Martin B-26 Marauder

on 25 November1940 The Martin B-26 Marauder.made its first fight. The Martin B-26 Marauder was a World War II twin-engined medium bomber built by the Glenn L. Martin Company. First used in the Pacific Theater in early 1942, it was also used in the Mediterranean Theater and inWestern Europe.After entering service with the U.S. Army, the aircraft received the reputation of a “Widowmaker” due to the early models’ high rate of accidents during takeoff and landings. The Marauder had to be flown at exact airspeeds, particularly on final runway approach and when one engine was out. The 150 mph (241 km/h) speed on short final runway approach was intimidating to pilots who were used to much slower speeds, and whenever they slowed down below what the manual stated, the aircraft would stall and crash.

The B-26 became a safer aircraft once crews were re-trained, and after aerodynamics modifications (an increase of wingspan and wing angle-of-incidence to give better takeoff performance, and a larger vertical stabilizer and rudder).After aerodynamic and design changes, the aircraft distinguished itself as “the chief bombardment weapon on the Western Front” according to a United States Army Air Forces dispatch from 1946. The Marauder ended World War II with the lowest loss rate of any USAAF bomber.A total of 5,288 were produced between February 1941 and March 1945; 522 of these were flown by the Royal Air Force and the South African Air Force. By the time the United States Air Force was created as an independent service separate from the Army in 1947, all Martin B-26s had been retired from US service. The Douglas A-26 Invader then assumed the B-26 designation.

de Havilland Mosquito 

First flight of the de Havilland Mosquito took place 25 November 1940.The de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito was a British multi-role combat aircraft with a two-man crew that served during the Second World War and the postwar era. The Mosquito was one of the few operational front-line aircraft of the World War II era to be constructed almost entirely of wood and, as such, was nicknamed “The Wooden Wonder”The Mosquito was also known affectionately as the “Mossie” to its crewsOriginally conceived as an unarmed fast bomber, the Mosquito was adapted to many other roles during the air war, including low- to medium-altitude daytimetactical bomber, high-altitude night bomber, pathfinder, day or night fighter,fighter-bomber, intruder, maritime strike aircraft, and fast photo-reconnaissance aircraft. It was also used by the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) as a transport.When the Mosquito entered production in 1941, it was one of the fastest operational aircraft in the world.[6] Entering widespread service in 1942, the Mosquito first operated as a high-speed, high-altitude photo-reconnaissance aircraft, and continued to operate in this role throughout the war.

From mid-1942 to mid-1943 Mosquito bombers were used in high-speed, medium- or low-altitude missions, attacking factories, railways and other pinpoint targets within Germany and German-occupied Europe. From late 1943, Mosquito bomber units were formed into the Light Night Strike Force and used as pathfinders for RAF Bomber Command’s heavy-bomber raids. They were also used as “nuisance” bombers, often dropping 4,000 lb (1,812 kg) “cookies”, in high-altitude, high-speed raids that German night fighters were almost powerless to intercept.As a night fighter, from mid-1942, the Mosquito was used to interceptLuftwaffe raids on the United Kingdom, most notably defeating the German aerial offensive, Operation Steinbock, in 1944. Offensively, starting in July 1942, some Mosquito night-fighter units conducted intruder raids overLuftwaffe airfields and, as part of 100 Group, the Mosquito was used as a night fighter and intruder in support of RAF Bomber Command’s heavy bombers, and played an important role in reducing bomber losses during 1944 and 1945.[ As a fighter-bomber in the Second Tactical Air Force, the Mosquito took part in “special raids”, such as the attack on Amiens Prison in early 1944, and in other precision attacks against Gestapo or German intelligence and security forces. Second Tactical Air Force Mosquitos also played an important role operating in tactical support of the British Army during the 1944 Normandy Campaign. From 1943 Mosquitos were used by RAF Coastal Command strike squadrons, attacking Kriegsmarine U-boats(particularly in the 1943 Bay of Biscay offensive, where significant numbers of U-boats were sunk or damaged) and intercepting transport ship concentrations.The Mosquito saw service with the Royal Air Force (RAF) and many other air forces in the European theatre, and the Mediterraneanand Italian theatres. The Mosquito was also used by the RAF in the South East Asian theatre, and by the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) based in the Halmaheras and Borneo during the Pacific War.

free Doctor Who Audiobook

To celebrate the 50th anniversary of Doctor Who, Telegraph readers can also download a free audiobook of Hunters of Earth. This audio-original First Doctor story is performed by Carole Ann Ford who, 50 years after appearing in the very first episode, returns once more to the role of the Doctor’s grand-daughter, Susan.Telegraph readers can also save 50% on any of the 10 other titles in theDoctor Who: Destiny of the Doctor range, a celebratory 50th anniversary series of original audiobooks from Big Finish Productions, each focusing on one of the Doctors.

