Paul Gauguin

French Post impressionist painterEugène Henri Paul Gauguin was born 7 June 1848 in Paris, France to Clovis Gauguin and Alina Maria Chazal on June 7, 1848. During a time of tumultuous revolutionary upheavals throughout Europe.His father, a liberal journalist, came from a family of petit-bourgeoisie entrepreneurs residing in Orléans who fled France when the newspaper for which he wrote was suppressed by French authorities. Gauguin’s mother, Aline Marie Chazal, was the daughter of Andre Chazal, an engraver, and Flora Tristan, an author and activist in early socialist movements.

Paul Gauguin’s maternal grandmother, Flora Tristan, was the illegitimate daughter of Thérèse Laisnay and Don Mariano de Tristan Moscoso. Details of Thérèse’s family background are not known; her father, Don Mariano, was a Spanish nobleman and an officer of the Dragoons. Members of the wealthy Tristan Moscoso family held powerful positions in Peru.  Nonetheless, Don Mariano’s unexpected death plunged his mistress and daughter Flora into poverty. When Flora’s marriage with Andre failed, she obtained a small monetary settlement from her father’s Peruvian relatives. She sailed to Peru in hopes of enlarging her share of the Tristan Moscoso family fortune and published a popular travelogue of her experiences in Peru in 1838.  Gauguin’s maternal grandmother helped to lay the foundations for the 1848 revolutionary movements. Placed under surveillance by French police and suffering from overwork, she died in 1844

In 1850, Clovis Gauguin departed for Peru with his wife Alina and young children in hopes of continuing his journalistic career under the auspices of his wife’s South American relations. He died of a heart attack en route, and Alina arrived in Peru a widow with the 18-month-old Paul and his 2 ½ year-old sister, Marie. Gauguin’s mother was welcomed by her paternal granduncle, whose son-in-law would shortly assume the presidency of Peru. Paul enjoyed a privileged upbringing, attended by nursemaids and servants. He retained a vivid memory of that period of his childhood. Gauguin’s idyllic childhood in this “tropical paradise” ended abruptly when his family mentors fell from political power during Peruvian civil conflicts in 1854. Aline returned to France with her children, leaving Paul with his paternal grandfather, Guillaume Gauguin, in Orleans. Deprived by the Peruvian Tristan Moscoso Of a generous annuity, Alina settled in Paris to work as a dressmaker.

Gauguin was sent to the prestigious Catholic boarding school Petit Séminaire de La Chapelle-Saint-Mesmin where He spent three years. At age fourteen, he entered the Loriol Institute in Paris, a naval preparatory school, before returning to Orléans to take his final year at the Lycée Jeanne D’Arc. Gauguin signed on as a pilot’s assistant in the merchant marine. Three years later, he joined the French navy in which he served for two years. In 1871, Gauguin returned to Paris working as a stockbroker. A close family friend, Gustave Arosa, got him a job at the Paris Bourse; Gauguin became a successful Parisian businessman and remained one for the next 11 years. But in 1882 the Paris stock market crashed and the art market contracted. Gauguin’s earnings deteriorated sharply and he eventually decided to pursue painting full-time.

In 1873, he married a Danish woman, Mette-Sophie Gad (1850–1920). Over the next ten years, they had five children: Émile (1874–1955); Aline (1877–1897); Clovis (1879–1900); Jean René (1881–1961); and Paul Rollon (1883–1961). By 1884, Gauguin had moved with his family to Copenhagen, Denmark, where he worked as a tarpaulin salesman. However He could not speak Danish, and the Danes did not want French tarpaulins. Mette became the chief earner, giving French lessons to trainee diplomats. His middle-class family and marriage fell apart after 11 years when Gauguin was driven to paint full-time. He returned to Paris in 1885, after his wife and her family asked him to leave

In 1873, Gauguin began painting in his free time. His Parisian life centred on the 9th arrondissement of Paris. Gauguin lived at 15, rue la Bruyère. Nearby were the cafés frequented by the Impressionists. Gauguin also visited galleries frequently and purchased work by emerging artists. He formed a friendship with Camille Pissarro and painted in his garden. Pissarro introduced him to various other artists. In 1877 Gauguin “moved to Vaugirard. Here, on the third floor at 8 rue Carcel, he had the first home in which he had a studio.[32] His close friend Émile Schuffenecker, a former stockbroker who also aspired to become an artist, lived close by. Gauguin showed paintings in Impressionist exhibitions held in 1881 and 1882. In 1882, the stock market crashed and the art market contracted. Paul Durand-Ruel, the Impressionists’ primary art dealer, Subsequently stopped buying pictures from painters such as Gauguin. Gauguin’s earnings shrank. During 1883, he painted with Pissarro and occasionally Paul Cézanne and decided to earn his living painting. in 1884 Gauguin moved with his family to Rouen, however Mette returned to Copenhagen, and Gauguin following shortly after in November 1884, bringing with him his art collection, which subsequently remained in Copenhagen. In 1885 Gauguin returned to Paris accompanied by his six-year-old son Clovis. The other children remained with Mette in Copenhagen, where they had the support of family and friends while Mette herself was able to get work as a translator and French teacher. Clovis eventually fell ill and was sent to a boarding school, Gauguin’s sister Marie providing the funds.

