The House in Bellevue Gardens by Rachael Hore

I would lile to read the House in Bellevue Gardens by Rachael Hore. The novel features Former sixties model Leonie, who lives at Number 11, Bellevue Gardens, a tranquil London square, tucked away behind a busy street. Number 11, is a place of peace, sanctuary and secrets to which Leonie came In order to escape a destructive marriage. Now out of gratitude, she opens her house to others in need.

She meets Rosa, Stef and Rick who are all running from their own problems. They have all found their way to Leonie’s home, each seeking refuge and searching for a new start. Rosa has arrived in London from Poland to look for her younger brother Mikhail. He is supposed to be staying with their English father, but when she visits the house she finds it’s locked up and there’s no sign of either of them. She urgently needs work and somewhere to live while she continues her search. Stef meanwhile, is running away from her boyfriend Oliver and the claustrophobic life she’s been living in his opulent flat. Frightened, friendless and far from her family, she needs somewhere to hide. Rick is living in a limbo, a shy young man hiding from the world to write and draw and dream. How will he find fulfilment?

All three find refuge at 11 Bellevue Gardens, the shabbiest house of a smart white-painted Georgian terrace in North London. Here, its owner Leonie herself once found sanctuary following a short career as a model in the sixties and a destructive marriage. Now, out of gratitude, she opens her house to others in need. However, as she helps Stef and Rosa and Rick to find their way, Leonie finds that once again the very foundations of her own life and happiness are under threat when Leonie discovers that the house which has provided sanctuary for so many is under threat.

Severn Valley Railway Pacific Power

On Wednesday 21 September I attended The Severn Valley Railway, ‘Pacific Power’ event at Bridgnorth Station for a special VIP Sharholders and Members day courtesy OF the Severn Valley Railway Charitable Trust. The event proper takes place from 22nd – 26th September. It features an awesome line-up of both A1 2-6-4 Pacific class locomotive No. 60163 Tornado and A3 2-6-4 Pacific Class locomotive no. BR 60103 (LNER 4472) Flying Scotsman.

Flying Scotsman made its debut at the Severn Valley Railway on September 21st having travelled up to Kidderminster the day before, Following its 10-year, £4.2m refurbishment by the National Railway Museum. The world-famous locomotive hauled the SVR Charitable Trust VIP special on three round trips from Kidderminster to Bridgnorth, hauling the beautiful rake of nine teak-bodied carriages, all owned by the SVR Charitable Trust. Flying Scotsman arrived at Vintage Trains Tyseley Loco Works at Tyseley, Birmingham on 13 September and On 19 September, it left Tyseley for the Severn Valley Railway Official Site in Kidderminster, where it will stay until 28 September when it begins its journey to the North West.

When not hauling the special trains, Flying Scotsman and Tornado will be on show at Bridgnorth to be admired from September 22nd – 26th only. Flying Scotsman will be available for viewing as follows: 9.20am – 12.00pm and 4.00pm – 6.40pm. Meanwhile Tornado will be available for viewing as follows: from 12.40pm – 3.30pm and from 7:10pm – 7.30pm. Other steam trains will also be operating during the event, With Up to three other public services using locomotives including SR West Country Class 4-6-2 No. 34027 Taw Valley and SR Battle of Britain Class locomotive 4-6-2 No. 34053 Sir Keith Park and GWR 7812 Erlestoke Manor (which is a Decapod rather than a Pacific) but still looks fantastic.

The Hobbit

hobbitSeptember 22 has been designated International Hobbit Day to mark The birthdays of the hobbits Bilbo and Frodo Baggins, in 2890 and 2968 respectively of the Third Age (1290 and 1368 respectively in Shire-Reckoning.) It is part of Tolkien Week. Which also celebrates the anniversary of the publishing of the Hobbit by J.R.R. Tolkien which was published 21 September 1937. Although Tolkien himself never expected his stories to become so popular, “The Hobbit” came to the attention of publishers George Allen & Unwin and they persuaded him to publish it. it went on to attract adult readers as well as children, and became popular enough for the publishers to ask Tolkien to produce a sequel. The Hobbit ay is perhaps the oldest running day celebrated by fans.