Big Finish has been making brand new full cast Doctor Who adventures since 1999, starring the original Doctors from the series (Tom Baker, Peter Davison, Colin Baker, Sylvester McCoy and Paul McGann), their companions, and villains old and new.



Doctor Who 50th Anniversary – The night of the Doctor & The last Day

l really enjoyed watching 

The Night of the Doctor” and “The Last Day” which were released prior to the 50th Anniversary special Day of the Doctor, and feature a number of references  to classicDoctor Who stories. They also showed events occuring during the Time War.Paul McGann reprised his role as the Eighth Doctor from the 1996 television movie and subsequent Big Finish audio plays in “The Night of the Doctor”. He is a conscientious objector to the ongoing Time War and intends to take a spaceship crew member away from the crashing ship via the TARDIS. Realising that he is a Time Lord, she refuses to comply, preferring to die than go with him. She and the Doctor die as the ship crashes on Karn. The Doctor is briefly resurrected by the Sisterhood of Karn and offered a regeneration in exchange for ending the War. After some convincing, the Doctor agrees and takes a potion designed to initiate his regeneration into a “warrior”.

“The Last Day” is filmed from the first-person perspective of a Gallifreyan soldier who has had a camera implanted into his head. They are at Arcadia, the safest place on Gallifrey, and scan for Daleks. Surprisingly, the soldiers identify a fleet of invading Daleks, which kill them. The Fall of Arcadia becomes the central battle of the Time War around which “The Day of the Doctor” is centred .

The episode contains a number of references to previous episodes. It opens with the title sequence and theme arrangement used upon the series’ debut in 1963. Echoing the opening of the very first story, An Unearthly Child, a policeman is shown walking past the sign for I.M. Foreman, the scrap merchant in whose yard the TARDIS was located. Coal Hill School was the Doctor’s granddaughter Susan Foreman’s school when they were on Earth in 1963, also featured in both the original story and the 1988 serial Remembrance of the Daleks. The chairman of the governors is now Ian Chesterton, formerly one of the First Doctor’s original three companions and a science teacher at the school, and the headmaster is W. Coburn, a reference toAnthony Coburn, who wrote An Unearthly Child. Clara rides out of Coal Hill School on the Eleventh Doctor’s anti-gravity motorcycle from “The Bells of Saint John” at 5:16, the time An Unearthly Child originally aired on 23 November 1963. This was also the activation code of the vortex manipulator, 1716231163.The UNIT dating controversy, regarding whether the Third Doctor era stories took place in the 1970s or 1980s, is referenced in dialogue by Kate Stewart, when she mentions that events occured in “the ’70s or ’80s depending on the dating protocol used”. Kate’s father, Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart, a central character in the Third Doctor’s era, originally appearing in the Second Doctor serialThe Web of Fear and making his last appearance in Doctor Who in Seventh Doctor serial Battefield, is also referenced. An image of the Brigadier is seen alongside images of various companions of the Doctor.

Kate’s assistant, Osgood, is presumably related to UNIT technician Osgood from The Dæmons and her scarf is identical to that worn by the Fourth Doctor; the Eleventh Doctor remarks that it is a “nice scarf”. Kate Stewart twice mentions her subordinate, Malcolm, presumably the same UNIT scientist named Malcolm played by Lee Evans in “Planet of the Dead”.The Tenth Doctor’s era is also heavily referenced, elaborating on his marriage to Queen Elizabeth I originally mentioned in his final story, The End of Time. The Tenth Doctor mentioned the Fall of Arcadia in “Doomsday”. Then he leaves and after learning of Trenzalore, the Tenth Doctor remarks, “I don’t want to go.”, his incarnation’s final words from The End of Time. The Eleventh Doctor tells Clara that “he always says that”. The Eleventh Doctor’s fixation with fezzes begins in “The Big Bang” and reappears in “A Christmas Carol”, “The Impossible Astronaut” and “The Bells of Saint John”. The Moment device was originally mentioned in The End of Time, but not explored in depth. Here, it takes the form of Bad Wolf, a seemingly omnipotent being created by Rose Tyler when she absorbed the Time Vortex in the series one finale, “The Parting of the Ways”.In trying to compensate for the presence of three Doctors who utilise different console rooms, the Tenth Doctor’s TARDIS console briefly changes to the War Doctor’s console room, seen again later in the episode, before settling on the Eleventh’s. Seeing the white roundels in the wall of the War Doctor’s TARDIS, the Tenth Doctor is pleased, but is uncertain as to what they are.

