Trainspotting Two

I have recently watched T2 Trainspotting which is set in and around Edinburgh, Scotland. The film is directed by Danny Boyle and written by John Hodge, based on characters created by Irvine Welsh in his novel Trainspotting and its follow-up Porno. It stars Ewan McGregor, Ewen Bremner, Jonny Lee Miller, Robert Carlyle, and Kelly Macdonald.

It has been Twenty years since Mark “Rent Boy” Renton stole £16,000 in drug money from his friends and fled the country. He has since made a decent, but unfulfilling, life for himself in Amsterdam. Now he has returned to Edinburgh to make ammends with his former friends. Daniel “Spud” Murphy continues to struggle with his heroin addiction. This has caused him to lose his construction job and estranged him from Gail Houston and their son Fergus. Simon “Sick Boy” Williamson, now a cocaine addict, runs the Port Sunshine pub he inherited from his aunt, and with his Bulgarian girlfriend Veronika attempts to blackmail men by luring them into sex videos. Meanwhile Francis “Franco” Begbie is serving a 25-year prison sentence. Mark learns of his mother’s death while he was away. He visits Spud at his flat, narrowly preventing him from committing suicide, then visits Simon at the pub intending to apologize and pay back Simon’s share of the money he stole. They get into a fist fight, but ultimately make peace.

Unfortunately Begbie manages to escape from prison, then reunites with his wife and meets his university-bound son. He also learns that Mark has returned and Begbie wants revenge. Mark, Simon, and Veronika become partners in various crimes, using the money from their deeds to Convert Port Sunshine into a brothel, however they change their minds after A menacing encounter with the owner of a rival brothel. They fraudulently apply for an EU business-development loan, and are given £100,000. However Simon slips ever deeper into his cocaine habit and Veronika begins an affair with Mark. Then the Police become aware of Simon’s video blackmail scam so Renton seeks legal advice from his former girlfriend Diane Coulston, now a solicitor.

Unfortunately Begbie and Renton accidentally meet in the toilets of a nightclub, and Renton barely manages to escape. So Begbie visits Spud for help finding him and also discovers that He has begun writing a memoir of events from the first film, where Begbie discovers what has really been going on. then Veronika stops by and Begbie tricks Mark and Simon into meeting him at Simon’s pub. Sensing danger Veronika tries to convince Spud to go away with her. Spud refuses, but uses his talent for forgery to transfer money into her bank account. Meanwhile Simon and Mark meet at the pub, and Spud arrives to warn them, However Begbie arrives first intending to get revenge on both Renton and Sick Boy in an exciting finale…

Tim Berners-Lee

English-American computer scientist and engineer, Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee OM KBE FRS FREng FRSA FBCS was born 8 June 1955 in London, England, one of four children born to Mary Lee Woods and Conway Berners-Lee. His parents worked on the first commercially-built computer, the Ferranti Mark 1. He attended Sheen Mount Primary School, and then went on to attend south west London’s Emanuel School from 1969 to 1973, at the time a direct grant grammar school, which became an independent school in 1975. A keen trainspotter as a child, he learnt about electronics from tinkering with a model railway. He studied at The Queen’s College, Oxford from 1973 to 1976, where he received a first-class degree bachelor of arts degree in physics.

After graduation, Berners-Lee worked as an engineer at the telecommunications company Plessey in Poole, Dorset. In 1978, he joined D. G. Nash in Ferndown, Dorset, where he helped create type-setting software for printers. Berners-Lee worked as an independent contractor at CERN from June to December 1980. While in Geneva, he proposed a project based on the concept of hypertext, to facilitate sharing and updating information among researchers. To demonstrate it, he built a prototype system named ENQUIRE. After leaving CERN in late 1980, he went to work at John Poole’s Image Computer Systems, Ltd, in Bournemouth, Dorset. He ran the company’s technical side for three years. The project he worked on was a “real-time remote procedure call” which gave him experience in computer networking. In 1984, he returned to CERN as a fellow.In 1989, CERN was the largest Internet node in Europe, and Berners-Lee saw an opportunity to join hypertext with the Internet:

“I just had to take the hypertext idea and connect it to the Transmission Control Protocol and domain name system ideas and—ta-da!—the World Wide Web.mCreating the web was really an act of desperation, because the situation without it was very difficult when I was working at CERN later. Most of the technology involved in the web, like the hypertext, like the Internet, multifont text objects, had all been designed already. I just had to put them together. It was a step of generalising, going to a higher level of abstraction, thinking about all the documentation systems out there as being possibly part of a larger imaginary documentation system.” This NeXT Computer was used by Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world’s first web server. Berners-Lee wrote his proposal in March 1989 and, in 1990, redistributed it. It then was accepted by his manager, Mike Sendall.[29] He used similar ideas to those underlying the ENQUIRE system to create the World Wide Web, for which he designed and built the first Web browser. His software also functioned as an editor (called WorldWideWeb, running on the NeXTSTEP operating system), and the first Web server, CERN HTTPd (short for Hypertext Transfer Protocol daemon).