He exhibited nineteen paintings and a wood relief at the eighth (and last) Impressionist exhibition in May 1886 including Baigneuses à Dieppe (“Women Bathing”). This exhibition also established Georges Seurat as leader of the avant-garde movement in Paris. However Gauguin rejected Seurat’s Neo-Impressionist Pointillist technique.In 1886 Gauguin visited the artist’s colony of Pont-Aven in Brittany.Where he became an unexpected success with the young art students Amongst whom was Charles Laval, who accompanied Gauguin the following year to Panama and Martinique. He producedpastel drawings of nude figures like those by Pissarro and Degas exhibited at the 1886 eighth Impressionist exhibition. He then painted La Bergère Bretonne (“The Breton Shepherdess”), and Jeunes Bretons au bain (“Young Breton Boys Bathing”), featuring aold use of colour. The English illustrator Randolph Caldecott, Illustrated a popular guide-book on Brittany with simple drawings, these caught the imagination of the avant-garde student artists at Pont-Aven. Gauguin  imitated them in his sketches of Breton girls including Four Breton Women, which departed from his earlier Impressionist style and incorporated elements of Caldecott’s illustration, exaggerating features to the point of caricature.Gauguin, along with Émile Bernard, Charles Laval, Émile Schuffenecker and many others, re-visited Pont-Aven after his travels in Panama and Martinique. The bold use of pure color and Symbolist choice of subject matter distinguish what is now called the Pont-Aven School.

Disenchanted with Impressionism, Gauguin felt that traditional European painting had become too imitative and lacked symbolic depth. However the art of other cultures such as Africa Japan and Asia seemed to him full of mystic symbolism and vigour. He was invited to participate in the 1889 exhibition organized by Les XX. Under the influence of folk art and Japanese prints, Gauguin’s work evolved towards Cloisonnism, named by critic Édouard Dujardin in response to Émile Bernard’s method of painting with flat areas of color and bold outlines, which reminded Dujardin of the Medieval cloisonné enameling technique.Gauguin appreciatedBernard’s art and his simple style of expressing the essence of the objects in his art. The Yellow Christ is often cited as a quintessential Cloisonnist work, Containing reduced to areas of pure color separated by heavy black outlines. In these paintings Gauguin Ignored classical perspective and boldly eliminated subtle gradations of color, eliminating two characteristic principles of post-Renaissance painting. His painting later evolved towards Synthetism In 1887, after visiting Panama, Gauguin spent several months near Saint Pierre in Martinique, accompanied by his friend the artist Charles Laval arriving via Panama where he had found himself broke and without a job. Gauguin and Laval decided to get off the boat at the Martinique port of St. Pierre and decided to stay on the island. However, the weather in the summer was hot and the hut leaked in the rain. Gauguin also suffered dysentery and marsh fever. While in Martinique, Gauguin travelled widely and came into contact with a small community of Indian immigrants; a contact that would later influence his art through the incorporation of Indian symbols.

Gauguin finished 11 paintings during his stay in Martinique, which were brightly colored, loosely painted, outdoor figural scenes. Rural and indigenous populations remained a popular subject for Gauguin and his Martinique paintings were exhibited at the Arsène Poitier’s gallery. Theo van Goch purchased three of Gauguin’s paintings for 900 francs and arranged to have them hung at Goupil’s, thus introducing Gauguin to wealthy clients. At the same time Vincent van Goch and Gauguin became close friends. However Gauguin’s relationship with Vincent proved fraught. In 1888, at Theo’s instigation, Gauguin and Vincent spent nine weeks painting together at Vincent’s Yellow House in Arles. Their relationship deteriorated and eventually Gauguin decided to leave when on 23 December 1888 van Gogh confronted Gauguin with a razor blade and Later the same evening, cut off his left ear. He wrapped the severed tissue in newspaper and handed it to a domestic worker who was his friend, and asked her to “keep this object carefully, in remembrance of me.” Van Gogh was hospitalized and Gauguin left ArlesThey never saw each other again. An 1889 sculptural self-portrait Jug in the form of a Head, Self-portrait appears to reference Gauguin’s traumatic relationship with van Gogh. However Edgar Degas remained Gauguin’s most admired contemporary artist and a great influence on his work. The public support from Degas for Gauguin was unwavering. Gauguin held a Durand-Ruel exhibition in November 1893, which Degas chiefly organized. However Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Pissarro did not appreciate his work, however Degas admired the exotic sumptuousness of Gauguin’s conjured folklore In appreciation, Gauguin presented Degas with The Moon and the Earth, Gauguin also painted Riders on the Beach. Degas later purchased two paintings at Gauguin’s 1895 auction to raise funds for his final trip to Tahiti. These were Vahine no te vi (Woman with a Mango) and Gauguin’s copy of Manet’s Olympia.