The white roundels were featured in the classic series TARDIS console rooms from 1963—1989 before being removed for the more elaborate TARDIS console used by the Seventh and Eighth Doctors in the TV movie. Upon seeing the Eleventh Doctor’s console, the Tenth Doctor echoes the Second Doctor when he says: “Oh you’ve redecorated! I don’t like it.”. The line was originally used by the Second Doctor speaking to the Third in The Three Doctors and was later reused by the Fifth and Eleventh Doctors in The Five Doctors and “Closing Time”. The Eleventh Doctor also mirrors the First when describing the Tenth Doctor and War Doctor as “the sandshoes and grandpa”, referring to the Tenth Doctor’s distinctive converse trainers and the War Doctor’s age and echoing the First Doctor’s line: “So you’re my replacements, eh? A dandy and a clown!” from The Three Doctors.

Tribute to Karl Benz

Generally regarded as the inventor of the gasoline-powered automobile, the German engineer & Automo2013-11-25-14-07-31--2043000597tive pioneer Karl Benz was born on November 25, 1844 in Mühlburg (Karlsruhe).Benz attended the local Grammar School in Karlsruhe and was a prodigious student. In 1853, at the age of nine he started at the scientifically oriented Lyceum. Next he studied at the Poly-Technical University under the instruction of Ferdinand Redtenbacher.Benz had originally focused his studies on locksmithing, but eventually followed his father’s steps toward locomotive engineering. On September 30, 1860, at age fifteen, he passed the entrance exam for mechanical engineering at the University of Karlsruhe, from which he subsequently Graduated.During these years, while riding his bicycle, he started to envision concepts for a vehicle that would eventually become the horseless carriage.After his formal education, Benz had seven years of professional training in several companies, but did not fit well in any of them. The training started in Karlsruhe with two years of varied jobs in a mechanical engineering company. He then moved to Mannheim to work as a draftsman and designer in a scales factory. In 1868 he went to Pforzheim to work for a bridge building company Gebrüder Benckiser Eisenwerke und Maschinenfabrik. Finally, he went to Vienna for a short period to work at an iron construction company.

At the age of twenty-seven, Karl Benz joined August Ritter in launching the Iron Foundry and Mechanical Workshop in Mannheim, later renamed Factory for Machines for Sheet-metal Working. Karl Benz led in the development of new engines in the early factory he and his wife owned. To get more revenues, in 1878 he began to work on new patents. First, he concentrated all his efforts on creating a reliable petrol two-stroke engine. Other German contemporaries, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach working as partners, had been working on similar types of inventions, independently, but Benz patented his work first, and, subsequently patented all the processes that made the internal combustion engine feasible for use in an automobile. In 1879 his first engine patent was granted to him.Karl Benz showed his real genius, however, through his successive inventions registered while designing what would become the production standard for his two-stroke engine. Benz soon patented the speed regulation system, the ignition using white power sparks with battery, the spark plug, the carburetor, the clutch, the gear shift, and the water radiator.

in 1882 The company became Gasmotoren Fabrik Mannheim, but he was unhappy with the situation so he left in 1883.Benz’s lifelong hobby brought him to a bicycle repair shop in Mannheim owned by Max Rose and Friedrich Wilhelm Eßlinger. In 1883, the three founded a new company producing industrial machines: Benz & Company Rheinische Gasmotoren-Fabrik, usually referred to as, Benz & Cie which began producing static gas engines as well.The success of the company gave Benz the opportunity to indulge in his old passion of designing a horseless carriage. Based on his experience with, and fondness for, bicycles, he used similar technology when he created an automobile. It featured wire wheels with a four-stroke engine of his own design between the rear wheels, with a very advanced coil ignition and evaporative cooling rather than a radiator. Power was transmitted by means of two roller chains to the rear axle. Karl Benz finished his creation in 1885 and named it the Benz Patent Motorwagen and in 1886 Benz was granted a patent for his first automobile. It was the first automobile entirely designed as such to generate its own power, not simply a motorized-stage coach or horse carriage, which is why Karl Benz was granted his patent and is regarded as its inventor.