He is commonly credited with inventing the World Wide Web (abbreviated as WWW or W3, commonly known as the web. The World Wide Web is a series of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them via hyperlinks.The web was developed between March 1989 and December 1990. Using concepts from his earlier hypertext systems such as ENQUIRE, British engineer Tim Berners-Lee, acomputer scientist and at that time employee of the CERN, now Director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), wrote a proposal in March 1989 for what would eventually become the World Wide Web. The 1989 proposal was meant for a more effective CERN communication system but Berners-Lee eventually realised the concept could be implemented throughout the world. At CERN, a European research organisation nearGeneva straddling the border between France and Switzerland, berners-Lee and Belgian computer scientist Robert Cailliau proposed in 1990 to use hypertext “to link and access information of various kinds as a web of nodes in which the user can browse at will”, and Berners-Lee finished the first website in December that year. Berners-Lee posted the project on the alt.hypertext newsgroup on 7 August 1991

In a 1970 issue of Popular Science magazine, Arthur C. Clarke predicted that satellites would someday “bring the accumulated knowledge of the world to your fingertips” using a console that would combine the functionality of the photocopier, telephone, television and a small computer, allowing data tyransfer and video conferencing around the globe.In March 1989, Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal that referenced ENQUIRE, a database and software project he had built in 1980, and described a more elaborate information management system. With help from Robert Cailliau, he published a more formal proposal (on 12 November 1990) to build a “Hypertext project” called “WorldWideWeb” (one word, also “W3”) as a “web” of “hypertext documents” to be viewed by “browsers” using a client–server architecture. This proposal estimated that a read-only web would be developed within three months and that it would take six months to achieve “the creation of new links and new material by readers, [so that] authorship becomes universal” as well as “the automatic notification of a reader when new material of interest to him/her has become available.” While the read-only goal was met, accessible authorship of web content took longer to mature, with the wiki concept, blogs, Web 2.0 and RSS/Atom.

The proposal was modeled after the SGML reader Dynatext by Electronic Book Technology, a spin-off from the Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship at Brown University. The Dynatext system, licensed by CERN, was a key player in the extension of SGML ISO 8879:1986 to Hypermedia within HyTime, but it was considered too expensive and had an inappropriate licensing policy for use in the general high energy physics community, namely a fee for each document and each document alteration.The CERN datacenter in 2010 housing some WWW serversA NeXT Computer was used by Berners-Lee as the world’s first web server and also to write the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, in 1990. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: the first web browser (which was a web editor as well); the first web server; and the first web pages, which described the project itself.The first web page may be lost, but Paul Jones of UNC-Chapel Hill in North Carolina revealed in May 2013 that he has a copy of a page sent to him by Berners-Lee which is the oldest known web page. Jones stored it on a floppy disk and on his NeXT computer.

In 1991, Berners-Lee posted a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the alt.hypertext newsgroup. This also marked the debut of the Web as a publicly available service on the Internet, although new users only access it after August 23 1991. For this reason this is considered the internaut’s day. Many newsmedia have reported that the first photo on the web was uploaded by Berners-Lee in 1992, an image of the CERN house band Les Horribles Cernettes taken by Silvano de Gennaro; Gennaro has disclaimed this story, writing that media were “totally distorting our words for the sake of cheap sensationalism.”[18]The first server outside Europe was set up at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in Palo Alto, California, to host the SPIRES-HEP database. Accounts differ substantially as to the date of this event. The World Wide Web Consortium says December 1992,[19]whereas SLAC itself claims 1991. This is supported by a W3C document titled A Little History of the World Wide Web.[22]The crucial underlying concept of hypertext originated with older projects from the 1960s, such as the Hypertext Editing System (HES) at Brown University, Ted Nelson’s Project Xanadu, and Douglas Engelbart’s oN-Line System (NLS). Both Nelson and Engelbart were in turn inspired by Vannevar Bush’s microfilm-based “memex”, which was described in the 1945 essay “As We May Think”.

