Posted in films & DVD, Science fiction

Terminator Genisys

I enjoyed Teminators 1,2 and 3 so I am hoping that Terminator Genisys, which is out on DVD is as good. It starts In the year 2029, with humanity facing a desperate battle against an army of Machines controlled by a artificially intelligent super computer system called Skynet which has decided it would be better off without the human race. Leading the fight against the machines is Human Resistance leader John Connor (Jason Clarke) who launches a massive final offensive against Skynet in Los Angeles. Connor discovers that Skynet intends to attack both past and future. So Connor sets up two attack forces, one to strike at Skynet’s main defense grid, and a second one, led by John and lieutenant Kyle Reese (Jai Courtney), to destroy Skynet’s main weapon, a secret time machine hidden at a remote storage facility.

However, Before the Resistance can reach the machine, Skynet sends a T-800 back in time to 1984 to kill John’s mother, Sarah Connor (Emilia Clarke). So Reese volunteers to go back in time in order to protect Sarah from the Terminator and ensure John’s existence. Reese then receives a cryptic warning of events in the year 2017 and witnesses one of the Resistance soldiers attacking John. Then an unexpected turn of events creates an altered timeline. Instead of a scared waitress, Sarah is a skilled fighter and has a Terminator guardian (Arnold Schwarzenegger) by her side. Upon arrival in 1984, He discovers Sarah and a Guardian Terminator (Arnold Schwarzenegger), a reprogrammed T-800 sent to protect her when she was nine years old. Then Kyle arrives but is attacked by a T-1000 (Lee Byung-hun) which has also been sent back in time by Skynet. So Sarah and the Guardian join Kyle to battle the T-1000.

Sarah and the Guardian then reveal they have constructed a makeshift time machine similar to Skynet’s, and that Sarah plans to travel to 1997 – the year Skynet becomes self-aware and destroy it. However Kyle and Sarah materialize in the middle of a busy San Francisco highway in 2017 instead, and after being apprehended by city police They learn of a global operating system called “Genisys”. Then John Connor appears and apparently rescues Sarah and Kyle, but the Guardian appears and immediately shoots John, revealing that John has been converted to an advanced T-3000 Terminator after having been attacked by a T-5000 Terminator (Matt Smith), which was disguised as a member of the Resistance. So Sarah, Kyle, and the Guardian set off try on a desperate and rather exciting mission to destroy Cyberdyne’s Genisys mainframe before it comes online with, an enemy T-3000 Terminator in hot pursuit.

Posted in Events

All Souls’ Day/Day of the Dead

All Souls’ Day takes place annually on 2 November. It is a Holy Day of Obligation in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church.The origin of the festival of All Saints celebrated in the West dates to 13 May 609 or 610, when Pope Boniface IV consecrated thePantheon at Rome to the Blessed Virgin and all the martyrs; the feast of the dedicatio Sanctae Mariae ad Martyres has been celebrated at Rome ever since. There is evidence that from the fifth through the seventh centuries there existed in certain places and at sporadic intervals a feast date on 13 May to celebrate the holy martyrs The origin of All Saints’ Day cannot be traced with certainty, and it has been observed on various days in different places. However, there are some who maintain the belief that it has origins in the pagan observation of 13 May, the Feast of the Lemures, in which the malevolent and restless spirits of the dead were propitiated. Liturgiologists base the idea that this Lemuria festival was the origin of that of All Saints on their identical dates and on the similar theme of “all the dead”.The feast of All Saints, on its current date, is traced to the foundation by Pope Gregory III (741–731) of an oratory in St. Peter’s for the relics “of the holy apostles and of all saints, martyrs and confessors, of all the just made perfect who are at rest throughout the world” with the day moved to 1 November and the 13 May feast suppressed

Beliefs and practices associated with All Souls’ Day vary widely among Christian churches and denominations. The Roman Catholic celebration is associated with the doctrine that the souls of the faithful who at death have not been cleansed from the temporal punishment due to venial sins and from attachment to mortal sins cannot immediately attain the beatific vision inheaven, and that they may be helped to do so by prayer and by the sacrifice of the Mass. In other words, when they died, they had not yet attained full sanctification and moral perfection, a requirement for entrance into Heaven. This sanctification is carried out posthumously in Purgatory. The official name of the celebration in the Roman Rite liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church is “The Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed”. Another popular name in English is Feast of All Souls.

The celebration, is sometimes known as Day of the Dead. However The Anglican Communion rejected the “Romish doctrine of Purgatory,” holding it to be “contrary to the Word of God,” hence, requiem masses or other prayers for remission of sins of the dead are not used in most churches of the Anglican Communion today, All Souls’ Day is merely a commemoration of deceased loved ones and “all faithful departed,” and no belief in a purgatorial state is expected or required. Anglo-Catholics, however, may hold beliefs about Purgatory similar to those of the Roman Catholic.