The first successful tests on public roads were carried out in the early summer of 1886.The next year Benz created the Motorwagen Model 2, which had several modifications, and in 1887, the definitive Model 3 with wooden wheels was introduced, showing at the Paris Expo the same year. Benz began to sell the vehicle (advertising it as the Benz Patent Motorwagen) in the late summer of 1888, making it the first commercially available automobile in history.The early 1888 version of the Motorwagen had no gears and could not climb hills unaided so another Gear was added. Then to generate publicity and demonstrate the feasibility of using the Benz Motorwagen for travel, Benz’s wife Bertha took her first long distance automobile trip from Mannheim to Pforzheim , using one of the vehicles. In addition to having to locate pharmacies on the way to fuel up, she repaired various technical and mechanical problems during the journey and after having problems on some longer downhill slopes she ordered a shoemaker to nail leather on the brake blocks thus inventing brake lining. She arrived at her destination and sent Karl Benz a Telgram announcing the fact & Today the event is considered world’s first long-distance journey by automobile and iscelebrated every two years in Germany with an antique automobile rally called the Bertha Benz Memorial Route and is signposted from Mannheim via Heidelberg to Pforzheim (Black Forest) and back.Benz’s Model 3 made its debut at the 1889 World’s Fair in Paris; about twenty-five Motorwagens were built between 1886 and 1895. Karl Benz to enlarge the factory in Mannheim to keep up with The great demand for stationary internal combustion engines By 1899 Benz was the largest automobile company in the world.It was then recommended that Benz should create a less expensive vehicle suitable for mass production. In 1893, Karl Benz created the Victoria, a two-passenger automobile with a 2.2 kW (3.0 hp) engine, which could reach the top speed of 18 km/h (11 mph) and had a pivotal front axle operated by a roller-chained tiller for steering. The model was successful with 85 units sold in 1893. The Benz Velo also participated in the world’s first automobile race, the 1894 Paris to Rouen, where Émile Roger finished 14th, after covering the 127 km (79 mi) in 10 hours 01 minute at an average speed of 12.7 km/h (7.9 mph). In 1895, Benz designed the first truck in history, with some of the units later modified by the first motor bus company: the Netphener, becoming the first motor buses in history. In 1896, Karl Benz was granted a patent for his design of the first flat engine. It had horizontally opposed pistons, a design in which the corresponding pistons reach top dead centre simultaneously, thus balancing each other with respect to momentum.

Flat engines with four or fewer cylinders are most commonly called boxer engines or horizontally opposed engines. This design is still used by Porsche, Subaru, and some high performance engines used in racing cars (Like Richard Burns’ Subaru Impreza WRC-See below) & BMW motorcycles.Although Gottlieb Daimler died in March 1900. competition with Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) in Stuttgart began to challenge the leadership of Benz & Cie. In October 1900 the main designer of DMG, Wilhelm Maybach, built the engine  to the specifications of Emil Jellinek Jellinek, who stipulated the new engine be named Daimler-Mercedes (after his daughter). Maybach designed the model during the next few years he obtained good results racing the vehicles, this encouraged DMG to engage in commercial production of automobiles. Benz countered with the Parsifil, introduced in 1903 with a vertical twin engine that achieved a top speed of 37 mph (60 km/h). Soon after Karl Benz announced his retirement from design management on January 24, 1903, although he remained as director on the Board of Management through its merger with DMG in 1926 and, remained on the board of the new Daimler-Benz corporation until his death in 1929.

