Rudyard Kipling

the_jungle_book_poster_a_pEnglish short-story writer, poet, and novelist Joseph Rudyard Kipling Was born 30 December 1865 in Bombay. However He moved to London, England when he was five years old. In 1891, Kipling visited South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and India. However, he cut short his visit and returned to London where his first novel was published Kipling is best known for his works of fiction, including The Jungle Book (a collection of stories which includes “Rikki-Tikki-Tavi”), Just So Stories (1902), Kim (1901) (a tale of adventure), many short stories, including “The Man Who Would Be King” (1888); and his poems, including “Mandalay” (1890), “Gunga Din” (1890), “The White Man’s Burden” (1899), and “If—” (1910). He was also acquainted with British writer Arthur Conan Doyle, who gave Kipling an extended golf lesson which he enjoyed.

Kipling also loved the outdoors especially Autumn in Vermont, describing how a Maple began changing colour, flaming blood-red of a sudden against the dark green of a pine-belt. Next morning there was an answering signal from the swamp and Three days later, the hill-sides as fast as the eye could range were afire, and the roads paved, with crimson and gold. Then a wet wind blew, until nothing remained but pencil-shadings of bare boughs, and one could see into the most private heart of the woods. Sadly On a visit to the United States in 1899, Kipling and Josephine developed pneumonia, from which she eventually died. Kipling began collecting material for another of his children’s classics, Just So Stories for Little Children, this was published in 1902, the year after Kim. In 1906 Kipling wrote the song “Land of our Birth, We Pledge to Thee” and two science fiction short stories, With the Night Mail (1905) and As Easy As A. B. C (1912), both set in the 21st century in Kipling’s Aerial Board of Control universe. In 1907 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature and he published two connected poetry and story collections: Puck of Pook’s Hill (1906), and Rewards and Fairies (1910). Which contained the poem “If”.

KiplingDuring the First World War Kipling was an active patriot and wrote political pamphlets and poems which enthusiastically supported the UK’s war aims of restoring Belgium after being occupied by Germany. He also actively encouraged his young son John to go to war. Tragically Though John was killed in the First World War, at the Battle of Loos in September 1915, at age 18. After having been rejected twice And who only managed to enlist due to the intervention of Lord Roberts, commander-in-chief of the British Army, and colonel of the Irish Guards, with whom Rudyard had been friends and his body was not found until 1992. In September 1914, Kipling was asked by the British government to write propaganda, an offer that he immediately accepted. Kipling’s pamphlets and stories were very popular with the British people during the war with his major themes being glorifying the British military as the place for heroic men to be, German atrocities against Belgian civilians and the stories of women being brutalized by a horrific war unleashed by Germany, yet surviving and triumphing in spite of their suffering. Kipling was enraged by reports of the Rape of Belgium together with the sinking of the RMS Lusitania in 1915, which he saw as a deeply inhumane act, which led him to see the war as a crusade for civilization against barbarism. Kipling was deeply critical of the British Army as opposed to the war itself, which he ardently supported, complaining as early as October 1914 that Germany should have been defeated by now, and something must be wrong with the British Army. he was also appalled by the heavy losses, blaming the entire pre-war generation of British politicians, for not learning lessons from the Boer war, resulting in heavy casualties in France and Belgium.

After the first world war, Kipling remained skeptical about the Fourteen Points and the League of Nations, but he admired Theodore Roosevelt and hoped that the post-war world would be dominated by an Anglo-French-American alliance, but was saddened by Roosevelt’s death in 1919. Kipling joined Sir Fabian Ware’s Imperial War Graves Commission (now the Commonwealth War Graves Commission), who were responsible for the garden like British War Graves dotted along the Western Front. He also chose the biblical phrases “Their Name Liveth For Evermore” (Ecclesiasticus 44.14, KJV) found on the Stones of Remembrance in larger war graves, “Known unto God” for the gravestones of unidentified servicemen and “The Glorious Dead” on the Cenotaph, Whitehall, London. In 1923 he published a two-volume history of the Irish Guards, which is considered to be one of the finest examples of regimental history. He also published the moving short story, “The Gardener”, which depicts visits to the war cemeteries, and the poem “The King’s Pilgrimage” (1922) about King George V’s, tour of the cemeteries and memorials belonging to the Imperial War Graves Commission.

Kipling also became a motoring correspondent for the British press, and wrote enthusiastically of his trips around England and abroad, despite usually being driven by a chauffeur. In 1920 Kipling co-founded the Liberty League with Haggard and Lord Sydenham. promoting classic liberal ideals in response to the rising power of Communist tendencies within Great Britain. In 1922 Kipling, Was asked to assist University of Toronto civil engineering professorHerbert E. T. Haultain to develop a dignified obligation and ceremony for graduating engineering students an produced “The Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer”. Today, engineering graduates all across Canada are presented with an iron ring at the ceremony as a reminder of their obligation to society. In 1922 Kipling also became Lord Rector of St Andrews University in Scotland, a three-year position.

Kipling argued very strongly for an Anglo-French alliance to uphold the peace, and repeatedly warned against revising the Treaty of Versailles in Germany’s favour, predicting it would lead to a new world war, arguing that Germany’s larger economy and birthrate had made that country stronger than France, which had been devastated by the war and suffered heavy losses while Germany was mostly undamaged with a higher birth rate,

Kipling opposed the Labour government of Ramsay MacDonald as “Bolshevism without bullets”, and believed that Labour was a Communist front organisation which took instructions from Moscow. Kipling’s admired Benito Mussolini but was against fascism, writing that Sir Oswald Mosley was “a bounder and an arriviste”, But by 1935 he was calling Mussolini a deranged and dangerous egomaniac writing that “The Hitlerites are out for blood”.In 1934 he published a short story in Strand Magazine, “Proofs of Holy Writ”, Suggesting that William Shakespeare had helped to polish the prose of the King James Bible Less than one year before his death And gave a speech (titled “An Undefended Island”) to the Royal Society of St George on 6 May 1935 warning of the danger which Nazi Germany posed to Britain.

Kipling sadly died 18 January 1936 at the age of 70 after Suffering a haemorrhage in his small intestine following surgery, for a perforated duodenal ulcer. He died two days before King George V. And was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium, northwest London, and his ashes were buried in Poets’ Corner, In the South Transept of Westminster Abbey, next to Charles Dickens and Thomas Hardy.

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