Berners-Lee’s breakthrough was to incorporate hypertext to the Internet. In his book Weaving The Web, he explains that he had repeatedly suggested that a marriage between the two technologies was possible to members of both technical communities, but when no one took up his invitation, he finally assumed the project himself. In the process, he developed three essential technologies:a system of globally unique identifiers for resources on the Web and elsewhere, the universal document identifier (UDI), later known as uniform resource locator (URL) and uniform resource identifier (URI);the publishing language HyperText Markup Language (HTML);the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The World Wide Web had a number of differences from other hypertext systems available at the time. The web required only unidirectional links rather than bidirectional ones, making it possible for someone to link to another resource without action by the owner of that resource. It also significantly reduced the difficulty of implementing web servers and browsers (in comparison to earlier systems), but in turn presented the chronic problem of link rot. Unlike predecessors such as HyperCard, the World Wide Web was non-proprietary, making it possible to develop servers and clients independently and to add extensions without licensing restrictions. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone, with no fees due. Coming two months after the announcement that the server implementation of the Gopher protocol was no longer free to use, this produced a rapid shift away from Gopher and towards the Web.

An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW for Unix and the X Windowing System..Scholars generally agree that a turning point for the World Wide Web began with the introduction of the Mosaic web browser in 1993, a graphical browser developed by a team at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (NCSA-UIUC), led by Marc Andreessen. Funding for Mosaic came from the U.S. High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative and the High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991, one of several computing developments initiated by U.S. Senator Al Gore.[28] Prior to the release of Mosaic, graphics were not commonly mixed with text in web pages and the web’s popularity was less than older protocols in use over the Internet, such as Gopher and Wide Area Information Servers(WAIS). Mosaic’s graphical user interface allowed the Web to become, by far, the most popular Internet protocol.

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was founded by Tim Berners-Lee after he left the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in October 1994. It was founded at theMassachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science (MIT/LCS) with support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), which had pioneered the Internet; a year later, a second site was founded at INRIA (a French national computer research lab) with support from the European Commission DG InfSo; and in 1996, a third continental site was created in Japan at Keio University. By the end of 1994, while the total number of websites was still minute compared to present standards, quite a number of notable websites were already active, many of which are the precursors or inspiration for today’s most popular services.Connected by the existing Internet, other websites were created around the world, adding international standards for domain namesand HTML. Since then, Berners-Lee has played an active role in guiding the development of web standards (such as the markup languages in which web pages are composed), and has advocated his vision of a Semantic Web. The World Wide Web enabled the spread of information over the Internet through an easy-to-use and flexible format. It thus played an important role in popularizing use of the Internet. It should be noted that The World Wide Web is different to the Internet, The world wide web is a collection of documents stored online, while the Internet is a means of accesssing them using Internet protocols such as TCP/IP and HTTP. Tim Berners-Lee was knighted in 2004 by Queen Elizabeth II for his contribution to the World Wide Web.

Nineteen Eighty Four by George Orwell

The nightmarish Dystopian science fiction novel Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell was published 8 June 1949. There have since been numerous film and television adaptations, with one starring John Hurt as Winston. Nineteen Eighty-Four is set in Airstrip One (Great Britain), a province of the superstate Oceania in a world of perpetual war, omnipresent government surveillance, and public manipulation. The superstate and its residents are dictated to by a political regime euphemistically named English Socialism, shortened to “Ingsoc” in Newspeak, the government’s invented language. The superstate is under the control of the privileged elite of the Inner Party, a party and government that persecutes individualism and independent thinking as “thoughtcrime”, which is enforced by the “Thought Police”.

The tyranny is overseen by Big Brother, the Party leader. They “seek power entirely for its own sake and are not interested in the good of others; The protagonist of the novel, Winston Smith, is a member of the Outer Party, who works for the Ministry of Truth (or Minitrue in Newspeak), which is responsible for propaganda and historical revisionism. His job is to rewrite past newspaper articles, and historical records in a way which supports the party line. These corrections are referred to euphemistically as fixing misquotations and never as what they really are: forgeries and falsifications. A large part of the Ministry also actively destroys all documents that have been edited and do not contain the revisions; in this way, no proof exists that the government is lying.