Benz son Richard returned to the company in 1904 as the designer of passenger vehicles along with continuing as a director of Benz & Cie.That year, sales of Benz & Cie. reached 3,480 automobiles, and the company remained the leading manufacturer of automobiles.In 1906 Karl Benz, Bertha Benz, and their son, Eugen, then founded the private company, C. Benz Sons (German: Benz Söhne), producing automobiles and gas engines.The latter type was replaced by petrol engines because of lack of demand. The Benz Sons automobiles were of good quality and became popular in London as taxis.In 1909, the Blitzen Benz was built in Mannheim by Benz & Cie. The bird-beaked vehicle had a 21.5-liter (1312ci),  150 kW (200 hp) engine, and on November 9, 1909 in the hands of Victor Hémery of France, the land speed racer at Brooklands, set a record of 226.91 km/h (141.94 mph), said to be “faster than any plane, train, or automobile” at the time, a record that was not exceeded for ten years by any other vehicle. It was transported to several countries, including the United States, to establish multiple records of this achievement. During a birthday celebration for him in his home town of Karlsruhe on November 25, 1914, the seventy-year-old Karl Benz was awarded an honorary doctorate by his alma mater, the Karlsruhe University, thereby becoming—Dr. Ing. h. c. Karl Benz.

Participation in sports car racing became a major method to gain publicity for manufacturers and the Benz Velo participated in the first automobile race: Paris to Rouen 1894.Later, investment in developing racecars for motorsports produced returns through sales generated by the association of the name of the automobile with the winners and soon Unique race vehicles were being built. Including the Benz Tropfenwagen, which was introduced at the 1923 European Grand Prix at Monza and became the first mid-engine aerodynamically designed Racing car. In 1924 both Benz Cie and DMG signed an “Agreement of Mutual Interest” which saw Both enterprises use standardized design, production, purchasing, sales, and advertising— marketing their automobile models jointly—although keeping their respective brands. Then in 1926, Benz & Cie. and DMG finally merged as the Daimler-Benz company, naming all of its automobiles, Mercedes Benz, honoring the most important model of the DMG automobiles, the 1902 Mercedes 35 hp, along with the Benz name. The name of that DMG model had been selected after ten-year-old Mercédès. Karl Benz was a member of the new Daimler Benz board of management for the remainder of his life. A new logo was created, consisting of a three pointed star (representing Daimler’s motto: “engines for land, air, and water”) with the laurels from the Benz logo. In 1927, the number of units sold tripled and the diesel line was launched for truck production.Then In 1928 the Mercedes-Benz SSK was presented. Sadly On April 4, 1929, Karl Benz passed away at his home in Ladenburg at the age of eighty-four from a bronchial inflammation. The Benz home now has been designated as historic and is used as a scientific meeting facility for a nonprofit foundation, the Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz Foundation, that honors both Bertha and Karl Benz for their roles in the history of automobiles.

Tribute to Rally Driver Richard Burns

English rally driver Richard Burns sadly passed away 25 November 2005. Born in Reading, Berkshire on 17 January 1971. He started driving at the age of eight, in his father’s old Triumph 2000. At eleven Burns joined the Under 17 Car Club, where he became driver of the year in 1984. Two years later Burns drove a Ford Escort at Churchill’s Welsh Forest Rally School near Newtown, Powys for the day  and from that moment on he knew what he wanted to do. He  joined the Craven Motor Club in Reading where his talent was spotted by rally enthusiast David Williams. In 1988 he entered his first rallies in his own Talbot Sunbeam. The car was too basic to make much impression and in 1989 he had to borrow other competitors cars in order to progress, he also rallied the stages of Panaround, Bagshot, Mid-Wales, Millbrook, Severn Valley, Kayel Graphics and the Cambrian Rally. In 1990 he joined the Peugeot Challenge in a Peugeot 205 GTI & got his first taste of a World Rally Championship event in Great Britain as a prize for winning the Peugeot Challenge that year. In 1991 Burns met Robert Reid,who became his co-driver for the next 12 years. For 1992 Williams bought Burns a Group N Subaru Legacy and with the support of Prodrive won the National Championship. Prodrive saw him as a promising driver for the future.In 1993 he joined the Subaru Rally Team for the British Rally Championship alongside Alister McRae, driving a Subaru Legacy. He won four rounds, the Vauxhall Sport, Pirelli, Scottish, and Manx International, and became the youngest ever British Champion. He finished seventh on that year’s snowy RAC Rally.


