Spanish surrealist painter and sculptor Savador Dali sadly died 23 January 1989. Born May 1904 in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain. In 1912, the family moved to the top floor of Carrer Monturiol 24. Sadly Dalí’s older brother, who was also been named Salvador (born 12 October 1901), had died of gastroenteritis nine months earlier, on 1 August 1903. His father, Salvador Dalí i Cusí, was a middle-class lawyer while his,Mother Felipa Domenech Ferrés, encouraged her son’s artistic endeavors. When he was five, Dalí was taken to his brother’s grave and told by his parents that he was his brother’s reincarnation, Which inspired his painting Portrait of My Dead Brother. Dalí also had a sister, Anna Maria, who was three years younger In 1949, she published a book about her brother, Dalí As Seen By His Sister. Dalí was highly imaginative and a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking and bizarre images in his surrealist work. His artistic skills are often attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters. His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in August 1931. Dalí’s expansive artistic repertoire included film, sculpture, and photography, in collaboration with a range of artists in a variety of media.
Dalí attended drawing school. In 1916, he also discovered modern painting on a summer vacation trip to Cadaqués with the family of Ramon Pichot, a local artist who made regular trips to Paris. in1917 Dali’s father organized an exhibition of his charcoal drawings in their family home. He had his first public exhibition at the Municipal Theatre in Figueres in 1919, a site he would return to decades later. Sadly In February 1921, Dalí’s mother died of breast cancer. In 1922, Dalí moved into the Residencia de Estudiantes (Students’ Residence) in Madrid and studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando alongside fellow surrealist artist Man Ray.
Here, he became close friends with (among others) Pepín Bello, Luis Buñuel, and Federico García Lorca andexperimented with Cubism. In 1924, the still-unknown Salvador Dalí illustrated a book for the first time. It was a publication of the Catalan poem Les bruixes de Llers (“The Witches of Llers”) by Carles Fages de Climent. Unfortunately Dalí was expelled from the Academy in 1926, shortly before his final exams when he was accused of starting unrest.in 1926 he visited Paris, and met Pablo Picasso, through Joan Miró, a fellow Catalan who introduced him to many Surrealist friends. Dalí was influenced by many styles of art, ranging from the most academically classic, to the most cutting-edge avant-garde. His classical influences included Raphael, Bronzino, Francisco de Zurbarán, Vermeer and Velázquez He used both classical and modernist techniques, sometimes separate and sometimes combined. Dalí grew a flamboyant moustache, influenced by 17th-century Spanish master painter Diego Velázquez.
In 1929, Dalí collaborated with surrealist film director Luis Buñuel on the short film Un Chien Andalou (An Andalusian Dog). Then in August 1929, Dalí met Gala, born Elena Ivanovna Diakonova. a Russian immigrant ten years his senior, who at that time was married to surrealist poet Paul Éluard but became his lifelong and primary muse, inspiration, and future wife he also officially joined the Surrealist group in the Montparnasse quarter of Paris. His work had already been heavily influenced by surrealism for two years. The Surrealists hailed what Dalí called his paranoiac-critical method of accessing the subconscious for greater artistic creativity. Sadly, Dalí’s Father Don Salvador Dalí y Cusi strongly disapproved of his son’s romance with Gala, and saw his connection to the Surrealists as a bad influence on his morals.
In 1929 after exhibiting a particularly inflammatory painting his Outraged Father Don Salvador threw him out and disinherited him and told him not to return toCadaqués again. So In 1930 Dalí and Gala rented a small fisherman’s cabin in a nearby bay at Port Lligat. In 1931, Dalí painted one of his most famous works, The Persistence of Memory, which featured surreal melting pocket watches. Later In 1934 Dalí married Gala, in a semi-secret civil ceremony and later remarried in a Catholic ceremony in 1958. In addition to inspiring many of his paintings Gala also became Dalí’s business manager. This “tense, complex and ambiguous relationship” lasted over 50 years and later become the subject of an opera, Jo, Dalí (I, Dalí) by Catalan composer Xavier Benguerel.In 1934 Dalí was introduced to the United States by art dealer Julien Levy who staged an exhibition in New York of Dalí’s works, including Persistence of Memory, the Social Register listees feted him at a specially organized “Dalí Ball”. For whichHe showed up wearing a glass case on his chest, which contained a brassiere. Dalí and Gala also attended a masquerade party in New York, hosted for them by heiress Caresse Crosby. For which they dressed as the Lindbergh baby and his kidnapper. The resulting uproar in the press was so great that Dalí later apologized.
