NASA’s New Horizons Probe

NASA’s New Horizons probe recently completed a historic flyby of The planet Pluto. The 700 million dollar (£451 million) probe, which is the size of a baby grand piano, blasted off from Earth in January 2006, and journeyed a distance of three billion miles at a speed of more than 36,000 mph before making a historic flyby of the planet Pluto on Tuesday 14 July 2015 at more than 45,000 km/h (28,00mph) at 12.49pm BST / 7.49am ET on a trajectory which brought it within 12,500km 7,700 miles of Pluto’s surface.

NASA’s New Horizons Probe is bristling with cameras and other technology As well as a telescopic camera, the probe also carries a suite of sophisticated instruments and other instrumentation for analysing Pluto’s composition and studying its atmosphere as it sped past Pluto and its five small moons, Charon, Styx, Nix, Hydra and Kerberos.

NASA’s New Horizons Probe is also carrying onboard the ashes of Clyde Tombaugh, the astronomer who discovered Pluto in 1930 using a 13-inch photographic telescope at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona. Today’s encounter with Pluto also coincides with the 50th anniversary of the first ever fly-by of Mars by the Mariner 4 probe.

Scientists believe that Pluto has a thin atmosphere of nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide, which expands as the dwarf planet’s elongated 248-year orbit takes it closer to the sun causing icy material on its surface to vaporise. And may bear signs of past volcanic activity and could even have liquid water beneath its frozen surface. The spacecraft will also take a look at Pluto’s giant moon Charon, which is just over half its size, as well as its other moons Styx, Nix, Hydra and Kerberos.

Images beamed back from New Horizons so far have shown Pluto in shades of red and orange, with hints of valleys, mountains and craters. On Tuesday Nasa released a new image of Pluto. The picture was taken at about 9pm BST / 4pm ET on 13 July, when The spacecraft was 476,000 miles (766,000 km) from the surface. Images show that a thin nitrogen atmosphere clings around Pluto and scientists believe that it sheds snow, with flakes tumbling down to the surface before vaporising back into the atmosphere. Other measurements from the probe have found that Pluto was larger than previously thought, at 2,370km across. The larger size means that it is probably less dense than had been presumed, and so has more ice under its surface. It is 1,473 miles in diameter, according to information from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager attached to the New Horizons craft.

Gustav Klimt

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                Gustav Klimt – The Kiss

Austrian symbolist painter Gustav Klimt was born July 14, 1862, he was one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement and is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other art objects. Klimt’s primary subject was the female body. Born in Baumgarten, near Vienna in Austria-Hungary he displayed artistic talent early on but lived in poverty while attending the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts (Kunstgewerbeschule), where he studied architectural painting until 1883.He revered the foremost history painter of the time, Hans Makart and readily accepted the principles of a conservative training and his early work may be classified as academic.

In 1888, Klimt received the Golden order of Merit from Emperor Franz Josef I of Austria for his contributions to murals painted in the Burgtheater in Vienna. He also became an honorary member of the University of Munich and the University of Vienna. He also became one of the founding members and president of the Wiener Sezession (Vienna Secession) in 1897 where he remained until 1908. The group’s goals were to provide exhibitions for unconventional young artists, to bring the best foreign artists’ works to Vienna, and to publish its own magazine to showcase members’ work.The group declared no manifesto and did not set out to encourage any particular style—Naturalists, Realists, and Symbolists all coexisted. The government supported their efforts and gave them a lease on public land to erect an exhibition hall. The group’s symbol was Pallas Athena, the Greek goddess of just causes, wisdom, and the arts—and Klimt painted his radical version in 1898.

In 1894, Klimt was commissioned to create three paintings to decorate the ceiling of the Great Hall in the University of Vienna. Not completed until the turn of the century, his three paintings, Philosophy, Medicine and Jurisprudence, were criticized for their radical themes and material and caused a public outcry from all quarters—political, aesthetic, and religious. As a result, they were not displayed on the ceiling of the Great Hall. as a result This was the last public commission accepted by the artist for some time.In 1902, Klimt finished the Beethoven Frieze for the 14th Vienna Secessionist exhibition, which was intended to be a celebration of the composer and featured a monumental, polychromed sculpture by Max Klinger. Meant for the exhibition only, the frieze was painted directly on the walls with light materials. After the exhibition the painting was preserved, although it did not go on display until 1986. The face on the Beethoven portrait resembled the composer and Vienna Court Opera director Gustav Mahler.