The novel concerns Winston Smith a diligent and skillful worker who lives on Airstrip one, the remnants of Britain broken down by war, civil conflict, and revolution. He is A member of the middle class Outer Party and works at the Ministry of Truth, or “Minitrue”, as an editor. He is responsible for historical revisionism; he rewrites records and alters photographs to conform to the state’s ever-changing version of history itself, rendering the deleted people “unpersons”; the original documents are destroyed by fire in a “memory hole”. Meanwhile Telescreens in every building, accompanied by secret microphones and cameras, allow the Thought Police to identify anyone who might compromise the Party’s régime. Children are encouraged to inform the officials about potential thought criminals, including their parents.

Despite being good at his job, Winston discovers the real past and secretly tries to get more information about it. he begins writing a journal criticizing the Party and its enigmatic leader, Big Brother. By doing so, he commits a crime that, if discovered by the Thought Police, warrants certain death. Winston then meets Julia, a young woman who maintains the novel-writing machines at the ministry after she surreptitiously hands Winston a note confessing her love for him. Winston and Julia begin an affair after Winston realizes she shares his loathing of the Party, Winston is approached by O’Brien, an Inner Party member who is an agent of the Brotherhood—a secret underground society that intends to destroy the Party. O’Brien gives Winston an illegal copy of “The Book”, The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism by Emmanuel Goldstein, which explains the concept of perpetual war, the true meanings of the slogans “War is peace”, “Freedom is slavery”, and “Ignorance is strength”, and how the Party can be overthrown.

Unfortunately the Thought Police capture Winston and Julia and send them to the Ministry of Love (Miniluv) for interrogation after being reported by his landlord Mr. Charrington, the shopkeeper and O’Brien, who are both in fact Thought Police Agents who are investigating suspected thoughtcriminals. O’Brien Tries to cure Winston of his manifest hatred for the Party and to end his “stubborn, self-willed exile” through re-education, controlled manipulation of perception and torture and tries to get Winston to say something incriminating about Julia. O’Brien then sends Winston to Room 101 for the final stage of re-education, a room which contains each prisoner’s worst nightmare in an effort to stop him thinking for himself and rebelling against Big Brother…

UK General Election

The United Kingdom general election of 2017 is taking place on 8 June 2017. Each of the 650 parliamentary constituencies will elect one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons, the lower house of Parliament. In line with the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011, an election had not been due until 7 May 2020, but a call by Prime Minister Theresa May for a snap election received the necessary two-thirds majority in a 522-to-13 vote in the House of Commons on 19 April 2017. The Conservative Party, which has governed since 2015 (and as a senior coalition partner from 2010), is defending a majority of 12 against the Labour Party, the official opposition. The third largest party, the Scottish National Party, won 56 of the 59 Scottish constituencies in 2015. The Liberal Democrats and the Northern Irish Democratic Unionist Party are the fourth and fifth largest parties, with 9 and 8 seats respectively.

Negotiation positions following Britain’s invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union in March 2017 to leave the EU featured in the election campaign, as did the regular major issues of the economy, education, jobs and the NHS. Following a bombing in Manchester and a terrorist incident in London, leading to temporary campaign suspensions from 23 to 24 May and on 4 June respectively, national security became a particularly prominent election issue. Opinion polling for the popular vote since the election was called gave May’s Conservatives a lead over Labour led by Jeremy Corbyn, although their lead narrowed significantly over the course of the campaign.

Each parliamentary constituency of the United Kingdom elects one MP to the House of Commons using the “first past the post” system. If one party obtains a majority of seats, then that party is entitled to form the Government, with its leader as Prime Minister. If the election results in no single party having a majority, then there is a hung parliament. In this case, the options for forming the Government are either a minority government or a coalition government. the general election will take place under existing boundaries, enabling comparisons with the results by constituency in 2015. The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 introduced fixed-term Parliaments to the United Kingdom, with elections scheduled every five years following the general election on 7 May 2017. This removed the power of the Prime Minister, using the royal prerogative, to dissolve Parliament before its five-year maximum length The Act permits early dissolution if the House of Commons votes by a supermajority of two-thirds.