There is some debate on the date that Hobbit Day should be celebrated on, due to the differences in the Gregorian and Shire calendars. Tolkien once said that the Shire calendar is ahead by about ten days. A suggested alternative date by hardcore fans is September 14th. Although the day was not officially designated until 1978 and has had many names and designations, it has been celebrated since 1973, shortly after J.R.R. Tolkien died on September 2nd 1973.

The Hobbit is Set in a time “Between the Dawn of Færie and the Dominion of Men”, and follows the sometimes dangerous, but at all times exciting quest of home-loving hobbit Bilbo Baggins who joins the Wizard Gandalf and a company of dwarves including Thorin Okenshield, Oin, Gloin, Nori, Ori, Dori. Kili, Fili, Bifor, Bofur and Bombur on a dangerous journey to the Lonely Mountain, to reclaim the kingdom of Erabor and the many treasures which have been stolen by the dragon Smaug. Helping them are Lord Elrond of Rivendell, Beorn, Lady Galadriel of Lothlorien and Saruman wisest of the Istari. Along the way they encounter many hazards including the Cave Trolls Bert, Tom and William, Giant Spiders, Hordes of Goblins and Orcs, Imprisonment by the Forest Elves of Mirkwood Forest and Bilbo is almost eaten by a cerain ring bearer named Gollum As if that wasn’t enough something decidedly dodgy is also going on in the Fortress of Dol Gulder, to the South-East of Mirkwood where an old and formidable enemy is stirring. The story reaches its climax during the Battle of Five Armies, where The men of Dale, The Elves of Mirkwood, The Dwarves of Erebor, Hordes of Orcs and the Eagles all try to reclaim the treasure stolen by Smaug

Hobbits, are typically between two and four feet tall and are nothing like your usual ‘hero’, but nonetheless manage to accomplish great feats and amazing acts of courage During The Hobbit and Lord of the Rings. It is in honour of these creatures and those acts that the day is celebrated with events not unlike the birthday party described in the beginning of “The Fellowship of the Ring”. In the United States Hobbit Day has gained some measure of legal dignity due to the elected officials who support the day and the goals of the American Tolkien Society. The Day has also attracted Bipartisan Support from places as the U.S. County Courthouse, to the White House, to the U.S. Capitol. Fans celebrate by anything from going barefoot all day and having seven meals, to Literary discussions and readings, Lord Of The Rings Movie Marathons, and throwing parties in honour of the ‘Long Awaited Party’ at the start of the Fellowship Of The Ring with events such as feasts, games, costumes and fireworks.

Director Peter Jackson’s turned The Hobbit into an exciting film trilogy, starring Martin Freeman as Bilbo, Sir Ian Mckellen as Gandalf, Sylvester McCoy as Radagast, Richard Armitage as Thorin Oakenshield, Hugo Weaving as Elrond, Cate Blanchett as Galadriel and Barry Humphies as The Goblin King. They have expanded the story by including some of the related material in the appendices of The Lord of the Rings and Unfinished Tales, in order to tell more of the tale of Bilbo Baggins, the Dwarves of Erebor, the rise of the Necromancer and the Battle of Dol Guldur. The Hobbit was three separate films. Howard Shore did the Theme Music, and Alan Lee’s Concept art was used as well.

H.G. Wells

imageEnglish author, Herbert George “H. G.” Wells was born 21st September 1866 in Bromley, Kent. He is best known for his work in the science fiction genre but also wrote contemporary novels about, history, politics and social commentary, as well as textbooks and rules for war games. Together with Jules Verne and Hugo Gernsback, Wells has been referred to as “The Father of Science Fiction”. His most notable science fiction works include The War of the Worlds, The Time Machine, The Invisible Man and The Island of Doctor Moreau & his earliest specialised training was in biology, and his thinking on ethical matters took place in a specifically and fundamentally Darwinian context.

