Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell

Since the inauguration of Donald Trump as President of the United States of America, George Orwell’s Classic dystopian novel 1984 has enjoyed something of a renaissance. This follows the moment that Trump’s adviser Kellyanne Conway coined the term “alternative facts”, after being asked to explain why press secretary Sean Spicer made a statement riddled with inaccuracies. A number of journalists seized on this statement and subsequently referred to Ms Conway’s comments, as Orwellian.

Nineteen Eighty-Four is set in Airstrip One (Great Britain), a province of the superstate Oceania in a world of perpetual war, omnipresent government surveillance, and public manipulation. The superstate and its residents are dictated to by a political regime euphemistically named English Socialism, shortened to “Ingsoc” in Newspeak, the government’s invented language. The superstate is under the control of the privileged elite of the Inner Party, a party and government that persecutes individualism and independent thinking as “thoughtcrime”, which is enforced by the “Thought Police”.

The tyranny is overseen by Big Brother, the Party leader. They “seek power entirely for its own sake and are not interested in the good of others; The protagonist of the novel, Winston Smith, is a member of the Outer Party, who works for the Ministry of Truth (or Minitrue in Newspeak), which is responsible for propaganda and historical revisionism. His job is to rewrite past newspaper articles, and historical records in a way which supports the party line. These corrections are referred to euphemistically as fixing misquotations and never as what they really are: forgeries and falsifications. A large part of the Ministry also actively destroys all documents that have been edited and do not contain the revisions; in this way, no proof exists that the government is lying.

The novel concerns Winston Smith a diligent and skillful worker who lives on Airstrip one, the remnants of Britain broken down by war, civil conflict, and revolution. He is A member of the middle class Outer Party and works at the Ministry of Truth, or “Minitrue”, as an editor. He is responsible for historical revisionism; he rewrites records and alters photographs to conform to the state’s ever-changing version of history itself, rendering the deleted people “unpersons”; the original documents are destroyed by fire in a “memory hole”. Meanwhile Telescreens in every building, accompanied by secret microphones and cameras, allow the Thought Police to identify anyone who might compromise the Party’s régime. Children are encouraged to inform the officials about potential thought criminals, including their parents.

Despite being good at his job, Winston discovers the real past and secretly tries to get more information about it. he begins writing a journal criticizing the Party and its enigmatic leader, Big Brother. By doing so, he commits a crime that, if discovered by the Thought Police, warrants certain death. Winston then meets Julia, a young woman who maintains the novel-writing machines at the ministry after she surreptitiously hands Winston a note confessing her love for him. Winston and Julia begin an affair after Winston realizes she shares his loathing of the Party, Winston is approached by O’Brien, an Inner Party member who is an agent of the Brotherhood—a secret underground society that intends to destroy the Party. O’Brien gives Winston an illegal copy of “The Book”, The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism by Emmanuel Goldstein, which explains the concept of perpetual war, the true meanings of the slogans “War is peace”, “Freedom is slavery”, and “Ignorance is strength”, and how the Party can be overthrown.

Unfortunately the Thought Police capture Winston and Julia and send them to the Ministry of Love (Miniluv) for interrogation after being reported by his landlord Mr. Charrington, the shopkeeper and O’Brien, who are both in fact Thought Police Agents who are investigating suspected thoughtcriminals. O’Brien Tries to cure Winston of his manifest hatred for the Party and to end his “stubborn, self-willed exile” through re-education, controlled manipulation of perception and torture and tries to get Winston to say something incriminating about Julia. O’Brien then sends Winston to Room 101 for the final stage of re-education, a room which contains each prisoner’s worst nightmare in an effort to stop him thinking for himself and rebelling against Big Brother…