On 18 April 2017, the Prime Minister Theresa May announced she would seek an election on 8 June. May had previously ruled out calling an early election A House of Commons motion to allow this was passed on 19 April, with 522 votes for and 13 against, a majority of 509, meeting the required two-thirds majority. The motion was supported by the Conservatives, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the Greens while the SNP abstained. Nine Labour MPs, one SDLP MP and three independents (Sylvia Hermon and two former SNP MPs, Natalie McGarry and Michelle Thomson) voted against the motion. Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn supported the early election, as did Liberal Democrat leader Tim Farron and the Green Party. The SNP stated that it was in favour of fixed-term parliaments, so abstained in the House of Commons vote UKIP leader Paul Nuttall and First Minister of Wales Carwyn Jones criticized the timing of the election as opportunistic by May, motivated by the then strong position of the Conservative Party in the opinion polls. On 25 April, the election date was confirmed as 8 June, with dissolution on 3 May. The government announced it intends for the next parliament to assemble on 13 June with the state opening on 19 June.

Most candidates are representatives of a political party, which must be registered with the Electoral Commission. Candidates who do not belong to a registered party can use an “independent” label or no label at all. Parties in the tables below are sorted by their results in the 2015 general election. The leader of the party commanding a majority of support in the House of Commons is the person who is called on by the monarch to form a government as Prime Minister, while the leader of the largest party not in government becomes the Leader of the Opposition. Other parties also form shadow ministerial teams. The leaders of the SNP and Plaid Cymru are not members of parliament, but instead members of their respective devolved legislatures, and so these parties have separate leaders in the House of Commons: Angus Robertson and Hywel Williams respectively.

The Conservative Party and the Labour Party have been the two biggest parties since 1922, and have supplied all Prime Ministers since 1935. Both parties have changed their leader since the 2015 election. David Cameron, who had been the leader of the Conservative Party since 2005 and Prime Minister since 2010, was replaced in July 2016 by Theresa May following the referendum on the United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union. Jeremy Corbyn replaced Ed Miliband as Leader of the Labour Party and Leader of the Opposition in September 2015 and was re-elected leader in September 2016.

The Liberal Democrats were the third-largest party in British politics, until the Scottish National Party (SNP) and UK Independence Party (UKIP) overtook them. Tim Farron became the Liberal Democrat leader in July 2015, following the resignation of Nick Clegg. Led by First Minister of Scotland Nicola Sturgeon, the SNP stand only in Scotland and won 56 of 59 Scottish seats in 2015.

UKIP, then led by Nigel Farage, who was later replaced by Diane James and then by Paul Nuttall in 2016, Douglas Carswell, left the party in March 2017 to sit as an independent candidate. Green Party leader Natalie Bennett was succeeded by joint leaders Caroline Lucas and Jonathan Bartley in September 2016. A number of parties that contested the previous election chose not to stand candidates, including Mebyon Kernow, the Communist Party of Britain, the Scottish Socialist Party and the National Front.

World Oceans Day

World Oceans Day occurs every June 8. The aim is to provide mformation and raise awareness and to help protect, and conserve the world’s oceans. The ocean provides us with many resources and services including oxygen, climate regulation, food sources, medicine, and more. World Oceans Day also provides an opportunity to take personal and community action to conserve the ocean and its resources. The day is marked in a variety of ways, including launching new campaigns and initiatives, special events at aquariums and zoos, outdoor explorations, aquatic and beach cleanups, educational and conservation action programs, art contests, film festivals, and sustainable seafood events

It has been celebrated unofficially since its original proposal in 1992 by Canada’s International Centre for Ocean Development (ICOD) and the Ocean Institute of Canada (OIC) at the Earth Summit – UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil . in 1987 The Brundtland Commission, (the World Commission on Environment and Development), Reported that the ocean sector lacked a strong voice compared to other sectors. At the first world Oceans Day in 1992, the objectives were to move the oceans from the sidelines to the centre of the intergovernmental and NGO discussions and policy and to recognise ocean and coastal constituencies world wide.

World Oceans Day was officially recognized by the United Nations in 2008. The Ocean Project, working in partnership with the World Ocean Network, Association of Zoos and Aquariums, and many other partners in its network of 2,000 organizations, has been promoting World Oceans Day since 2002 and led a three-year global petition movement to secure official UN recognition. The first UN-recognized World Oceans Day took place 8 June 2009 events number over 200 worldwide the Secretary-General of the United Nations broadcasted a special message concerning the importance of maintaining healthy oceans. The World Oceans Day 2011 theme was also “Youth:the next wave for change”. World Oceans Day 2010’s theme was “Oceans of Life: Pick your favorite * Protect your favorite.” It partnered with Dr. Seuss and the Census of Marine Life. The Ocean Project and World Ocean Network recorded over 300 events for WOD 2010. 45 countries participated in World Oceans Day 2010, including Bangladesh, Belgium, French Polynesia, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, Malta, Malaysia, Venezuela, and Portugal. The World Oceans Day 2012 theme was “Youth: the Next Wave for Change”. The Ocean Project launched a completely revamped site for World Oceans Day 2012. There were over 500 events in 55 countries. The World Oceans Day 2013 & 2014 theme was “Together we have the power to protect the ocean.” This focused on raising awareness and promoting personal and community action in fun and positive ways, leading to a more aware, engaged, and sustainable society, and a healthier ocean.