Wells became interested in literature after an accident in 1874 left Him with a broken leg. To pass the time he started reading books from the local library, brought to him by his father. He soon became devoted to the other worlds and lives to which books gave him access; they also stimulated his desire to write. In 1874 he entered Thomas Morley’s Commercial Academy, until 1880. From 1880 to 1883, Wells had an unhappy apprenticeship as a draper at the Southsea Drapery Emporium. This later inspired the novels The Wheels of Chance and Kipps, which portray the life of a draper’s apprentice as well as providing a critique of society’s distribution of wealth. In October 1879 Wells joined the National School at Wookey in Somerset as a pupil-teacher. After a short apprenticeship at a chemist in nearby Midhurst, and an even shorter stay as a boarder at Midhurst Grammar School, Who offered him the opportunity to become a pupil-teacher, where his proficiency in Latin and science enabled him to continue his self-education in earnest. In 1880 Wells won a scholarship to the Normal School of Science (later the Royal College of Science in South Kensington, now part of Imperial College London) in London,

imagestudying biology under Thomas Henry Huxley (Who was an English biologist known as “Darwin’s Bulldog” for his advocacy of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution) and also entered the Debating Society of the school. Whilst at the Imperial College he read The Republic by Plato, whose ideas interested him. He also turned to contemporary ideas of socialism as expressed by the recently formed Fabian Society and free lectures delivered at Kelmscott House, the home of William Morris. He also helped establish the Science School Journal, which allowed him to express his views on literature and society, as well as trying his hand at fiction: the first version of his novel The Time Machine was published in the journal under the title, The Chronic Argonauts. Wells also entered the College of Preceptors (College of Teachers). He later received his Licentiate and Fellowship FCP diplomas from the College. Wells earned a Bachelor of Science degree in zoology from the University of London External Programme, In 1889–90 he managed to find a post as a teacher at Henley House School where he taught A. A. Milne.

Wells’s first non-fiction bestseller was Anticipations of the Reaction of Mechanical and Scientific Progress Upon Human Life and Thought. Some of his early novels, invented a number of themes now classic in science fiction in such works as The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds, When the Sleeper Wakes, and The First Men in the Moon, and wrote dozens of short stories and novellas, the best known of which is “The Country of the Blind” (1904) ands some of these also inspired Science Fiction Television- His short story “The New Accelerator” was also the inspiration for the Star Trek episode Wink of an Eye. Wells also wrote non fiction novels which received critical acclaim, including Kipps, Tono-Bungay, The Outline of History, A Short History of the World, The Science of Life and The Work, Wealth and Happiness of Mankind and wrote a number of Utopian novels including A Modern Utopia, which usually begin with the rushing to catastrophe, until a solution is found – such as abandoning war (In the Days of the Comet) or having a world council of scientists taking over, as in The Shape of Things to Come, which was later adapted for the 1936 Alexander Korda film, Things to Come. Wells also contemplated the ideas of nature versus nurture and questions humanity in books such as The Island of Doctor Moreau, where a person discovers an island of animals being vivisected unsuccessfully into human beings, and tries to escape,

 

In 1936, Wells called for the compilation of a constantly growing and changing World Encyclopaedia, to be reviewed by outstanding authorities and made accessible to every human being. In 1938, he published a collection of essays on the future organisation of knowledge and education, World Brain, including the essay, “The Idea of a Permanent World Encyclopaedia”. Seeking a more structured way to play war games, Wells also wrote Floor Games followed by Little Wars which is recognised today as the first recreational wargame and Wells is regarded by gamers and hobbyists as “the Father of Miniature War Gaming”.