In 1890, Gauguin decided to visit Tahiti. In 1891 he visited his wife and children in Copenhagen, then Gauguin set sail for Tahiti promising to return a rich man and make a fresh start. He spent the first three months in Papeete, the capital of the colony and already much influenced by French and European culture. He decided to set up his studio in Mataiea, Papeari, some forty-five kilometres from Papeete. His paintings  Fatata te Miti (By the Sea), Vahine no te tiare (ca) (Woman with a Flower) and Ia Orana Maria (ca) (Ave Maria) depicting Tahitian life. By 1892 Vahine no te tiare was being displayed at Goupil’s gallery in Paris. Gauguin was lent copies of Jacques-Antoine Moerenhout’s (fr) 1837 Voyage aux îles du Grand Océan and Edmond de Bovis’ (fr) 1855 État de la société tahitienne à l’arrivée des Européens, containing full accounts of Tahiti’s forgotten culture and religion. He was fascinated by the accounts of Arioi society and their god ‘Oro, these accounts contained no illustrations So Gauguin painted twenty paintings and a dozen woodcarvings Such as Te aa no areois (The Seed of the Areoi), representing Oro’s terrestrial wife Vairaumati, His illustrated notebook of the time, Ancien Culte Mahorie (it), is also preserved in the Louvre. Nine of his paintings were also exhibited in Copenhagen in a joint exhibition with the late Vincent van Gogh.

Sadly Gauguin started having health problems diagnosed as heart problems by the local doctor, which may have been the early signs of cardiovascular syphilis. Gauguin later wrote a travelogue (first published 1901) titled Noa Noa describing his experiences in Tahiti and writing that he had taken a thirteen-year-old girl as native wife or vahine (the Tahitian word for “woman”), a marriage contracted in the course of a single afternoon. This was Teha’amana, called Tehura in the travelogue. Teha’amana was the subject of several of Gauguin’s paintings, including Merahi metua no Tehamana and the celebrated Spirit of the Dead Watching, as well as a notable woodcarving Tehura now in the Musée d’Orsay. In 1893, Gauguin returned to France,and continued to paint Tahitian subjects such as Mahana no atua (it) (Day of the God) and Nave nave moe (pl) (Sacred spring, sweet dreams). He exhibited forty paintings at the Durand-Ruel gallery in 1894 And moved into an apartment at 6 rue Vercingétorix on the edge of the Montparnasse district frequented by artists, and began to conduct a weekly salon. He dressed in Polynesian costume, and had an affair with a young woman still in her teens, “half Indian, half Malayan”, known as Annah the Javanese. In 1894 he began using an experimental technique for the Woodcuts in his proposed travelogue Noa Noa and returned to Pont-Aven. In 1895 He submitted a large ceramic sculpture he called Oviri to the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts 1895 salon opening in April. SadlyGauguin and his wife Mette  separated.

After becoming disillusioned with the Paris art scene Gauguin set out for Tahiti again In 1895 to try to reclaim his place in Tahiti society and spent the next six years living around Papeete He built a spacious reed and thatch house at Punaauia in an affluent area ten miles east of Papeete, settled by wealthy families, in which he installed a large studio. He subscribed to the Mercure de France and maintained an active correspondence with fellow artists, dealers, critics, and patrons in Paris. During his time in Papeete he became increasingly involved in local politics, contributing abrasively to a local journal opposed to the colonial government, Les Guêpes (The Wasps), and eventually edited his own monthly publication Le Sourire: Journal sérieux (The Smile: A Serious Newspaper), later titled simply Journal méchant (A Wicked Newspaper). In 1900 he became the editor of Les Guêpes until leaving Tahiti in 1901. Gauguin began producing wooden carvings such as Oyez Hui Iesu (Christ on the Cross) and also painted Te tamari no atua (Son of God) and O Taiti (Nevermore).

Sadly His health worsened and he was hospitalised several times for a variety of ailments. While he was in France, he had his ankle shattered in a drunken brawl on a seaside visit to Concarneau, which never healed properly. Now painful and debilitating sores that restricted his movement were erupting up and down his legs. These were treated with arsenic. Gauguin blamed the tropical climate and described the sores as “eczema”. Then his favorite daughter Aline died tragically from pneumonia and he had to vacate his house because its land had been sold. Failing health and pressing debts brought him to the brink of despair. At the end of the year he completed his monumental Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?, which he regarded as his masterpiece and final artistic testament which was exhibited at Vollard’s gallery in Paris along with eight thematically related paintings in 1898.Gauguin decided to visit the Marquesas Islands in search of a yet more primitive society. He spent his final months in Tahiti. Gauguin was unable to continue his work in ceramics in the islands Gauguin’s vahine during all this time was Pahura (Pau’ura) a Tai, the daughter of neighbours in Punaauia and aged fourteen and a half when he took her in. She bore him two children, of which a daughter died in infancy. The other, a boy, she raised herself.