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Eddie van Halen

VanhalenBest known as the lead guitarist and co-founder of the hard rock band Van Halen, Guitarist, keyboardist, songwriter and producer, Eddie Van Halen was born 26th January, in 1955. He is commonly known for his innovative performing and recording styles in blues-based rock, tapping, intense solos and high frequency feedback; he is also known for energetic and acrobatic stage performances. he has been described as “Second to only Jimi Hendrix…undoubtedly one of the most influential, original, and talented rock guitarists of the 20th century.”. He is ranked 8th in Rolling Stone’s 2011 list of the Top 100 guitarists and has also been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Van Halen learned to play the piano as a child. His older brother Alex also played the piano. However, playing the piano did not prove to be challenging or interesting enough. Consequently, while Alex began playing the guitar, Eddie bought a drum kit and began practicing, and would practice for hours day after day. HoweverAfter Eddie heard Alex’s performance of the The Surfaris’ drum solo in the song “Wipe Out”, he decided to switch and begin learning how to play the electric guitar instead. He was influenced by supergroup Cream, holding their improvisation in high regard, considering ‘I’m so Glad’ on ‘Goodbye Cream’ to be mind-blowing. He also claimed that he had learned almost all of Eric Clapton’s solos in the band Cream “note for note”. Eddie has stated: “I’ve always said Eric Clapton was my main influence.

Van Halen, were originally called “Genesis” with bass player Mark Stone, but changed their name to “Mammoth” when they discovered there was already a band with the name “Genesis”. The band consisted of Eddie Van Halen on guitar and vocals, his brother, Alex on drums, and bassist Mark Stone. They had no P.A. system of their own, so they rented one from David Lee Roth. Eddie decided to let Roth join the band. Michael Anthony replaced Mark Stone on bass. They changed the name of the band because David Lee Roth suggested that the last name of the two brothers “sounded cool.” The band originally began playing cover material, ranging from pop to disco, before settling on original material .

Van Halen released a total of six albums with David Lee Roth on Vocals, However the band had trouble working together as a cohesive unit and in 1982 Eddie Van Halen approached Simmons about possibly joining Kiss and replacing Ace Frehley. However Simmons & Alex persuaded Eddie to remain with Van Halen, and shortly afterwards the band released the album 1984; which yielded the band’s first Number 1 hit, “Jump“. Other singles released from the album also sold well, particularly “Hot for Teacher”. The album peaked at Number 2 on the Billboard charts.

Roth left the band and was replaced by former Montrose singer Sammy Hagar in July 1985, the band’s sound changed somewhat to adapt to the strengths of the new vocalist, as Eddie’s keyboard playing became a permanent fixture, heard in songs such as “Dreams” “Why Can’t this be Love“and “Love Walks In”. Even on the more rocking, guitar-driven songs, Eddie’s performances became looser, less aggressive, and some said more thoughtful, while others said more commercial. However, tensions within the band again arose over identity and artist direction, and Hagar, like Roth earlier, departed in June 1996. Hagar left behind him a portfolio of 4 studio albums with the band (5150, OU812, For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge, and Balance) as well as one live album (Live: Right Here, Right Now).

Following Hagar’s departure, the group briefly reunited with original singer David Lee Roth and released Best of Volume I, a greatest hits package, in October 1996. Two new songs were recorded for the album, with the single “Me Wise Magic” reaching #1 on the mainstream rock chart (“Can’t Get This Stuff No More” was the other new single). However, previous disagreements resurfaced and the reunion did not last, as Roth left in September 1996, after the MTV Video Music Awards. The band auditioned many prospective replacements for Hagar, finally settling on Gary Cherone, former front man for Extreme, a band also represented by Van Halen’s manager. Cherone predicted that the new line-up would last ‘ten years’. The band also completed a world tour touting their new single “Without You” and did go back in the studio to start on a second record. However, Cherone left and without a lead singer, Van Halen went on hiatus. In 2004, Van Halen returned with Hagar as their lead singer. A greatest hits package, The Best of Both Worlds, was released to coincide with the band’s reunion tour. The album included three new tracks recorded with Hagar (“Up For Breakfast”, “It’s About Time”, & “Learning to See”).

a proposed 2007 summer tour with David Lee Roth was indefinitely postponed as was apreviously planned compilation of Roth era Van Halen hits. However, after six months and a stint in rehabilitation for Eddie, it was finally confirmed that the band would do a tour with the new lineup from late 2007-mid 2008 across North America, with further worldwide touring. Van Halen’s Latest album “Different kind of Truth” was released February 2012, containing the tracks Tattoo She’s The Woman, You and Your Blues, China Town, Blood and Fire, Bullethead, As Is, Honeybabysweetiedoll, The Trouble With Never, Outta Space, Stay Frosty, Big River and Beats Workin’.