He was also an outspoken socialist, often sympathising with pacifist views and becoming increasingly political and often wrote about the ills of Society leading him to be touted as a worthy successor to Charles Dickens, but Wells described a range of social strata and wrote abundantly about the “New Woman” and the Suffragettes. His most consistent political ideal was the World State, which he considered inevitable. He envisioned the state to be a planned society that would advance science, end nationalism, and allow people to progress by merit rather than birth, Wells also believed in the theory of eugenics and Some contemporary supporters even suggested connections between the degenerate man-creatures portrayed in The Time Machine and Wells’s eugenic beliefs. Wells also brought his interest in Art & Design and politics together which led to the foundation of the Design and Industries Association. In his last book Mind at the End of its Tether he considered the idea that humanity being replaced by another species might not be a bad idea. He also came to call the era “The Age of Frustration”.

During his final years he began to be particularly outspoken in his criticism of the Catholic Church, he was also a diabetic, and in 1934 co-founded what is now Diabetes UK, the leading charity for people living with diabetes in the UK. On 28 October 1940 Wells was interviewed by Orson Welles, who two years previously had performed an infamous radio adaptation of The War of the Worlds, on KTSA radio in San Antonio, Texas. In the interview, Wells admitted his surprise at the widespread panic that resulted from the broadcast, but acknowledged his debt to Welles for increasing sales of one of his “more obscure” titles. Wells sadly passed away on 13 August 1946 at his home in London, aged 79. In his preface to the 1941 edition of The War in the Air, Wells had stated that his epitaph should be: “I told you so. You damned fools”. He was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium on 16 August 1946, his ashes scattered at sea. A commemorative blue plaque in his honour was installed at his home in Regent’s Park.

Stephen King

American author of contemporary horror, suspense, science fiction and fantasy Stephen Edwin King was born September 21, 1947 . His books have sold more than 350 million copies and have been adapted into a number of feature films, television movies and comic books. King has published 50 novels, including seven under the pen-name ofRichard Bachman, and five non-fiction books. He has written nearly two hundred short stories, most of which have been collected in nine collections of short fiction. Many of his stories are set in his home state of Maine.King has received Bram Stoker Awards, World Fantasy Awards, British Fantasy SocietyAwards, his novella The Way Station was a Nebula Award novelette nominee, and his short story “The Man in the Black Suit” received the O. Henry Award. In 2003, the National Book Foundation awarded him the Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters. He has also received awards for his contribution to literature for his whole career, such as the World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement (2004), the Canadian Booksellers Association Lifetime Achievement Award 2007 and the Grand Master Award from the Mystery Writers of America (2007)

Some have suggested that king may have been psychologically inspired to write horror when, as a child, King apparently witnessed one of his friends being struck and killed by a train, after which King returned, speechless and seemingly in shock. Only later did the family learn of the friend’s death. King also compared his sudden inspiration for writing horror to his uncle’s successfully dowsing for water. He Was also inspired by an H. P. Lovecraft collection of short stories, entitled The Lurker in the Shadows, that had belonged to his father. The cover art featured an illustration of a yellow-green demon hiding within the recesses of a Hellish cavern beneath a tombstone.

King attended Durham Elementary School and graduated from Lisbon Falls High School, in Lisbon Falls, Maine. He displayed an early interest in horror as an avid reader of EC’s horror comics, including Tales from the Crypt. He began writing for fun while still in school, contributing articles to Dave’s Rag, the newspaper his brother published, and later began selling to his friends stories based on movies he had seen (though when discovered by his teachers, he was forced to return the profits). The first of his stories to be independently published was “I Was a Teenage Grave Robber”; it was serialized over four issues of a fanzine, Comics Review, in 1965. That story was published the following year in a revised form as “In a Half-World of Terror” in another fanzine, Stories of Suspense.