Gauguin had wanted to visit the Marquesas ever since seeing a collection of intricately carved Marquesan bowls and weapons in Papeete during his first months in Tahiti. Sadly Of all the Pacific island groups, the Marquesas were the most affected by the import of Western diseases (especially tuberculosis) And an eighteenth century and population of some 80,000 had declined to just 4,000. Catholic missionaries tried to control drunkenness and promiscuity, and obliged all native children to attend missionary schools into their teens. French colonial rule was enforced by a gendarmerie noted for its malevolence and stupidity, while traders, both western and Chinese, exploited the natives. In 1901Gauguin settled in Atuona on the island of Hiva-Oa, Which was the administrative capital of the islands but was considerably less developed than Papeete. It had an efficient and regular steamer service between the two and a military doctor but no hospital. So Gauguin Relied on the island’s two health care workers, the Vietnamese exile Nguyen Van Cam (Ky Dong), who had settled on the island but had no formal medical training, and the Protestant pastor Paul Vernier, who had studied medicine and theology. He bought a plot of land in the center of the town from the Catholic mission, and ingratiated himself with the local bishop Monseigneur Joseph Martin,

Gauguin built a sturdy two-floor house on his plot, In the early days at least, until Gauguin found a vahine, and the walls were Decorated with nudes, which drew appreciative crowds in the evenings from the natives but did not endear Gauguin to the bishop. Gauguin then erected two sculptures he placed at the foot of his steps lampooning the bishop and a servant reputed to be his mistress and also criticized the unpopular missionary school system. The sculpture of the bishop, Père Paillard, is at the National Gallery of Art, Washington. State funding for the missionary schools had ceased as a result of the 1901 Associations Bill promulgated throughout the French empire. This led to numerous teenage daughters being withdrawn from the schools (Gauguin called this process “rescuing”). He took as vahine one such girl, Vaeoho (also called Marie-Rose), the fourteen-year-old daughter of a native couple who lived in an adjoining valley six miles distant. Sadly Gauguin’s health was worse and he was covered in sores which required daily dressing. He then settled into his new home with Vaeoho, a cook (Kahui), two other servants (nephews of Tioka), his dog, Pegau and a cat.  Here he began a period of productive work, painting twenty canvases including landscapes, still lifes, and figure studies Including Jeune fille à l’éventail (Young Girl with Fan) and Le Sorcier d’Hiva Oa (Marquesan Man in a Red Cape). The model for Jeune fille was the red-headed Tohotaua, the daughter of a chieftain on a neighbouring island. Le sorcier depicts a long-haired young man wearing an exotic red cape. The androgynous nature of the image suggests that Gauguin intended to depict a māhū (i.e. a third gender person) rather than a taua or priest.The third picture of the trio is the mysterious and beautiful Contes barbares (Primitive Tales) featuring Tohotau again and Jacob Meyer de Haan, a painter friend of Gauguin’s from their Pont-Aven days. the middle figure is again androgynous, identified by some as Haapuani. The Buddha-like pose and the lotus blossoms suggests to Elizabeth Childs that the picture is a meditation on the perpetual cycle of life and the possibility of rebirth.

In 1902, the governor of French Polynesia, Édouard Petit (fr), arrived in the Marquesas to make an inspection. He was accompanied by Édouard Charlier as head of the judicial system. Charlier was an amateur painter who had been befriended by Gauguin when he first arrived as magistrate at Papeete in 1895. However their relationship soured when Charlier refused to prosecute Gauguin’s then vahine Pau’ura for a number of trivial offences, allegedly housebreaking and theft, she had committed at Punaauia while Gauguin was away working in Papeete.Gauguin also published an open letter attacking Charlier about the affair in Les Guêpes.

Gauguin and the settlers criticized the invidious taxation system so as a protest Gauguin refused pay his taxes and encouraged the settlers, traders and planters, to do likewise. Sadly Gauguin’s health deteriorated further with symptoms including pain in the legs, heart palpitations, and general debility. The pain in his injured ankle grew insupportable and became so extreme that he resorted to morphine injections. However he was sufficiently concerned by the habit he was developing to turn his syringe set over to a neighbour, relying instead on laudanum. His sight was also beginning to fail and for a while he considered returning to Europe, to Spain, to get treatment. In July 1902, Vaeoho, by then seven months pregnant, left Gauguin to return home to her neighbouring valley of Hekeani Gauguin did not subsequently take another vahine, his quarrel with Bishop Martin over missionary schools also reached its height. After The local gendarme Désiré Charpillet, at first friendly to Gauguin, wrote a report to the administrator of the island group, who resided on the neighbouring island of Nuku Hiva, criticising Gauguin for encouraging natives to withdraw their children from school as well as encouraging settlers to withhold payment of their taxes. Luckily the administrator was François Picquenot, was an old friend of Gauguin’s from Tahiti and advised Charpillet not to take any action over the schools issue, since Gauguin had the law on his side, but authorised Charpillet to seize goods from Gauguin in lieu of payment of taxes if all else failed.