Mike Patton (Faith No More)

FnmBest known as the singer of the metal/ experimental rock band Faith No More, the American singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, producer, and actor, Michael Allan “Mike” Patton was born January 27 in 1968. Known for his eclectic influences and experimental projects, Patton has earned critical praise for his diverse vocalization. Patton joined Faith No More in January 1989 and filled the vocal void left by the recently-fired Chuck Mosley, who moved on to the band Cement. Faith No More’s The Real Thing was released later the same year. The album reached the top ten on the charts thanks largely to MTV’s heavy rotation of the “Epic” music video (which featured Patton in a T-shirt promoting his own band Mr. Bungle). They also had success with songs like Midlife Crisis,Falling To Pieces, From Out of Nowhere and Small Victory

Sadly though, The follow up album, Angel Dust, though successful, could not match the commercial success of The Real Thing, & After three more studio albums (Angel Dust, King for a Day… Fool for a Lifetime, and Album of the Year) Faith No More officially disbanded in 1998. Patton also runs a record label named Ipecac Recordings, which He co-founded with Greg Werckman and has also sung for bands like Mr. Bungle (which preceded his involvement with FNM), Tomahawk, Fantômas, Lovage, The Dillinger Escape Plan and Peeping Tom, and also has many producer or co-producer credits with artists such as John Zorn, Sepultura, Melvins, Melt-Banana and Kool Keith. Happily In 2014 amid much speculation, Faith No More reunited with Mike Patton as lead singer and released the album Sol Invictus.

Gillian Gilbert (New Order)

neworderGillian Gilbert, the synthesiser /keyboard player with New Order was born 27January 1961. New Order were formed by ex-members of Joy Division who were formed in 1976 in Salford, Greater Manchester. Originally named Warsaw, the band primarily consisted of Ian Curtis (vocals and occasional guitar), Bernard Sumner (guitar and keyboards), Peter Hook (bass guitar and backing vocals) and Stephen Morris (drums and percussion). They evolved from their initial punk rock influences to develop a sound and style that pioneered the post-punk movement of the late 1970s. They self-released their debut EP, An Ideal for Living in 1978 and an album, Unknown Pleasures, in 1979 which drew critical acclaim from the British press. Despite the band’s growing success, vocalist Ian Curtis was beset with depression and personal difficulties, including a dissolving marriage and his diagnosis of epilepsy and found it increasingly difficult to perform at live concerts, and often having seizures during performances. On the eve of the band’s first American tour in May 1980, Curtis committed suicide. Joy Division’s posthumously released second album, Closer (1980), and the single “Love Will Tear Us Apart” became the band’s highest charting releases.

After the untimely demise of Curtis in 1980, the remaining members formed New Order, with Bernard Sumner on vocals, guitars, synthesisers), Peter Hook playing bass, synthesisers and Stephen Morris playing drums, electronic drums, synthesisers, they were also joined by Gillian Gilbert playing keyboards, guitars, synthesizers. By combining post-punk and New Wave with electronic dance music, New Order became one of the most critically acclaimed and influential bands of the 1980s. Though the band’s early years were shadowed by the legacy and basic sound of Joy Division, their experience of the early 1980s New York City club scene increased their knowledge of dance music and saw them incorporate elements of that style into their work. The band’s 1983 hit Blue Monday”, the best-selling 12-inch single of all time, is one example of how the band transformed their sound. Thanks to fantastic albums like SUBSTANCE and TECHNIQUE New Order became the flagship band for Factory Records. Their minimalist album sleeves and “non-image” (the band rarely gave interviews and were known for performing short concert sets with no encores) reflected the label’s aesthetic of doing whatever the relevant parties wanted to do, including an aversion to including singles as album tracks.