From 1966, King studied English at the University of Maine, graduating in 1970 with a Bachelor of Arts in English. That same year, his first daughter, Naomi Rachel, was born. He wrote a column for the student newspaper, The Maine Campus, titled “Steve King’s Garbage Truck”, took part in a writing workshop organized by Burton Hatlen, and took odd jobs to pay for his studies. He sold his first professional short story, “The Glass Floor”, to Startling Mystery Stories in 1967.After leaving the university, King earned a certificate to teach high school but, initially supplemented his wage by selling short stories to men’s magazines such as Cavalier. Many of which have been republished in the collection Night Shift. In 1971, King married Tabitha Spruce, whom he had met at the University’s Fogler Library after one of Professor Hatlen’s workshops. King was hired as a teacher at Hampden Academy in Hampden, Maine. He continued to contribute short stories to magazines and worked on ideas for novels.

In the late 1970s, King began what became a series of interconnected stories about a lone gunslinger, Roland, who pursues the “Man in Black” in an alternate-reality universe that is a cross between J. R. R. Tolkien’s Middle-earth and the American Wild West as depicted by Clint Eastwood and Sergio Leone in their spaghetti Westerns. The first of these stories, The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger, was initially published in five installments by The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction from 1977 to 1981. The Gunslinger was continued as an eight-book epic series called The Dark Tower, which books King wrote and published infrequently over four decades ]In 1987, King released the second installment, The Dark Tower II: The Drawing of the Three, in which Roland draws three people from 20th-century United States into his world through magical doors. A hardcover limited edition of the revised version of The Gunslinger along with a prequel story set in the Dark Tower world called “The Little Sisters of Eluria” was also published (which was originally published in 1998 in the collection Legends: Short Novels by the Masters of Modern Fantasy) in 2009.

In October 2005, King signed a deal with Marvel Comics to publish a seven-issue limited series spin-off of the series called The Gunslinger Born. The series, which focuses on a young Roland Deschain, was plotted by Robin Furth, with dialogue by Peter David, and illustrated by Eisner Award-winning artist Jae Lee. The first issue was published on February 7, 2007, and King, David, Lee, and Marvel Editor-in-Chief Joe Quesada appeared at a midnight signing at a Times Square, New York comic book store to promote it. The work had sold over 200,000 copies by March 2007. The success of The Gunslinger Born led to an ongoing miniseries published by Marvel, with Furth and David continuing to collaborate, featuring both adapted material from the Dark Tower books and new material approved by King; it also led to a second series of King adaptations in the same format, serializing the events of The Stand. In 2008, King published both a novel, Duma Key, and a collection, Just After Sunset. The latter featured 13 short stories, including a novella, N., which was later released as a serialized animated series And adopted into a limited comic book series.

In 2009, King published Ur, a novella written exclusively for the launch of the second-generation Amazon Kindle and available only on Amazon.com, and Throttle, a novella co-written with his son Joe Hill, and released later as an audiobook Road Rage, which included Richard Matheson’s short story “Duel”. On November 10 that year, King’s novel Under the Dome was published. It is a reworking of an unfinished novel he tried writing twice in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and at 1,074 pages, it is the largest novel he has written since 1986’s It. It debuted at No. 1 in The New York Times Bestseller List.

In 2010 King published a collection of four previously unpublished novellas called Full Dark, No Stars, an original novella called Blockade Billy, and A monthly comic book series called American Vampire, written by King with short-story writer Scott Snyder, and illustrated by Rafael Albuquerque. In it King wrote the background history of the very first American vampire, Skinner Sweet, and Scott Snyder wrote the story of Pearl. King’s next novel, 11/22/63, was published in, 2011, and was nominated for the 2012 World Fantasy Award Best Novel. The eighth Dark Tower volume, The Wind Through the Keyhole, was published in 2012. King’s next book Joyland, is about “an amusement-park serial killer”, and was, published In 2012, followed by the sequel to The Shining (1977), titled Doctor Sleep, published September 2013. His novel Under the Dome has also been adapted for television and A movie adaptation of The Dark Tower is also being released in 2017. According to Entertainment Weekly, there is also a television series due to air 2018, of between 10 and 13 episodes, starring Idris Elba and Tom Taylor. The show’s central story, will take place many years before the events depicted in the film and focuses on Roland Deschain’s teenage years, as outlined in the series’ fourth book, Wizard and Glass.

