The morning of September 11, 2001 is one that will live in infamy and marks the anniversary of the World Trade Centre terrorist attacks when, In one of the worst terrorist attrocities in recent memory, Al-Qaeda-affiliated hijackers crashed American Airlines Flight 11 into the north tower of the World Trade Centre and Seventeen minutes later, at 9:03:11 a.m., a second team of terrorists crashed the similarly hijacked United Airlines Flight 175 into the southern facade of the South Tower, striking it between the 77th and 85th floors. In a coordinated terrorist attack.
The damage caused to the North Tower by Flight 11 destroyed any means of escape from above the impact zone, trapping 1,344 people. Flight 175 had a much more off-centered impact compared to Flight 11, and a single stairwell was left intact; however, only a few people managed to pass through it successfully before the tower collapsed. Although the South Tower was struck lower than the North Tower, thus affecting more floors, a smaller number, fewer than 700, were killed instantly or trapped. At 9:59 a.m., the South Tower collapsed after burning for approximately 56 minutes. The fire caused steel structural elements, already weakened from the plane impact, to fail. The North Tower collapsed at 10:28 a.m., after burning for approximately 102 minutes. At 5:20 p.m. on September 11, 2001, 7 World Trade Center started to collapse with the crumble of the east penthouse, and it collapsed completely at 5:21 p.m.owing to uncontrolled fires causing structural failure. Te 3 World Trade Center, a Marriott hotel, was destroyed during the collapse of the two towers. The three remaining buildings in the WTC plaza were extensively damaged by debris and later were demolished. The Deutsche Bank Building across Liberty Street from the World Trade Center complex was later condemned owing to the uninhabitable toxic conditions inside; it was deconstructed, with work completed in early 2011.
The Borough of Manhattan Community College’s Fiterman Hall at 30 West Broadway was also condemned owing to extensive damage in the attacks. In the immediate aftermath of the attacks, media reports suggested that tens of thousands might have been killed in the attacks, as over 50,000 people could be inside the towers. Ultimately, 2,753 death certificates (excluding those for hijackers) were filed relating to the 9/11 attacks in New York, including one filed for Felicia Dunn-Jones, who was added to the official death toll in May 2007; Dunn-Jones died five months later from a lung condition linked to exposure to dust during the collapse of the World Trade Center. Three other victims were then added to the official death toll by the city medical examiner’s office: Dr. Sneha Anne Philip, who was last seen the day before the attacks; Leon Heyward, a man who developed lymphoma and subsequently died in 2008 as a result of dust ingestion during the events following the attacks to the Twin Towers; and Jerry Borg, who died in December 2010 of pulmonary sarcoidosis determined in June 2011 to be the result of dust from the attacks. Cantor Fitzgerald L.P., an investment bank on the 101st–105th floors of One World Trade Center, lost 658 employees, considerably more than any other employer, while Marsh & McLennan Companies, located immediately below Cantor Fitzgerald on floors 93–101 (the location of Flight 11’s impact), lost 295 employees, and 175 employees of Aon Corporation were killed. In addition, 343 of the dead were New York City firefighters, 84 were Port Authority employees, of whom 37 were members of the Port Authority Police Department, and another 23 were New York City Police Department officer. Ten years after the attacks, only 1,629 victims have been identified. Of the people who were still in the towers when they collapsed, only 20 were pulled out alive.
The process of cleanup and recovery at the World Trade Center site took eight months. Debris was transported from the World Trade Center site to Fresh Kills on Staten Island, where it was further sifted. On May 30, 2002, a ceremony was held to officially mark the end of the cleanup efforts. Over the following years, plans for a rebuilt World Trade Center took form in 2002, ground was broken on construction of a new 7WTC building located just to the north of the main World Trade Center site. Since it was not part of the site master plan, construction was able to proceed without delay on the rebuilding of 7 World Trade Center, which was completed and opened in May 2006. this had been considered a priority since restoring the Consolidated Edison Cos. electrical substation in the building’s lower floors was necessary to meet power demands of Lower Manhattan. While 7 World Trade Center was not part of the master plan for the Twin Towers site, it was recognized that the rebuilding of 7 World Trade Center would have to be consistent with the master plan which was expected to re-open the street grid which had been blocked by the original World Trade Center super-block. As a result, the design for the new 7 World Trade Center allowed for the re-opening of Greenwich Street, which had been blocked by the original 7 World Trade Center. A temporary PATH station at the World Trade Center opened inNovember 2003; it will be replaced by a permanent station designed by Santiago Calatrava.
In November 2001 Governor Pataki established the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) as an official commission to oversee the rebuilding process. The LMDC held a competition to choose possible designs for the site. The Memory Foundationsdesign by Daniel Libeskind was chosen as the master plan for the World Trade Center site. The plan included the 1,776 feet (541 m) Freedom Tower (now known as One World Trade Center) as well as a memorial and a number of other office towers. Out of the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition, a design by Michael Arad and Peter Walker titled Reflecting Absence was selected in January 2004. On March 13, 2006, workers arrived at the World Trade Center site to remove remaining debris and start surveying work. . On April 27, 2006, a ground-breaking ceremony was held for the Freedom Tower. In May 2006, architects Richard Rogers and Fumihiko Maki were announced as the architects for Towers Three and Four, respectively the final designs for Towers Two, Three and Four were unveiled on September 7, 2006. Tower Two, or 200 Greenwich Street, will have a roof height of 1,254 feet (382 m) and a 96 feet (29 m) tripod spire for a total of 1,350 feet (410 m). Tower Three, or 175 Greenwich Street will have a roof height of 1,155 feet (352 m) and an antenna height reaching 1,255 feet (383 m). Tower Four, or150 Greenwich Street, will have an overall height of 946 feet (288 m), On June 22, 2007, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey announced that JP Morgan Chase will build Tower 5, a 42-story building on Site 5 occupied by the Deutsche Bank Building,and Kohn Pedersen Fox was selected as the architect for the building. Four renowned architects, including Spanish architectSantiago Calatrava, who designed the transit hub, One WTC designer David Childs of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, and the famed British architect Norman Foster of Foster and Partners designed Tower Two and masterminded the iconic diamond design, will greatly enhance the street-level atmosphere of the rebuilt site. The projects will be complete between early 2013 to mid-2015 respectively.
The memorial officially opened to relatives of the deceased on September 11, 2011, and to the general public on September 12. World Trade Center Tower Three’s foundations are becoming visible, and will be completed in mid-2014 if Silverstein Properties can meet requirements set by the Port Authority, as they very likely will. Tower Two will also be completed on schedule according to the construction company. In the December 2011, Tower Two’s foundations are finished and is starting to assemble the frame.Because numerous American and Chinese companies are “very interested” in leasing space at the WTC, Two World Trade Center is likely to be finished earlier than expected. Publishing Giant Conde Nast has agreed to move its headquarters to One World Trade Center, and with this shift, many more are expected to follow. WTC 4 was opened 2013. This will be the first fencing removed since the opening of WTC 7 in 2006, and the first to provide access to the plaza. The removal of fencing will not only provide pedestrian access to the tower, but also a path through the site to the Memorial Plaza and surrounding streets. WTC 1 opened on 2014, and All construction fencing is expected to be removed with the opening of the final tower sometime in 2015-2018.