While many Surrealist artists were associated with leftist politics, Dalí maintained an ambiguous position concerning the relationship between politics and surrealist art. This came to a head in 1934, when Dalí was formally expelled from the Surrealist group. In 1936, Dalí took part in the London International Surrealist Exhibition. His lecture, titled Fantômes paranoiaques authentiques, was delivered while wearing a deep-sea diving suit and helmet. He was also featured on the cover of Time magazine
Dali also caused uproar at the premiere screening of Joseph Cornell’s film Rose Hobart at Julien Levy’s gallery in New York City. This program of short surrealist films was timed to take place at the same time as the first surrealism exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, during which Dali accused Cornell of stealing his work. During this period, Dalí’s main patron in London was the very wealthy Edward James. Who had helped Dalí emerge into the art world by purchasing many works and by supporting him financially for two years. They also collaborated on two of the most enduring icons of the Surrealist movement: the Lobster Telephone and the Mae West Lips Sofa. In 1938, Dalí met Sigmund Freud thanks to Stefan Zweig and sketched Freud’s portrait, then in September 1938, Salvador Dalí was invited by Gabrielle Coco Chanel to her house “La Pausa” in Roquebrune on the French Riviera. There he painted numerous paintings and later exhibited at Julien Levy Gallery in New York. “La Pausa” was also partially replicated at the Dallas Museum of Art to welcome the Reeves collection and part of Chanel’s original furniture for the house.
In1939 Dalí created Rainy Taxi, a three-dimensional artwork, consisting of an actual automobile with two mannequin occupants, which wasdisplayed at the Galerie Beaux-Arts in Paris at the Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme, organised by André Breton and Paul Éluard. He also debuted his Dream of Venus surrealist pavilion, at the 1939 New York World’s Fair, this featured bizarre sculptures, statues, and live nude models in “costumes” made of fresh seafood, an event photographed by Horst P. Horst, George Platt Lynes and Murray Korman. In 1939, André Breton coined the derogatory nickname “Avida Dollars”, an anagram for “Salvador Dalí”, meaning “eager for dollars”. Which was a derisive reference to the increasing commercialization of Dalí’s work, and the perception that Dalí sought self-aggrandizement through fame and fortune. And The Surrealists, many of whom were closely connected to the French Communist Party at the time, expelled him from their movement.
In 1940, as World War II tore through Europe, Dalí and Gala emigrated to the United States, where they lived for eight years. Dalí’s arrival in New York helped it develop into a world art center during the post-War years. During this time Dalí worked prolifically in a variety of media, designing jewelry, clothes, furniture, stage sets for plays and ballet, and retail store display windows. However In 1939, while working on a window display for Bonwit Teller, he became so enraged by unauthorized changes to his work that he shoved a decorative bathtub through a plate glass window. In 1941, Dalí drafted a film scenario for Jean Gabin called Moontide. In 1942, he published his autobiography, The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí. He wrote catalogs for his exhibitions, such as that at the Knoedler Gallery in New York in 1943. He also wrote a novel, published in 1944, about a fashion salon for automobiles. This resulted in a cartoon in The Miami Herald, depicting Dalí dressing an automobile in an evening gown. He also suggested that he had split with Luis Buñuel because the latter was a Communist and an atheist. Buñuel was fired (or resigned) from his position at the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA). Buñuel then returned to Hollywood where he worked in the dubbing department of Warner Brothers from 1942 to 1946 and rejected Dalí’s attempts at reconciliation.