Jakob Grimm

GrimmsBest Known for writing Grimm’s Fairy Tales, German philologist and folklorist Jakob Grimm sadly died 20 September 1863. born 4th January 1785 in Hanau, in Hesse-Kassel. His father, Philipp Grimm, was a lawyer, but he died while Jacob was a child, and his mother was left with very small means. His mother’s sister was lady of the chamber to the Landgravine of Hesse, and she helped to support and educate her numerous family. Jacob was sent to the public school at Kassel in 1798 with his younger brother Wilhelm (born on 24 February 1786).

In 1802, he proceeded to the University of Marburg where he studied law, a profession for which he had been destined by his father. His brother joined him at Marburg a year later, having just recovered from a long and severe illness, and likewise began the study of law. Grimm’s thirst for knowledge, was piqued by the lectures of Friedrich Karl von Savigny, the celebrated investigator of Roman law, who first taught him to realize what it meant to study any science, as Wilhelm Grimm himself says in the preface to the Deutsche Grammatik (German Grammar). Savigny’s lectures also awakened in him a love for historical and antiquarian investigation, which forms the structure of all his work. The two men became personally acquainted, and it was in Savigny’s well-stocked library that Grimm first turned over the leaves of Bodmer’s edition of the Middle High German minnesingers and other early texts, and felt an eager desire to penetrate further into the obscurities and half-revealed mysteries of their language.

In the beginning of 1805, he received an invitation from Savigny, who had moved to Paris, to help him in his literary work. Grimm passed a very happy time in Paris, strengthening his taste for the literatures of the Middle Ages by his studies in the Paris libraries. Towards the close of the year, he returned to Kassel, where his mother and Wilhelm had settled, the latter having finished his studies. The next year, he obtained a position in the war office with the very small salary of 100 thalers. One of his grievances was that he had to exchange his stylish Paris suit for a stiff uniform and pigtail. But he had full leisure for the pursuit of his studies.

In 1808, soon after the death of his mother, he was appointed superintendent of the private library of Jérôme Bonaparte, King of Westphalia, into which Hesse-Kassel had been incorporated by Napoleon. Bonaparte appointed him an auditor to the state council, while Grimm retained his superintendent post. After the expulsion of Bonaparte and the reinstatement of an elector, Grimm was appointed Secretary of Legation in 1813,  In 1814, he was sent to Paris to demand restitution of books carried off by the French, and he also attended the Congress of Vienna as Secretary of Legation, 1814–1815. Upon his return from Vienna, he was sent to Paris a second time to secure book restitutions. Meanwhile, Wilhelm had received an appointment to the Kassel library, and Jacob was made second librarian under Volkel in 1816. In 1829 they moved to Göttingen, where Jacob received the appointment of professor and librarian, and Wilhelm that of under-librarian. Jacob Grimm lectured on legal antiquities, historical grammar, literary history, and diplomatics, explained Old German poems, and commented on the Germania of Tacitus.

Grimm joined other academics (known as the Göttingen Seven) who signed a protest against the King of Hanover’s abrogation of the constitution which had been established some years before. As a result, he was dismissed from his professorship and banished from the Kingdom of Hanover in 1837. He returned to Kassel with his brother, who had also signed the protest. They remained there until 1840, when they accepted an invitation from the King of Prussia to move to Berlin, where they both received professorships and were elected members of the Academy of Sciences. Jacob was not under any obligation to lecture and he seldom did so, but spent his time working together with his brother on their great dictionary. During their time in Kassel, Jacob regularly attended the meetings of the academy, where he read papers on widely varied subjects. The best-known of those subjects are Lachmann, Schiller, old age, and the origin of language. He also described his impressions of Italian and Scandinavian travel, interspersing his more general observations with linguistic details, as is the case in all his works. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1857.

