy practice, working on many railway schemes across the country. He became chief engineer for the¬†Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway¬†and was engineer of the¬†East Lincolnshire Railway, the¬†Oxford, Worcester and Wolverhampton Railway and the¬†Severn Valley Railway. . Other railways that Fowler consulted for were the¬†London Tilbury and Southend Railway, the¬†Great Northern Railway, the¬†Highland Railway¬†and the¬†Cheshire Lines Railway. Following the death of¬†Isambard Kingdom Brunel¬†in 1859, Fowler was retained by the¬†Great Western Railway. His various appointments involved him in the design of¬†Victoria station¬†in London,¬†Sheffield Victoria station,¬†St Enoch station¬†in Glasgow,¬†Liverpool Central station¬†and¬†Manchester Central station.The latter station’s 210-foot (64¬†m) wide train shed roof was the second widest unsupported iron arch in Britain after the roof of¬†St Pancras railway station. Fowler’s consulting work extended beyond Britain including railway and engineering projects in Algeria, Australia, Belgium, Egypt, France, Germany, Portugal and the United States. He travelled to Egypt for the first time in 1869 and worked on a number of, mostly unrealised, schemes for the¬†Khedive, including a railway to¬†Khartoum¬†in¬†Sudan¬†which was planned in 1875 but not completed until after his death. In 1870 he provided advice to an¬†Indian Government¬†inquiry on railway gauges where he recommended a narrow gauge of 3¬†feet 6¬†inches (1.07¬†m) for light railways.He visited Australia in 1886, where he made some remarks on the¬†break of gauge¬†difficulty. Later in his career, he was also a consultant with his partner¬†Benjamin Baker¬†and with¬†James Henry Greathead¬†on two of London’s first tube railways, the¬†City and South London Railway¬†and the¬†Central London Railway. ¬†As part of his railway projects, Fowler also designed numerous bridges. In the 1860s, he designedGrosvenor Bridge, the first railway bridge over the¬†River Thames,and the 13-arch¬†Dollis Brook Viaduct¬†for the¬†Edgware, Highgate and London Railway. He is credited with the design of the¬†Victoria Bridge¬†at¬†Upper Arley,¬†Worcestershire, constructed between 1859 and 1861,and the near identical¬†Albert Edward Bridge¬†at Coalbrookdale,¬†Shropshire¬†built from 1863 to 1864.Both remain in use today carrying railway lines across the¬†River Severn. In the 1880s, he was chief engineer for the¬†Forth Railway Bridge, which opened in 1890 and Following the collapse of¬†Sir Thomas Bouch’s¬†Tay Bridge¬†in 1879, Fowler,¬†William Henry Barlow¬†and¬†Thomas Elliot Harrison¬†were appointed in 1881 to a commission to review Bouch’s design for the¬†Forth Railway Bridge.[1]¬†The commission recommended a steel¬†cantilever bridge¬†designed by Fowler and Benjamin Baker, which was constructed between 1883 and 1890

Fowler stood unsuccessfully for parliament as a¬†Conservative¬†candidate in 1880 and 1885. His standing within the engineering profession was very high, to the extent that he was elected president of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1865, its youngest president. Through his position in the Institution and through his own practice, he led the development of training for engineers. In 1857, he purchased a 57,000 acres (23,000¬†ha) estate at Braemore in¬†Ross-shire, Scotland, where he spent frequent holidays and where he was a¬†Justice of the Peace¬†and a¬†Deputy Lieutenant¬†of the County.He listed his recreations in¬†Who’s Who¬†as yachting and deerstalking and was a member of the¬†Carlton Club,¬†St Stephen’s Club, the¬†Conservative Club¬†and the¬†Royal Yacht Squadron. He was also President of the¬†Egyptian Exploration Fund.In 1885 he was made a¬†Knight Commander of the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George¬†as thanks from the government for allowing the use of maps of the Upper Nile valley he had had made when working on the Khedive’s projects. They were the most accurate survey of the area and were used in the British¬†Relief of Khartoum. Following the successful completion of the Forth Railway Bridge in 1890, Fowler was created a¬†baronet, taking the name of his Scottish estate as his¬†territorial designation.Along with¬†Benjamin Baker, he received an honorary degree of¬†Doctor of Laws¬†from the¬†University of Edinburgh¬†in 1890 for his engineering of the bridge. In 1892, the¬†Poncelet Prize was doubled and awarded jointly to Baker and Fowler. Fowler died in¬†Bournemouth,¬†Dorset, at the age of 81 and is buried in¬†Brompton Cemetery, London. He was succeeded in the baronetcy by his son,¬†Sir John Arthur Fowler, 2nd Baronet¬†(died 25 March 1899). The baronetcy became extinct in 1933 on the death of Reverend Sir Montague Fowler, 4th Baronet, the first baronet’s third son.