In 2015 The theme was “Healthy oceans, healthy planet” in the first year of a two-year theme for World Oceans Day. Nearly 1,000 events were held at aquariums, zoos, museums, recreational centers, youth clubs, schools, businesses, and countless individuals marked the day by doing something to keep our ocean healthy. Thousands took The Better Bag Challenge for World Oceans Day – promising to use reusable bags rather than disposable plastic bags for a year to help address the problem of marine debris.

The Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea also held a reception honoring the Day and the winners of the 2nd Annual World Oceans Day Photo Contest.At the United Nations Headquarters in New York City. At UNESCO headquarters in Paris: The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO organized a full day dedicated to the critical role of the ocean for a healthy climate. The program brought together scientists, political decision-makers, civil society, and youth to develop strategies to reduce climate pollution.

UNEP published a report on microplastics in cosmetics. The study, entitled Plastic in Cosmetics: Are We Polluting the Environment Through our Personal Care, and are Plastic ingredients causing marine microplastic litter contains currently available knowledge on the linkages between cosmetics and plastic pollution in the oceans. The Economist in Lisbon, Portugal: The Economist’s third World Ocean Summit was held just prior to World Oceans Day with the aim to set a new global agenda for the ocean economy. The Summit convened more than 250 leaders from various sectors and ignited a constructive dialogue on developing a blue economy in which economic opportunity is balanced by responsible investment in sustainability.

The US Department of State, in 16 cities worldwide: The US Department of State’s annual Fishackathon event was organized to make fishing more sustainable through a weekend of connection and coding. Coders volunteered their talents at institutions including aquariums and universities to develop new tools that help fishers work smarter, more safely, and more sustainably. Goodwill Ambassadors: Jack Johnson celebrated with 5 Gyres and youth in the Bahamas, SpongeBob SquarePants went on a tour to zoos and aquariums across the US, Jeff Corwin and Jack Hanna made a splash on TV through a World Oceans Day campaign with Litton Entertainment, and the Octonauts were in many locations and highlighted in numerous publications around the planet to celebrate World Oceans Day.

The theme for World Oceans Day 2016 was “Healthy Oceans, Healthy Planet.” and was celebrated in over 100 countries with over 700 registered events. Millions of people were involved onsite and online for World Oceans Day 2016. World Oceans Day trended second on Twitter. Instagram posts about World Oceans Day reached over 290 million people, and over 65 million people were reached on Twitter. Celebrities like Richard Branson, Ellie Goulding, Pharrell Williams, Adrian Grenier, Nelson Mandela and more shared photos and tweeted their support for our oceans. Notable organizations such as the United Nations, CNN, National Geographic, LIFE, the White House and more joined in spreading messages of ocean conservation.

In the coordination of World Oceans Day, The Ocean Project continued to place a strong focus on youth engagement in 2016. The Ocean Project recognizes the impact youth can have in ocean conservation, and provides youth with the resources and networks needed to have their voices heard. For World Oceans Day 2016, the World Oceans Day Youth Advisory Council was established. There are 11 members on the council all coming from different countries around the world. The new advisory council will help expand the reach and impact of World Oceans Day, on June 8, and year-round. The Ocean Project plans to focus increasing attention on youth engagement and youth leadership development for World Oceans Day into the future.

The Ocean Project also teamed up with Youth Ocean Conservation Summit and The Big Blue and You to create Sea Youth Rise Up, which brought seven youth ocean conservation leaders to NYC and Washington DC. A talk on pressing ocean issues and solutions was given in a live google hangout at the New York Aquarium. Representatives travelled to Washington DC to meet with ocean leaders at the White House.

The 2017 World Oceans Day coincides with the The United Nations Ocean Conference and The theme for World Oceans Day 2017 is Our Oceans, Our Future, and the conservation action focus is on encouraging solutions to plastic pollution and preventing marine litter for a healthier ocean and a better future. For World Oceans Day 2017, hundreds of events are planned around the world, including the first United Nations Ocean Conference being held in New York City during the week of World Oceans Day.