Sadly In 1993 the band broke-up amidst tension between bandmembers, but reformed in 1998. In 2001, Phil Cunningham (guitars, synthesisers) replaced Gilbert, who left the group due to family commitments. In 2007, Peter Hook left the band and the band broke-up again, with Sumner saying in 2009 that he no longer wishes to make music as New Order. However the band reunited in 2011 without Hook, with Gilbert returning to the fold and Tom Chapman replacing Hook on bass. New Order”s latest album entitled Music Complete was released in 2015. During the band’s career and in between lengthy breaks, band members have been involved in several solo projects, such as Sumner’s Electronic and Bad Lieutenant; Hook’s Monaco and Revenge and Gilbert’s and Morris’ The Other Two.

Lewis Carroll

Author, mathematician, Logician, Anglican Deacon and Photographer Lewis Carroll (Charles Dodgson) was born 27 January 1832, his most famous writings are Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass, as well asthe poems “The Hunting of the Snark” and “Jabberwocky”, all examples of the genre of literary nonsense. He is noted for his facility at word play, logic, and fantasy, and there are societies worldwide dedicated to the enjoyment and promotion of his life and works. From a young age, Dodgson wrote poetry and short stories, contributing to the family magazine Mischmasch and various other magazines. Between 1854 and 1856, his work appeared in The Comic Times, The Train, the Whitby Gazette and the Oxford Critic. Most of this output was humorous, sometimes satirical, but his standards and ambitions were exacting. sometime after 1850, he wrote puppet plays for his siblings’ entertainment, including La Guida di Bragia.

in 1856 he published  A romantic poem called “Solitude” under the pseudonym “Lewis Carroll”. This was a play on his real name; Lewis was the anglicised form of Ludovicus, which was the Latin for Lutwidge, and Carroll an Irish surname similar to the Latin name Carolus, from which comes the name Charles. The transition went as follows: “Charles Lutwidge” translated into Latin as “Carolus Ludovicus”. This was then translated back into English as “Carroll Lewis” and then reversed to make “Lewis Carroll”. In, 1856, a new dean, Henry Liddell, arrived at Christ Church, bringing with him his young family, who figured largely in Dodgson’s life and, greatly influenced his writing career. Dodgson became close friends with Liddell’s wife, Lorina, and their children, particularly the three sisters: Lorina, Edith and Alice Liddell. He was for many years widely assumed to have derived his own “Alice” from Alice Liddell although Dodgson himself repeatedly denied this and frequently dedicated his works to girls of his acquaintance, adding their names in acrostic poems at the beginning of the text. Gertrude Chataway’s name appears in this form at the beginning of The Hunting of the Snark however it is not suggested that any of the characters are based on her.

Carroll’s friendship with the Liddell family was an important part of his life in the late 1850s and he took the children on rowing trips accompanied by an adult friend.to nearby Nuneham Courtenay or Godstow.it was on one such expedition, on 4 July 1862, that Dodgson invented the outline for Alice in Wonderland after Alice Liddell persuaded him to write it down, Dodgson presented her with a handwritten, illustrated manuscript entitled Alice’s Adventures Under Ground in November 1864 Before this, the family of friend and mentor George MacDonald read Dodgson’s incomplete manuscript, and the enthusiasm of the MacDonald children encouraged Dodgson to seek publication. In 1863, he had taken the unfinished manuscript to Macmillan the publisher, who liked it immediately. After the possible alternative titles Alice Among the Fairies and Alice’s Golden Hour were rejected, the work was finally published as Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland in 1865 under the Lewis Carroll pen-name, which Dodgson had first used some nine years earlier. The illustrations this time were by Sir John Tenniel; Dodgson evidently thought that a published book would need the skills of a professional artist.