Klimt’s ‘Golden Phase’ was marked by positive critical reaction and success. Many of his paintings from this period used gold leaf; the prominent use of gold can first be traced back to Pallas Athene (1898) and Judith I (1901), although the works most popularly associated with this period are the Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I (1907) and The Kiss (1907–1908). Klimt travelled little but trips to Venice and Ravenna, both famous for their beautiful mosaics, most likely inspired his gold technique and his Byzantine imagery. In 1904, he collaborated with other artists on the lavish Palais Stoclet, the home of a wealthy Belgian industrialist, which was one of the grandest monuments of the Art Nouveau age. Klimt’s contributions to the dining room, including both Fulfillment and Expectation, were some of his finest decorative work, and as he publicly stated, “probably the ultimate stage of my development of ornament.

Between 1907 and 1909, Klimt painted five canvases of society women wrapped in fur. His apparent love of costume is expressed in the many photographs of Flöge modeling clothing he designed.In 1911 his painting Death and Life received first prize in the world exhibitions in Rome. In 1915 his mother Anna died. Klimt died three years later in Vienna on February 6, 1918, having suffered a stroke and pneumonia due to the influenza epidemic of that year and was buried at the Hietzinger Cemetery in Hietzing, Vienna. Numerous paintings were left unfinished. However those he did finish before his untimely demise have brought some of the highest prices recorded for individual works of art. In November 2003, Klimt’s Landhaus am Attersee sold for $29,128,000, and plenty of other examples of his work have also fetched vast sums of money at auction.

Bastille Day

Sketch140135137Bastille Day is celebrated on July 14 and commemorates The storming of the Bastille, which occurred in Paris, France on the morning of 14 July 1789. The medieval fortress and prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the centre of Paris. While the prison only contained seven inmates at the time of its storming, its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution. In France, Le quatorze juillet (14 July) is a public holiday, formally known as the Fête de la Fédération (Federation Holiday). It is usually called Bastille Day in English.During the reign of Louis XVI, France faced a major economic crisis, partially initiated by the cost of intervening in the American Revolution, and exacerbated by a regressive system of taxation. On 5 May 1789 the Estates-General of 1789 convened to deal with this issue, but were held back by archaic protocols and the conservatism of the Second Estate, consisting of the nobility and amounting to only 2% of France’s population at the time. On 17 June 1789 the Third Estate, with its representatives drawn from the middle class, or proletariats, reconstituted themselves as the National Assembly, a body whose purpose was the creation of a French constitution.

The king initially opposed this development, but was forced to acknowledge the authority of the assembly, which subsequently renamed itself the National Constituent Assembly on 9 July.The storming of the Bastille and the subsequent Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was the third event of this opening stage of the revolution. The first had been the revolt of the nobility, refusing to aid King Louis XVI through the payment of taxes. The second had been the formation of the National Assembly and the Tennis Court Oath. The middle class had formed the National Guard, sporting tricolour cockades (rosettes) of blue, white and red, formed by combining the red-and-blue cockade of the Paris commune and the white cockade of the king. These cockades, and soon simply their colour scheme, became the symbol of the revolution and, later, of France itself.

Paris, close to insurrection, and, in François Mignet’s words, “intoxicated with liberty and enthusiasm,” showed wide support for the Assembly. The press published the Assembly’s debates; political debate spread beyond the Assembly itself into the public squares and halls of the capital. The Palais-Royal and its grounds became the site of an endless meeting. The crowd, on the authority of the meeting at the Palais-Royal, broke open the prisons of the Abbaye to release some grenadiers of the French guards, reportedly imprisoned for refusing to fire on the people. The Assembly recommended the imprisoned guardsmen to the clemency of the king; they returned to prison, and received pardon. The rank and file of the regiment, previously considered reliable, now leaned toward the popular cause.