In the wake of his 1993 success, Burns remained with Subaru for the 1994 and 1995 seasons, contesting the Asia Pacific Rally Championship, which included the New Zealand and Australia Rallies, and also his home WRC round. His best result was third on the 1995 RAC Rally, behind team mates Carlos Sainz and winner and world champion Colin McRae. During 1996 he drove  for Mitsubishi Ralliart at international level,  winning the 1996 Rally New Zealand in a Mitsubishi Lancer Evo . In 1998, he won the Safari Rally, piloting a Mitsubishi Lancer Evo. He also won that year’s Rally Great Britain & the constructors’ Championship went to Mitsubishi.Burns moved to the Prodrive-run Subaru World Rally Team under David Richards for the 1999 season, joining Juha Kankkunen and Bruno Thiry as part of the factory team driving Subaru Impreza WRCs, replacing Colin McRae. Burns worked his way to a career high of second place in the drivers’ standings. He also led Subaru to second in the constructors’ series behind the Toyota team. He was a long-time contender for the title in 2000, but crashed out on the Rally Finland in mid-season handing the championship to Marcus Grönholm who had been competing in his first year as a full-time factory driver. Sadly Burns failed to finish the 2001 Monte Carlo Rally or the 2001 Swedish Rally, although he finished Fourth in Portugal and second in Argentina and Cyprus behind Ford’s Colin McRae. Burns won his  first and only individual rally victory of the season in New Zealand, Burns then finished second on the Rally Australia. Burns’ finished  the 2001 Rally of Great Britain in third place behind Peugeot duo Marcus Gronholm and Harri Rovanpera after his two main rivals for the Championship,Carlos Sainz and Colin Mcrea both crashed out enabling him to become the first Englishman to win the World Rally Championship. When Richard passed the finishing line at the final stage of the final rally in 2001, Burns uttered words thought to be paying tribute to his codriver Robert Reid: “You’re the best in the world”.

To commemorate the title success, Subaru produced a special edition of the Subaru Impreza in the UK called the RB5. Burns joined Peugeot for the 2002 season, but  could not match the pace of team-mates Marcus Grönholm and Gilles Panizzi . Burns rejoined Subaru, for the 2004 season. However, In November 2003 Burns suffered a blackout while driving with Ford driver Markko Märtin to the rally. He was withdrawn from the event and was later diagnosed with an astrocytoma, a type of malignant brain tumour. He had Treatment during 2004 followed by surgery in April 2005 which was described as “very successful”. However the tumour could not be completely destroyed. On August 2005 a fan day was made, where his fans were invited to see his private car collection, but he was unable to drive himself so his co-driver Robert Reid drove his private cars on his behalf.Late on Friday, November 25, 2005, four years to the day after winning the World Rally Championship, Burns died in Westminster, London, aged 34, after having been in a coma for some days as a result of a brain tumour. The British television show Top Gear, well known for its irreverent attitude toward most celebrities, aired a tribute to Burns during the December 4, 2005 show. The host, Jeremy Clarkson, said that “the news has been completely dominated, as far as we’re concerned, by the sad death of Richard Burns. Burns had previously appeared on Top Gear twice, once touting rallying as more interesting and influential than Formula One, and then test-driving the Peugeot RC. A memorial service for Burns was held at St Luke’s Church, Chelsea on Thursday 22 December 2005, with readings from BBC TV’s Jeremy Clarkson and Steve Rider, and a tribute paid by one of Burns’ closest friends, photographer Colin McMaster. Subaru also paid tribute to Burns at Castle Combe in 2006, when over 50 Subaru Impreza RB5s took to the track, including the RB5 number #001 driven by Alex Burns, Richard’s father.During the 2006 Goodwood Festival of Speed, a charity was founded in his name with a purpose to “inspire and support people with serious injury and illness”, named RB Foundation. The foundation also raises money for the Michael Park Fund, which deals with improving safety in motorsport events.Subaru released a special edition Impreza WRX STI in 207 – the RB320 – in memory of Burns.


International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women

Women’s activists have marked November 25 as a day to fight violence against women since 1981. On December 17, 1999, the United Nations General Assembly designated 25 November as the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women (Resolution 54/134). The UN invited governments, international organizations and NGOs to organize activities designated to raise public awareness of the problem on this day as an international observance. Women around the world are subject to rape, domestic violence and other forms of violence, and the scale and true nature of the issue is often hidden.This date came from the brutal assassination in 1960 of the three Mirabal sisters, who were Dominican political dissidents and activists who opposed the dictatorship of Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo (1930–1961) and were subsequently assassinated on 25th November 1960.In 1999, the sisters received recognition from the United Nations General Assembly, who designated November 25 as the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women in their honour. There is more information about the history of this day, and UN publications relating to violence against women, at the UN’s Dag Hammarskjöld Library. The UNIFEM (United Nations Development Fund for Women) also has a regular observance of the day, and offers suggestions for others to observe it.