Gauguin took to writing and In 1901, the manuscript of Noa Noa that Gauguin together with woodcuts prepared in Paris was finally published with Morice’s poems in book form in the La Plume edition. Sections of it (including his account of Teha’amana) had previously been published without woodcuts in 1897 in La Revue Blanche, while he himself had published extracts in Les Guêpes while he was editor. He then considered writing other books. In 1902 he revised an old 1896–97 manuscript L’Esprit Moderne et le Catholicisme (The Modern Spirit and Catholicism) on the Roman Catholic church, adding some twenty pages containing insights gleaned from his dealings with Bishop Martin. He sent this text to Bishop Martin, who responded by sending him an illustrated history of the church. He also wrote  witty and well-documented essay Racontars de Rapin (Tales of a Dabbler) on critics and art criticism.

On 27 March the steamer service Croix du Sud was shipwrecked off the Apataki atoll and for a period of three months the island was left without mail or supplies. When mail service resumed, Gauguin penned an angry attack on Governor Petit in an open letter, complaining amongst other things about the way they had been abandoned following the shipwreck. The letter was published by L’Indepéndant, the successor newspaper to Les Guêpes, in Papeete. Gauguin also sent the letter to Mercure de France, He followed this with a private letter to the head of the gendarmerie in Papeete, complaining about his own local gendarme Charpillet’s excesses in making prisoners labour for him. Charpillet was replaced  by another gendarme Jean-Paul Claverie from Tahiti, who had in fact had fined him in his earliest Mataiea days for public indecency.

Sadly His health deteriorated to the extent that he was scarcely able to paint. He began an autobiographical memoir he called Avant et après (Before and After) The title reflected his experiences before and after coming to Tahiti and as tribute to his own grandmother’s unpublished memoir Past and Future. It contained collection of observations about life in Polynesia, his own life, and comments on literature and paintings. He included in it attacks on subjects as diverse as the local gendarmerie, Bishop Martin, his wife Mette and the Danes in general, and outlined his personal philosophy conceiving life as an existential struggle to reconcile opposing IdeasIn 1903, Gauguin campaigned to expose the incompetence of the island’s gendarmes, Jean-Paul Claverie, taking the side of the natives directly in a case involving the alleged drunkenness of a group of them, writing to the administrator, François Picquenot, alleging corruption by one of Claverie’s subordinates. Picquenot investigated the allegations. Claverie responded by filing a charge of libeling a gendarme against Gauguin, who was subsequently fined 500 francs and sentenced to three months’ imprisonment by the local magistrate on 27 March 1903. Gauguin immediately filed an appeal in Papeete and set about raising the funds to travel to Papeete to hear his appeal.

By this time Gauguin was very weak and in great pain. He resorted once again to using morphine. He died suddenly on the morning of 8 May 1903. He also sent for his pastor Paul Vernier, complaining of fainting fits. They had chatted together and Vernier had left, believing him in a stable condition. However Gauguin’s neighbour Tioka found him dead at 11 o’clock. Gauguin was buried in the Catholic Calvary Cemetery (Cimetière Calvaire), Atuona, Hiva ‘Oa. In 1973, a bronze cast of his Oviri figure was placed on his grave. Word of Gauguin’s death did not reach France (to Monfreid) until 23 August 1903. In the absence of a will, his less valuable effects were auctioned in Atuona while his letters, manuscripts and paintings were auctioned in Papeete on 5 September 1903 Mette Gauguin received the proceeds of the auction, some 4,000 francsOne of the paintings auctioned in Papeete was Maternité II, a smaller version of Maternité I in the Hermitage Museum. The original was painted at the time his then vahine Pau’ura in Punaauia gave birth to their son Emile. It was sold for 150 francs to a French naval officer, Commandant Cochin, who said that Governor Petit himself had bid up to 135 francs for the painting. It was sold at Sotheby’s for US$39,208,000 in 2004.The Paul Gauguin Cultural Center at Atuona has a reconstruction of the Maison du Jouir. The original house stood empty for a few years, the door still carrying Gauguin’s carved lintel. This was eventually recovered, four of the five pieces held at the Musée D’Orsay and the fifth at the Paul Gauguin Museum in Tahiti.

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Michael Cartellone (Lynyrd Skynyrd)

Michael Cartellone, American drummer with Lynyrd Skynyrd and Damn Yankees was born 7th June 1962. Best known for popularizing the Southern hard rock genre during the 1970s Lynyrd Skynyrd were Originally formed In the summer of 1964, when teenage friends Ronnie Van Zant, Allen Collins, and Gary Rossington formed the band “The Noble Five” in Jacksonville, Florida. The band changed in 1965 to “My Backyard”, when Larry Junstrom and Bob Burns joined. In 1968, the group won a local Battle of the Bands contest and the opening slot on several Southeast shows for the California-based psychedelic rock band Strawberry Alarm Clock. the group eventually settled on the name “Leonard Skinner”, a mocking tribute to a physical-education teacher at Robert E. Lee High School, Leonard Skinner, who was notorious for strictly enforcing the school’s policy against boys having long hair.