Grimms Fairy Tales was published in 1812 by the Grimm brothers, Jacob and Wilhelm. (German: Grimms Märchen).The first volume of the first edition contained 86 stories; the second volume of 70 stories followed in 1814. For the second edition, two volumes were issued in 1819 and a third in 1822, totalling 170 tales. The third edition appeared in 1837; fourth edition, 1840; fifth edition, 1843; sixth edition, 1850; seventh edition, 1857. Stories were added, and also subtracted, from one edition to the next, until the seventh held 211 tales. All editions were extensively illustrated, first by Philipp Grot Johann and, after his death in 1892, by Robert Leinweber.

the first volumes were much criticized because, although they were called “Children’s Tales”, they were not regarded as suitable for children, both for the scholarly information included and the subject matter. Many changes through the editions – such as turning the wicked mother of the first edition in Snow White and Hansel and Gretel (shown in original Grimm stories as Hansel and Grethel) to a stepmother, were probably made with an eye to such suitability. They removed sexual references—such as Rapunzel’s innocently asking why her dress was getting tight around her belly, and thus naïvely revealing her pregnancy and the prince’s visits to her stepmother—but, in many respects, violence, particularly when punishing villains, was increased.

The influence of these books was widespread. W. H. Auden praised the collection, during World War II, as one of the founding works of Western culture. The tales themselves have been put to many uses. The Nazis praised them as folkish tales showing children with sound racial instincts seeking racially pure marriage partners, and so strongly that the Allied forces warned against them; for instance, Cinderella with the heroine as racially pure, the stepmother as an alien, and the prince with an unspoiled instinct being able to distinguish. Writers who have written about the Holocaust have combined the tales with their memoirs, as Jane Yolen in her Briar Rose.

the work of the Brothers Grimm influenced other collectors, both inspiring them to collect tales and leading them to similarly believe, in a spirit of romantic nationalism, that the fairy tales of a country were particularly representative of it, to the neglect of cross-cultural influence. Among those influenced were the Russian Alexander Afanasyev, the Norwegians Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe, the English Joseph Jacobs, and Jeremiah Curtin, an American who collected Irish tales.There was not always a pleased reaction to their collection. Joseph Jacobs was in part inspired by his complaint that English children did not read English fairy tales; in his own words, “What Perrault began, the Grimms completed”. Three individual works of Wilhelm Grimm include Altdänische Heldenlieder, Balladen und Märchen (‘Old Danish Heroic Lays, Ballads, and Folktales’) in 1811, Über deutsche Runen (‘On German Runes’) in 1821, and Die deutsche Heldensage (‘The German Heroic Legend’) in 1829.

Among the best known of Grimm’s Fairy Tales are: Snow White, Rapunzel, Hansel and Gretel, Cinderella, Rumpelstiltskin, Little Red Riding Hood, The Riddle, Mother Hulda, The Frog King, or Iron Heinrich, Cat and Mouse in Partnership, Mary’s Child, The Wolf and the Seven Young Kids, Trusty John or Faithful John,The Good Bargain,The Wonderful Musician or The Strange Musician,The Twelve Brothers, The Pack of Ragamuffins, The Three Little Men in the Wood, The Three Snake-Leaves, The Fisherman and His Wife, The Seven Ravens, Clever Elsie, The White Snake, The Valiant Little Tailor, The Mouse, the Bird, and the Sausage, Town Musicians of Bremen, The Singing Bone, The Devil With the Three Golden Hairs,The Louse and the Flea,Thumbling (Tom Thumb), Thumbling’s Travels and The Elves and the Shoemaker. many of the stories have also been adapted for film and television.