In 1948 Dalí and Gala moved back into their house in Port Lligat, on the coast near Cadaqués and spent the winters in Paris and New York.In 1959, André Breton organized an exhibit called Homage to Surrealism,celebrating the fortieth anniversary of Surrealism, which contained works by Dalí, Joan Miró, Enrique Tábara, and Eugenio Granell. However Breton vehemently fought against the inclusion of Dalí’s Sistine Madonna in the International Surrealism Exhibition in New York the following year.
Dalí did not confine himself to painting, but explored many unusual or novel media and processes: for example, he experimented with bulletist artworks and Many of his late works incorporated optical illusions, negative space, visual puns and trompe l’œil visual effects. He also experimented with pointillism, enlarged half-tone dot grids and stereoscopic images. He was also among the first artists to employ holography in an artistic manner and In Dalí’s later years, young artists such as Andy Warhol proclaimed him an important influence on pop art. Dalí also developed a keen interest in natural science and mathematics and seven of his paintings are composed of rhinoceros horn shapes. Which According to Dalí, signified divine geometry because it grows in a logarithmic spiral. He linked the rhinoceros to themes of chastity and to the Virgin Mary.
Dalí was also fascinated by DNA and the tesseract (a 4-dimensional cube); an unfolding of a hypercube is featured in the painting Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus).Dalí had a glass floor installed in a room near his studio and made extensive use of it to study foreshortening, both from above and from below, incorporating dramatic perspectives of figures and objects into his paintings. Following World War II Dalí became increasingly interest in optical effects and science. However the shock of Hiroshima and the dawning of the “atomic age” had horrified him So he labeled this period “Nuclear Mysticism” and sought to synthesize Christian iconography with images of material disintegration inspired by nuclear physics. His Nuclear Mysticism works include La Gare de Perpignan (1965), the Hallucinogenic Toreador (1968–70), The Madonna of Port Lligat (first version, 1949) and Corpus Hypercubus (1954). In 1960, Dalí began work on his Theatre and Museum in his home town of Figueres;
Dalí continued to indulge in publicity stunts and self-consciously outrageous behavior. To promote his 1962 book The World of Salvador Dalí, he appeared in a Manhattan bookstore on a bed, wired up to a machine that traced his brain waves and blood pressure and In 1968, Dalí filmed a humorous television advertisement for Lanvin chocolates. In 1969, he designed the Chupa Chups logo, assisted the advertising campaign for the 1969 Eurovision Song Contest and created a large on-stage metal sculpture that stood at the Teatro Real in Madrid.
In 1968, Dalí bought a castle in Púbol for Gala; and starting in 1971 she would retreat there alone for weeks at a time. This may have contributed to Dalí’s depression and failing health. In 1980 at age 76, Dalí’s health took a catastrophic turn. His right hand trembled terribly, with Parkinson-like symptoms.In an effort to improve his condition He had been taking a dangerous cocktail of unprescribed medicine that damaged his nervous system, thus causing an untimely end to his artistic capacity. In 1982, King Juan Carlos bestowed on Dalí the title of Marqués de Dalí de Púbol.Sadly Gala died on 10 June 1982, at the age of 87. After Gala’s death, Dalí lost much of his will to live. He Also moved from Figueres to the castle in Púbol, which was the site of her death and her grave. In May 1983, Dalí revealed his last painting, The Swallow’s Tail, a work heavily influenced by the mathematical catastrophe theory of René Thom. In 1984, a fire broke out in his bedroom under unclear circumstances. It was possibly a suicide attempt by Dalí, or possibly simple negligence by his staff. Dalí was rescued by friend and collaborator Robert Descharnes and returned to Figueres, where a group of his friends, patrons, and fellow artists saw to it that he was comfortable living in his Theater-Museum in his final years. In November 1988, Dalí suffered heart failure; a pacemaker had been implanted previously. On December 5, 1988, he was visited by King Juan Carlos. On the morning of 23 January 1989, while Tristan and Isolde played, Dalí died of heart failure at Figueres at the age of 84. He is buried in the crypt below the stage of his Theatre and Museum in Figueres.