During the 1970′s the band experienced many line-up changes and in 1972 the band was discovered at one of their shows at a club in Atlanta, GA. They soon changed the spelling of their name to “Lynyrd Skynyrd”and their fan base continued to grow rapidly throughout 1973, largely due to their opening slot on The Who’s Quadrophenia tour in the United States. Their 1974 follow-up, Second Helping, was the band’s breakthrough hit, and featured their most popular single, “Sweet Home Alabama” helping them rise to worldwide recognition. Lynyrd Skynyrd’s third album, Nuthin’ Fancy, was released in 1975 and the fourth album Gimme Back My Bullets was released in January 1976, but did not achieve the same success as the previous two albums.

Steve Gaines joined the band in June 1976 and the newly-reconstituted band recorded the double-live album One More From the Road at the Fox Theatre (Atlanta, Georgia) in Atlanta, and performed at the Knebworth festival, which also featured The Rolling Stones. The next album 1977′s Street Survivors turned out to be a showcase for guitarist/vocalist Steve Gaines and included the iconic rock anthem “Free Bird”.Sadly though, On October 20, 1977, just three days after the release of Street Survivors, and at the peak of their success, three members (Including Gaines) all died in an airplane crash, Following the crash and the ensuing press, Street Survivors became the band’s second platinum album and reached No. 5 on the U.S. album chart. The single “What’s Your Name” reached No. 13 on the single airplay charts in January 1978. Surviving members re-formed in 1987 for a reunion tour with lead singer Ronnie Van Zant’s younger brother Johnny as frontman. A version of the band continues to tour and record, with only Gary Rossington of its original members remaining as of 2012. Lynyrd Skynyrd was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on March 13, 2003.

E.M.Forster OM CH

English novelist E. M. Forster OM, CH sadly passed away on 7th June 1970. Born 1st January 1879. He was also a short story writer, essayist and librettist. He is known best for his ironic and well-plotted novels examining class difference and hypocrisy in early 20th-century British society. Forster had a humanistic impulse toward understanding and sympathy. His 1908 novel, A Room with a View, is his most optimistic work, while A Passage to India (1924) brought him his greatest success.

His novel Howard’s End tells a story of social and familial relations in turn-of-the-century England and is generally considered to be Forster’s masterpiece. In 1998, the Modern Library ranked Howards End 38th on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century. The book is about three families in England at the beginning of the 20th century: the Wilcoxes, rich capitalists with a fortune made in the Colonies; the half-German Schlegel siblings (Margaret, Tibby, and Helen), who have much in common with the real-life Bloomsbury Group; and the Basts, a struggling couple in the lower-middle class. The Schlegel sisters try to help the poor Basts and try to make the Wilcoxes less prejudiced. The Schlegels frequently encounter the Wilcoxes. The youngest, Helen, is attracted to the younger Wilcox brother, Paul. The eldest, Margaret, becomes friends with Paul’s mother, Ruth Wilcox. Ruth’s most prized personal possession is her family house at Howards End. She wishes that Margaret could live there, as her own husband and children do not value the house and its rich history, So Ruth, who is terminally ill, bequeaths the cottage to Margaret causing great consternation among the Wilcoxes. So Mrs Wilcox’s widowed husband, Henry, and his children decide not to tell Margaret about her inheritance.

Not knowing about the inheritance, free-spirited Margaret becomes friends with Henry Wilcox and eventually marries him. However Henry’s elder son Charles and his wife try to keep Margaret from taking possession of Howards End.On Henry’s advice, Helen tells Leonard Bast to quit his respectable job as a clerk at an insurance company, because the company stands outside a protective group of companies and thus is vulnerable to failure. Bast then loses his tenuous hold on financial solvency. and Helen tries to help young Leonard Bast (perhaps in part out of guilt about having intervened in his life to begin with). Sadly it all goes terribly wrong when it is revealed that Bast’s wife had an affair with Henry in Cyprus ten years previously but he had then carelessly abandoned her.Margaret confronts Henry about his ill-treatment, and he is ashamed of the affair but unrepentant about his harsh treatment of her. In a moment of pity for the poor, doomed Leonard Bast, Helen has an affair with him. Finding herself pregnant, she leaves England to travel through Germany to conceal her condition, but eventually returns to England when she receives news of her Aunt Juley’s illness but refuses to meet with Margaret but is tricked into a meeting at Howards End Henry and Margaret plan an intervention with a doctor, thinking Helen’s evasive behavior is a sign of mental illness. When they come upon Helen at Howards End, they also discover the pregnancy.Margaret tries in vain to convince Henry to forgive Helen. Unaware of Helen’s presence Mr. Bast arrives at Howards End wishing to speak with Margaret, whereupon Henry’s son, Charles, attacks him, and accidentally kills him, Charles is charged with manslaughter and sent to jail for three years. The ensuing scandal and shock cause Henry to reevaluate his life…