The overwhelming commercial success of the first Alice book changed Dodgson’s life in many ways. The fame of his alter ego “Lewis Carroll” soon spread around the world. He was inundated with fan mail and Queen Victoria herself enjoyed Alice In Wonderland so much that she suggested he dedicate his next book to her, and was accordingly presented with his next work, a scholarly mathematical volume entitled An Elementary Treatise on Determinants. He also continued to work at Christ Church. In 1871, he published a sequel – Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There. This was somewhat darker refelcting changes in Dodgson’s life. His father had recently died (1868). In 1876, Dodgson produced his last great work, The Hunting of the Snark, a fantastical “nonsense” poem, exploring the adventures of a bizarre crew of tradesmen, and one beaver, who set off to find a rare creature. The painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti reputedly became convinced the poem was about him. In 1895, Carroll published a two-volume tale of two fairy siblings which is set in two alternate worlds, one the fairytale kingdom of Elfland, the other a realm called Outland, which satirizes English society, and more specifically, the world of academia.

In 1856, Dodgson took up photography, under the influence of his uncleSkeffington Lutwidge, and his Oxford friend Reginald Southey. He became a well-known gentleman-photographer and made many studies of men, women, male children, landscapes, skeletons, dolls, dogs, statues, paintings, and trees. His pictures of children were taken with a parent in attendance and many of the pictures were taken in the Liddell garden, because natural sunlight was required for good exposures. He Photographed many famous people including John Everett Millais, Ellen Terry, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Julia Margaret Cameron, Michael Faraday, Lord Salisbury, andAlfred, Lord Tennyson. Between 1856 and 1880 he completely mastered the medium, set up his own studio on the roof of Tom Quad, and created around 3,000 images. However Fewer than 1,000 have survived time and deliberate destruction. He reported that he stopped taking photographs because keeping his studio working was difficult and time consuming (he used the wet collodion process) whereas commercial photographers used the less time consuming dry-plate process.

Dodgson also worked in mathematics, in the fields of geometry, linear and matrix algebra,mathematical logic and recreational mathematics, producing nearly a dozen books under his real name. Dodgson also developed new ideas in linear algebra (e.g. the first printed proof of the Kronecker-Capelli theorem),probability, and the study of elections (e.g.,Dodgson’s method) and committees; some of this work was not published until well after his death. He worked as the Mathematical Lecturer at Christ Church, an occupation that gave him some financial security. His mathematical work attracted renewed interest in the late 20th century. Martin Gardner’s book on logic machines and diagrams, and William Warren Bartley’s posthumous publication of the second part of Carroll’s symbolic logic book have sparked a reevaluation of Carroll’s contributions to symbolic logic. Robbins’ and Rumsey’s investigation of Dodgson condensation, a method of evaluating determinants, led them to the Alternating Sign Matrix conjecture, now a theorem. The discovery in the 1990s of additional ciphers that Carroll had constructed, in addition to his “Memoria Technica”, showed that he had employed sophisticated mathematical ideas to their creation

Dodgson invented many things including the Wonderland Postage-Stamp Case in 1889 – a folder with twelve slots, two for penny stamps, and one each for the other current denominations to one shilling. The folder was then put into a slip case decorated with a picture of Alice on the front and the Cheshire Cat on the back. All could be conveniently carried in a pocket or purse. It also included a copy of Carroll’s lecture, Eight or Nine Wise Words About Letter-Writing. Another invention is a writing tablet called the nyctograph to enable note-taking in the dark if one wakes with an idea. He also divised a number of word games, including an early version of what today is known as Scrabble. He also popularised, the “doublet” a form of brain-teaser which involves changing one word into another by altering one letter at a time, each successive change always resulting in a genuine word. For instance, CAT is transformed into DOG by the following steps: CAT, COT, DOT, DOG. Other items include a rule for finding the day of the week for any date; a means for justifying right margins on a typewriter; a steering device for a velociam (a type of tricycle); new systems of parliamentary representation; better elimination rules for tennis tournaments; a new sort of postal money order; rules for reckoning postage; rules for a win in betting; rules for dividing a number by various divisors; a cardboard scale for the college common room which ensured the right amount of liqueur for the price paid; a double-sided adhesive strip for things like the fastening of envelopes or mounting things in books; a device for helping a bedridden invalid to read from a book placed sideways; and at least two ciphers for cryptography.

