Guy Fawkes/Bonfire Night

guy_fawkesIn the United Kingdom November 5th is traditionally Bonfire Night or Guy Fawkes Night . it is an annual commemoration of the failed Gunpowder Plot of 5th November 1605 during which a group of provincial English Catholics named Robert Catesby, John Wright, Thomas Wintour, Thomas Percy, Guy Fawkes, Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, Robert Wintour, Christopher Wright, John Grant, Sir Ambrose Rookwood, Sir Everard Digby and Francis Tresham, planned to blow up the House of Lords during the State Opening of England’s Parliament on 5 November 1605, killing protestant King James I of England and VI of Scotland and restoring a Catholic monarch to the throne.

This was to be the prelude to a popular revolt in the Midlands during which James’s nine-year-old daughter, Princess Elizabeth, was to be installed as the Catholic head of state. Guy Fawkes was born on 13 April 1570 and was educated in York. His father died when he was eight years old, after which his mother married a recusant Catholic. Fawkes later converted to Catholicism and left for the continent, where he fought in the Eighty Years’ War on the side of Catholic Spain against Protestant Dutch reformers. He travelled to Spain to seek support for a Catholic rebellion in England but was unsuccessful. Whilst in Spain he met Thomas Wintour, with whom he returned to England, and Upon their return, Wintour introduced Fawkes to Robert Catesby, who wanted to assassinate King James. So The plotters then secured the lease to an undercroft beneath the House of Lords, and Fawkes was placed in charge of the gunpowder they stockpiled there.

Many Catholics including Robert Catesby wanted greater religious tolerance under King James but when this was not forthcoming he was forced to resort to desperate measures. So The plotters secured the lease to an undercroft beneath the House of Lords, and Fawkes was placed in charge of the gunpowder they stockpiled there, due to his 10 years of military experience fighting in the Spanish Netherlands in suppression of the Dutch Revolt. However The plot was revealed to the authorities in an anonymous letter sent to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, on 26 October 1605. As a result the authorities searched Westminster Palace and the House of Lords and at about midnight on 4 November 1605, Fawkes was discovered guarding 36 barrels of gunpowder—enough to reduce the House of Lords to rubble—and he was arrested.

Upon learning of the plot’s discovery Most of the conspirators fled from London trying to enlist support for their cause along the way. Several made a stand against the pursuing Sheriff of Worcester and his men at Holbeche House; in the ensuing battle Catesby was one of those shot and killed. At their trial on 27 January 1606, eight of the survivors, including Fawkes, were found guilty of of High Treason and sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered. However Immediately before his execution on 31 January 1606, Fawkes jumped from the scaffold where he was to be hanged and broke his neck thus avoiding the agony of the mutilation that followed.

Francis Tresham Was ‘the eldest son of Sir Thomas Tresham and Merial Throckmorton, was also a member of the group of English provincial Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605, having joined the Earl of Essex’s failed rebellion in 1601. He was also caught and imprisoned. Only his family’s intervention and his father’s money saved him from attainder. He first became involved with the Gunpowder Plot during two missions to Catholic Spain to seek support for English Catholics (then heavily persecuted). According to his confession, Tresham joined the plot in October 1605. Its leader, Robert Catesby, asked him to provide a large sum of money and the use of Rushton Hall, but Tresham apparently provided neither, instead giving a much smaller amount of money to fellow plotter Thomas Wintour.

Tresham also expressed concern that if the plot was successful, two of his brothers-in-law would be killed. An anonymous letter delivered to one of them, William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, found its way to the English Secretary of State, Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, an event which eventually proved decisive in the conspiracy’s failure. Historians have long suspected that Tresham wrote the letter, a hypothesis that remains unproven. Catesby and Wintour shared the same suspicion and threatened to kill him, but he was able to convince them otherwise. He was arrested on 12 November and confined to the Tower of London. In his confession, he sought to allay his involvement in the plot, but never mentioned the letter. He died of natural causes on 23 December 1605.

Fawkes meanwhile despite being only one of 13 conspirators became synonymous with The thwarting of the Gunpowder Plot and since November 1605 people have been encouraged to celebrate the King’s escape from assassination by holding special sermons and other public events such as the ringing of church bells,and lighting of bonfires, “always provided that ‘this testemony of joy be carefully done without any danger or disorder’”. An Act of Parliament was also passed, which designated each 5 November as a day of thanksgiving for “the joyful day of deliverance” and this day has been commemorated ever since by the lighting of Bonfires during which an effigy of Guy Fawkes is traditionally burned & Spectacular Firework Displays take place.

Jonny Greenwood (Radiohead)

Jonny Greenwood, guitarist with English rock band Radiohead was born Born 5th November 1971 Formed in 1985, Radiohead hail from Abingdon, Oxfordshire, and The band consists of Thom Yorke (lead vocals, guitar, piano), Jonny Greenwood (lead guitar, keyboards, other instruments), Colin Greenwood (bass), Phil Selway (drums, percussion) and Ed O’Brien (guitar, backing vocals). Radiohead released their debut single “Creep” in 1992. The song was initially unsuccessful, but it became a worldwide hit several months after the release of their debut album, Pablo Honey (1993). Radiohead’s popularity rose in the United Kingdom with the release of their second album, The Bends (1995). Radiohead’s third album, OK Computer (1997), propelled them to even greater international fame. Featuring an expansive sound and themes of modern alienation, OK Computer is often acclaimed as one of the landmark records of the 1990s. Kid A (2000) and Amnesiac (2001) marked an evolution in Radiohead’s musical style, as the group incorporated experimental electronic music, krautrock and jazz influences.