A Room with a View is about a young woman in the repressed culture of Edwardian era England. Set in Italy and England, the story is both a romance and a critique of English society at the beginning of the 20th century. Merchant-Ivory also produced an award-winning film adaptation in 1985 starring Helena Bonham-Carter, Denholm Elliot and Dame Maggie Smith. In 1998, the Modern Library ranked A Room with a View 79th on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century.

Forster’s most successful novel A Passage to India, on the other hand is set against the backdrop of the British Raj and the Indian independence movement in the 1920s. It was selected as one of the 100 great works of English literature by the Modern Library and won the 1924 James Tait Black Memorial Prize for fiction. Time magazine included the novel in its “100 Best English-language Novels from 1923 to 2005″. The novel is based on Forster’s experiences in India. E.M.Forster borrowed the book’s title from Walt Whitman’s poem Leaves of Grass.

Prince

American singer, songwriter, musician, and actor Prince (born Prince Rogers Nelson) was born June 7, 1958. During his long running career Prince has produced ten platinum albums and thirty Top 40 singles. Prince founded his own recording studio and label; writing, self-producing and playing most, or all, of the instruments on his recordings. In addition, Prince has been a “talent promoter” for the careers of Sheila E., Carmen Electra, The Time and Vanity 6, and his songs have been recorded by these artists and others (including Chaka Khan, The Bangles, Sinéad O’Connor, and even Kim Basinger). He also has several hundred unreleased songs in his “vault”. Born in Minneapolis, Minnesota,

Prince developed an interest in music at an early age, writing his first song at age seven. After recording songs with his cousin’s band 94 East, seventeen-year-old Prince recorded several unsuccessful demo tapes before releasing his debut album, For You, in 1978. His 1979 album, Prince, went platinum due to the success of the singles “Why You Wanna Treat Me So Bad?” and “I Wanna Be Your Lover”. His next three records, Dirty Mind (1980), Controversy (1981), and 1999 (1982) continued his success, showcasing Prince’s trademark of prominently sexual lyrics and incorporation of elements of funk, dance and rock music. In 1984, he began referring to his backup band as The Revolution and released the album Purple Rain, which served as the soundtrack to his film debut of the same name.

After releasing the albums Around the World in a Day (1985), and Parade (1986), The Revolution disbanded and he released the critically acclaimed double album Sign o’ the Times (1987) as a solo artist. He released three more solo albums before debuting the band The New Power Generation in 1991, which saw Prince changing his stage name to an unpronounceable symbol known as “The Love Symbol”. In 1994, he began releasing new albums at a faster pace to eject himself from contractual obligations to Warner Bros, releasing five records in a span of two years before signing to Arista Records in 1998. In 2000, he began referring to himself as Prince once again. He has released thirteen new albums since the beginning of the 21st century, including 20Ten, Art Offical Age, Plectrum Electrum, Hit’n’Run phase 1 and Hit’n’Run phase 2

Prince has sold an estimated 80 million records worldwide he also has a wide vocal range and is known for his flamboyant stage presence and costumes. His releases have sold over 80 million copies worldwide. He has won seven Grammy Awards, a Golden Globe, and an Academy Award. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2004. Rolling Stone has ranked Prince No. 27 on its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.Prince’s music has been influenced by rock, R&B, soul, funk, rap, blues, New Wave, electronica, disco,psychedelia, folk, jazz, and pop. His artistic influences include Sly & the Family Stone, Parliament-Funkadelic, Joni Mitchell, The Beatles, Johnny “Guitar” Watson, Miles Davis, Carlos Santana, Jimi Hendrix, James Brown, Led Zeppelin, Marvin Gaye, the Isley Brothers, Duke Ellington, Curtis Mayfield, and Stevie Wonder. Prince pioneered the “Minneapolis sound”, a hybrid mixture of funk, rock, pop, R&B and New Wave. Tragically though Prince died from a fentanyl overdose at his Paisley Park recording studio and home in Chanhassen, Minnesota, on April 21, 2016, at the age of 57.

Tom Jones

Welsh singer Sir Tom Jones OBE was born 7th June 1940, So far Jones has had thirty-six Top 40 hits in the United Kingdom and nineteen in the United States; some of his notable songs include “It’s Not Unusual“, “What’s New Pussycat“, “Delilah”, “Green, Green Grass of Home”, “She’s a Lady” and “Kiss” (Which was originally recorded by Prince, Who also celebrates his birthday on 7th June). Since the mid 1960s, Jones has sung many styles of popular music – pop, rock, R&B, show tunes, country, dance, soul and gospel – and sold over 100 million records. Having been awarded an OBE in 1999, Jones was dubbed a knight bachelor by Queen Elizabeth II for “services to music” in 2006. Jones has received numerous other awards throughout his career, including the Grammy Award for Best New Artist in 1966, two Brit Awards—winning Best British Male in 2000, and an MTV Video Music Award.