He continued to teach at Christ Church until 1881, where he remained resident until his death. The two volumes of his last novel, Sylvie and Bruno, were published in 1889 and 1893, but the intricacy of this work was lost on contemporary readers; it achieved nothing like the success of the Alice books, with disappointing reviews and sales of only 13,000 copies. In 1867 Carroll travelled to Russia as an ecclesiastical together with the Reverend Henry Liddon. He recounts the travel in his “Russian Journal”. On his way to Russia and back he also saw different cities in Belgium, Germany, Poland, and France. He died on 14 January 1898 two weeks prior to his sixty-sixth birthday at his sisters’ home, “The Chestnuts” in Guildford, of pneumonia following influenza. He is buried in Guildford at the Mount Cemetery.

Pink Floyd

Nick Mason the drummer from Progressive Rock band Pink Floyd was born 27 January 1944. Pink Floyd were founded in 1965 and originally consisted of students Roger Waters, Nick Mason, Richard Wright, and Syd Barrett. They first became popular playing in London’s underground music scene in the late 1960s. Under Barrett’s leadership they released two charting singles, “Arnold Layne” and “See Emily Play”, and a successful début album, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn .In 1968 Syd Barratt departed from the group due to his deteriorating mental health & Gilmour joined Pink Floyd as the fifth member several months prior to this. Following the loss of their principal songwriter, Pink Floyd bassist and vocalist Roger Waters became the band’s lyricist and conceptual leader, with Gilmour assuming lead guitar, taking on most of the band’s music composition, and sharing lead vocals. With this line-up Pink Floyd achieved worldwide critical and commercial success with their progressive and psychedelic rock music, which used philosophical lyrics, sonic experimentation, innovative album art, and elaborate live shows. and release of many concept albums such as The Dark Side of the Moon, Wish You Were Here, Animals and The Wall.

Pink Floyd ranked number 51 on Rolling Stone magazine’s list of “The 100 Greatest Artists of All Time”, with David Gilmour ranking 14th in the greatest guitarists list. Largely due to the success of their albums the band was ranked No. 3 in Colin Larkin’s the ‘Top 50 Artists Of All Time’. Numerous artists have been influenced by Pink Floyd’s work: David Bowie has called Syd Barrett a major inspiration, The Edge (U2) also bought his first delay pedal after hearing the opening to Animals; and the Pet Shop Boys paid homage to The Wall during a performance in Boston; Marillion guitarist Steve Rothery has also cited Wish You Were Here as a major inspiration; and many other bands, including the Foo Fighters, Dream Theater, My Chemical Romance, Porcupine Tree, The Mars Volta, The La’s, Queen, Oasis, Iron Maiden, Stone Temple Pilots, Coheed and Cambria, Tool, Queensryche, 30 Seconds to Mars, Scissor Sisters, Rush, Radiohead, Gorillaz, Mudvayne, Nine Inch Nails, Korn, Primus and the Smashing Pumpkins, have also been influenced by them.

Pink Floyd have also won multiple awards including “Best Engineered Non-Classical Album” Grammy in 1980 for The Wall and BAFTAs award for ‘Best Original Song’ (awarded to Waters) and ‘Best Sound’ in 1982 for the The Wall film. A Grammy came to them in 1995 for “Rock Instrumental Performance” on “Marooned”. In 2008 Pink Floyd were awarded the Polar Music Prize for their contribution to contemporary music; Waters and Mason accepted the prize from King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on 17 January 1996, the UK Music Hall of Fame on 16 November 2005 and the Hit Parade Hall of Fame in 2010, and were also inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996. They have continued to enjoy worldwide success and are one of the most commercially successful and influential rock music groups of all time.

PINK FLOYD THE WALL http://youtu.be/yB9Z21Yo7dg