In Western Christianity, All Souls’ Day, also known as the Commemoration of All Faithful Departed is observed principally in the Catholic Church, although some churches of the Anglican Communion and the Old Catholic Churches also celebrate it the observance is the third day of Hallowmas and annually occurs on November 2. All souls Day also fall on the Celtic holiday of Samhain, which had a theme similar to the Roman festival of Lemuria, but which was also a harvest festival. The Irish, having celebrated Samhain in the past, did not celebrate All Hallows Day on this 1 November date, as extant historical documents attest that the celebration in Ireland took place in the spring: “…the Felire of Oengus and the Martyrology of Tallaght prove that the early medieval churches [in Ireland] celebrated the feast of All Saints on April 20.”A November festival of all the saints was already widely celebrated on 1 November in the days of Charlemagne. It was made a day of obligation throughout the Frankish empire in 835, by a decree of Louis the Pious, issued “at the instance of Pope Gregory IV and with the assent of all the bishops” which confirmed its celebration on 1 November. The octave was added by Pope Sixtus IV (1471–1484)The festival was retained after the Reformation in the calendar of the Anglican Church and in many Lutheran churches In the Lutheran churches, such as the Church of Sweden, it assumes a role of general commemoration of the dead. In the Swedish calendar, the observance takes place on the Saturday between 31 October and 6 November.

In many Lutheran Churches, it is moved to the first Sunday of November. In the Church of England it may be celebrated either on 1 November or on the Sunday between 30 October and 5 November.It is celebrated by Protestants of the English tradition, such as the United Church of Canada, theMethodist churches, and the Wesleyan Church Who generally regard all true Christian believers as saints and if they observe All Saints Day at all they use it to remember all Christians both past and present. In the United Methodist Church, All Saints’ Day is celebrated on the first Sunday in November. It is held, not only to remember Saints, but also to remember all those who have died who were members of the local church congregation In some congregations, a candle is lit by the Acolyte as each person’s name is called out by the clergy. Prayers and responsive readings may accompany the event. Often, the names of those who have died in the past year are affixed to a memorial plaque.In many Lutheran churches, All Saints’ Day and Reformation Day are observed concurrently on the Sunday before or after those dates, given Reformation Day is observed in Protestant Churches on 31 October. Typically, Martin Luther’s “A Mighty Fortress is Our God” is sung during the service. Besides discussing Luther’s role in the Protestant Reformation, some recognition of the prominent early leaders of the Reformed tradition, such as John Calvin and John Knox, occurs. The observance of Reformation Day may be immediately followed by a reading of those members of the local congregation who have died in the past year in observance of All Saints’ Day. Otherwise, the recognition of deceased church members occurs at another designated portion of the service.

In Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Chile, France, Hungary, Italy, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Malta, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Spain, and American cities such as New Orleans, people take flowers to the graves of dead relatives. In some places in Portugal people also light candles in the graves.In Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Finland, Catholic parts of Germany, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Serbia and Sweden, the tradition is to light candles and visit the graves of deceased relatives.In English-speaking countries, the festival is traditionally celebrated with the hymn “For All the Saints” by Walsham How. The most familiar tune for this hymn is Sine Nomine by Ralph Vaughan Williams. Another hymn that is popularly sung during corporate worship on this day is “I Sing a Song of the Saints of God”. ln Western Christianity, All Souls’ Day, also known as the Commemoration of All Faithful Departed is observed principally in the Catholic Church, although some churches of the Anglican Communion and the Old Catholic Churches also celebrate it; the observance is the third day of Hallowmas and annually occurs on November 2′ Beliefs and practices associated with All Souls’ Day vary widely among Christian churches and denominations.

In Mexico, Portugal and Spain, offerings (Portuguese: oferendas, Spanish: ofrendas) are made on this day. In Spain and Mexico the play Don Juan Tenorio is traditionally performed.All Saints’ Day in Mexico, coincides with the first day of the Day of the Dead (Dia de los Muertos) celebration. Known as “Día de los Inocentes” (Day of the Innocents), it honours deceased children and infants.Portuguese children celebrate the Pão-por-Deus tradition (also called santorinho, bolinho or fiéis de Deus), going door-to-door where they receive cakes, nuts and pomegranates. This occurs all over Portugal. Hallowmas in the Philippines is variously called “Undas” (based on the word for “[the first”), “Todos los Santos” (literally “All Saints”), and sometimes “Áraw ng mga Patáy” (lit. “Day of the Dead”), which refers to the following day of All Souls’ Day but includes it. Filipinos traditionally observe this day by visiting the graves of family dead, often cleaning and repairing them. Offerings of prayers, flowers, candles, and even food are made, while Filipino-Chineseadditionally burn incense and kim. Many also spend the day and ensuing night holding reunions at the graves, playing music or singing karaoke.

The origins of All Souls’ Day may be related to customs such as the Chinese Ghost Festival, the Japanese Bon Festival. The Roman festival of Lemuria. The modern date of All Souls’ Day was established in the early eleventh century by Abbot Odilo for the monks of Cluny  to pray for the souls in purgatory. However during the Medieval period, Europeans began to mix the two celebrations, and many All Souls Day traditions took place, such as ringing bells for the dead, sharing of soul cakes and lighting candles which was meant to kindle a light for the dead souls languishing in the darkness. It also led to the traditions of “going souling” and the baking of special types of bread or cakes. In Tirol, cakes are left for them on the table and the room kept warm for their comfort. In Brittany, and Malta people make pilgrimages to the graves of loved ones, to anoint the hollow of the tombstone with holy water or to pour libations of milk On it. In Brazil people attend a Mass or visit the cemetery taking flowers to decorate their relatives’ grave, but no food is involved. Mass is also said throughout the month, with certain Catholic parishes organising special events at cemetery chapels.