Tom Jones was born in Treforest, Pontypridd in South Wales. Jones began singing at an early age: he would regularly sing at family gatherings, weddings and in his school choir. Jones did not like school or sports but gained confidence through his singing talent. His’ bluesy singing style developed out of the sound of American soul music and early influences included blues and R&B singers Little Richard, Solomon Burke, Jackie Wilson and Brook Benton as well as the music of Jerry Lee Lewis. He became the frontman for Tommy Scott and the Senators, a Welsh beat group, in 1963. They soon gained a local following and reputation in South Wales. In 1964 the group recorded several solo tracks with producer Joe Meek, who took them to various labels, but they had little success.The group continued to play gigs at dance halls and working men’s clubs in South Wales. Jones was spotted by Gordon Mills, a London-based manager originally from South Wales.

Mills became Jones’ manager and took the young singer to London, and also renamed him Tom Jones.Eventually Mills got Jones a recording contract with Decca. His first single, “Chills and Fever”, was released in late 1964. It didn’t chart, but the follow-up, “It’s Not Unusual” became an international hit after offshore pirate radio station Radio Caroline promoted it. The following year would be the most prominent of Jones’s career. In early 1965 “It’s Not Unusual” reached number one in the United Kingdom and the top ten in the United States. During 1965 Mills secured a number of movie themes for Jones to record including the themes for the film What’s New Pussycat? (written by Burt Bacharach and Hal David) and for the James Bond film Thunderball. Jones was also awarded the Grammy Award for Best New Artist for 1965. In 1967 Jones performed in Las Vegas for the first time, at the Flamingo. His performances and style of dress (increasingly featuring his open, half-unbuttoned shirts and tight trousers) became part of his stage act. He soon chose to record less, instead concentrating on his lucrative club performances. At Caesars Palace his shows were a knicker-hurling frenzy of sexually charged adulation and good-time entertainment.

In the 1970s Jones had a number of hit singles, including “She’s A Lady”, “Till”, “The Young New Mexican Puppeteer”, and “Say You’ll Stay Until Tomorrow”. In 1987, Tom Jones re-entered the singles chart with “A Boy From Nowhere”. The following year he covered Prince’s “Kiss” with The Art of Noise. In 1989 Jones received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame and In 1992 he made his first appearance at the Glastonbury Festival. in 1993 Jones released the album The Lead And How To Swing It and In 1997, Jones did the soundtrack for the comedy film The Full Monty, recording “You Can Leave Your Hat On”. In 1999 Jones released the album Reload, a collection of cover duets with artists such as The Cardigans, Natalie Imbruglia, Cerys Matthews, Van Morrison, Mousse T, Portishead, Stereophonics, and Robbie Williams. In 2002 Jones released the album Mr. Jones, Jones also received the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music in 2003. The following year, he teamed up with pianist Jools Holland and released a roots rock ‘n’ roll album entitled Tom Jones & Jools Holland.

Jones, who was awarded an OBE in 1999, was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 2006 at Buckingham Palace for his services to music. and was among the invited artists who performed at Wembley Stadium at the Concert for Diana on July 1st 2007. In 2008 he released the album 24 Hours. Jones, who was still performing over 200 dates a year as he approached his 70th birthday, set out on a world tour to promote the album. In 2008 also Tom Jones was inducted into the Hit Parade Hall of Fame. On 16 November 2008 and in March 2009 Jones went to the top of the UK Music Charts for the third time in his career thanks to a cover of “Islands in the Stream”, sung with Ruth Jones, Rob Brydon and Robin Gibb, who co-wrote the original with his brothers Barry and Maurice. The song, inspired by BBC’s hit sitcom Gavin and Stacey, was released in aid of Comic Relief and reached No. 1.

Jones released the album Praise & Blame on 26 July 2010 Which included covers of songs by Bob Dylan, John Lee Hooker and Billy Joe Shaver, and features guest musicians as Booker T. On 11 September 2010 Jones performed for an audience of 50,000 at the Help for Heroes charity concert at Twickenham Stadium and released a single on 19 March 2012, written with former White Stripes frontman Jack White, called Evil. In May 2012 Jones released the album Spirit in the Room on Island Records/Universal Records. The track listing included covers of songs by Paul McCartney, Paul Simon, Leonard Cohen and Richard and Linda Thompson, Blind Willie Johnson, Tom Waits and The Low Anthem. On 4 June 2012, Jones performed at the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee Concert in front of Buckingham Palace, singing “Delilah” and “Mama Told Me Not to Come” (although I don’t think anyone threw their knickers at him).