Kid A, though somewhat polarizing at the time of its release, is now frequently recognized as one of the most important albums of the 2000s. Hail to the Thief (2003), a mix of piano and guitar driven rock, electronics and lyrics inspired by war, was the band’s final album for their major record label, EMI. Radiohead self-released their seventh album, In Rainbows (2007), as a digital download for which customers could set their own price, and later in physical form to critical and chart success. Radiohead’s eighth album, The King of Limbs (2011), was an exploration of rhythm and quieter textures, which the band released independently. Radiohead have sold more than 30 million albums worldwide, with the band’s work being placed highly in both listener polls and critics’ lists, they have the distinction of doing so in both the 1990s and 2000s. In 2005, Radiohead were ranked number 73 in Rolling Stone’s list of “The Greatest Artists of All Time”, while Jonny Greenwood and Ed O’Brien were both included in Rolling Stone’s list of greatest guitarists, and Thom Yorke in their list of greatest singers. In 2009, Rolling Stone readers voted the group the second best artist of the 2000’s.

Bryan Adams

Canadian rock singer-songwriter, guitarist, bassist, producer, actor and photographer Bryan Adams, OC OBC was born 5 November 1959. Adams music career began in 1978, when at the age of 18, Adams met Jim Vallance introduced by a mutual friend in a Vancouver music store. Vallance was the former drummer and principal songwriter for Vancouver based rock band Prism and had recently quit that band to focus on a career as a studio musician and songwriter. Later in 1978, Adams signed to A&M records Adams’ first single, was “Let Me Take You Dancing,” An early version of “Straight From The Heart” was written during this period. The song later became Adams’s first top ten record in the US in 1983.Adams’ self-titled debut album was released in February 1980, containing the songs “Remember” and “Wastin’ Time”, The album was certified gold in Canada in 1986. Adams’ second album, You Want It You Got It, was released in 1981 and contained the hit “Lonely Nights,” but it was not until his third album that he achieved international recognition, popularity and sales. Cuts Like a Knife, which was released in January 1983, was Adams’ breakout album contained the singles. “Straight from the Heart” & “Cuts Like a Knife” whose music video received heavy airplay on music television channels. The album achieved three times platinum status in Canada, platinum in the United States and gold in Australia.Adams’ best-selling album, Reckless, was released in November 1984 and featured the singles, “Run to You”, “Summer of ’69″, “Heaven”, “One Night Love Affair”, “Somebody”, and “It’s Only Love”, a duet with Tina Turner, which was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Rock Vocal Performance by a Duo or Group. In 1986, the song won an MTV award for Best Stage Performance. After the release of the album, Adams was nominated for Best Male Rock Performance. The album is Adams’ best-selling album in the United States and was certified five times platinum.

The follow-up album to Reckless was Into the Fire which was released in 1987. This album contained the hit songs “Heat of the Night” and “Hearts on Fire” and hit the Top 10 on both sides of the Atlantic.In 1989 Adams did backup singing on Mötley Crüe’s album Dr. Feelgood and also on Belinda Carlisle’s song “Whatever It Takes” which appeared on her Album Runaway Horses.Adams’ next album, Waking Up the Neighbours, was released in September 1991 and featured “(Everything I Do) I Do It for You”, his second 1 hit single in Billboard Hot 100. This song was featured on the album and a movie Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, starring Kevin Costner and Alan Rickman and spent a record-breaking 16 consecutive weeks at number 1 on the UK Singles Chart. Adams won a Grammy Award in 1991 for Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or for Television. In November 1993 Adams released a compilation album entitled So Far So Good, that again topped the Charts in numerous countries. It included a brand new song called “Please Forgive Me”.

In 1994 he collaborated with Rod Stewart and Sting for the single “All for Love” written for the Motion Picture Soundtrack of the movie Three Musketeers. The single topped the charts worldwide. It was followed in 1995 by, “Have You Ever Really Loved a Woman?” (song released with the Motion Picture Soundtrack of the movie Don Juan DeMarco)., Adams’ next album 18 til I Die contained the UK Top 10 singles “The Only Thing That Looks Good on Me” and “Lets Make a Night to Remember”. Then In December 1997, Adams released MTV Unplugged with three new tracks: “Back to You”, “A Little Love” and “When You Love Someone” this was followed by “I’m Ready”, an acoustic version of the Cut’s Like A Knife track. The album was a top 10 success in Germany while both singles reached the top 20 in the UK.On a Day Like Today was released in 1998 generated two British Top 10 singles: “Cloud Number Nine” and “When You’re Gone”, a duet with Melanie C of The Spice Girls. To commemorate the millennium, Adams released The Best of Me, his most comprehensive collection of songs at that time, which also included two new songs, the title track “The Best of Me” and “Don’t Give Up”.

During his long career Adams has won many awards and recieved many nominations For his contributions to music, including 20 Juno Awards among 56 nominations, 15 Grammy Award nominations including a win for Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or Television in 1992. He has also won MTV, ASCAP, and American Music awards. In addition, he has won two Ivor Novello Awards for song composition and has been nominated for several Golden Globe Awards and three times for Academy Awards for his songwriting for films.Adams was also awarded the Order of Canada and the Order of British Columbia for contributions to popular music and philanthropic work via his own foundation, which helps improve education for people around the world.Adams was also inducted into the Hollywood Walk of Fame, and Canada’s Walk of Fame and was also inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame at Canada’s Juno Awards, and also took part of a grand ensemble of Canadian artists named Northern Lights, who recorded the song “Tears Are Not Enough” for the African famine relief effort and later received the Allan Waters Humanitarian Award for his part in numerous charitable concerts and campaigns during his career, and on 1 May 2010 was given the Governor General’s Performing Arts Award for his 30 years of contributions to the arts

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