Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë

The novel Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë was published October 16 1847. it takes place in the north of England, during the reign of George III (1760–1820). It features a character named Jane Eyre who spent her childhood at Gateshead Hall, with her maternal uncle’s family, the Reeds, Where she is emotionally and physically abused by her aunt and cousins. The nursemaid Bessie proves to be Jane’s only ally in the household, even though Bessie sometimes harshly scolds Jane. Excluded from the family activities, Jane is incredibly unhappy, with only a doll and books for comfort. One day, she has an altercation with her cousin John Reed and is locked in the red room where her uncle died; there, she faints from panic after she thinks she has seen his ghos

She is subsequently attended to by the kindly apothecary Mr. Lloyd to whom Jane reveals how unhappy she is living at Gateshead Hall. He recommends to Mrs. Reed that Jane should be sent to school. So she is sent to Lowood Institution, a harsh charity school for girls under the sinister Mr. Brocklehurst, where she befriends an older girl, Helen Burns and Miss Temple, the caring superintendent, who helps Jane’s self-defence against Brocklehurst’s accusations. The 80 pupils at Lowood are subjected to cold rooms, poor meals, and thin clothing. Many students fall ill when a typhus epidemic strikes, and Jane’s friend Helen dies. When Mr. Brocklehurst’s maltreatment of the students is discovered, several benefactors erect a new building and install a sympathetic management committee to moderate Mr. Brocklehurst’s harsh rule. Conditions at the school then improve dramatically.

After six years as a student and two as a teacher at Lowood, Jane leaves Lowood and advertises her services as a governess and receives one reply, from Alice Fairfax, housekeeper at Thornfield Hall. Jane takes the position, teaching Adèle Varens, a young French girl. Jane encounters Edward Rochester, master of Thornfield Hall and discovers that Adèle is his ward, left in his care when her mother abandoned her. Odd things start to happen at the house, such as a strange laugh, a mysterious fire in Mr. Rochester’s room (from which Jane saves Rochester), and an attack on a house guest named Mr. Mason. Then Jane learns that her aunt Mrs. Reed is calling for her, after suffering a stroke when her son John died, so Jane returns to Gateshead to attend to her dying aunt. The villainous Mrs. Reed gives Jane a letter from Jane’s paternal uncle, Mr. John Eyre, in which he asks for her to live with him and be his heir. Mrs. Reed admits to telling Mr. Eyre that Jane had died of fever at Lowood.

Back at Thornfield, Mr. Rochester is betrothed to the beautiful and talented, but snobbish and heartless, Blanche Ingram. However Jane reveals her feelings for him. Rochester learns that Jane is in love with him, so he proposes, however Jane is sceptical at first but eventually believes him and gladly agrees to marry him. As she prepares for her wedding, a strange woman sneaks into Jane’s room one night and rips her wedding veil in two. Mr. Rochester attributes the incident to Grace Poole, one of his servants. During the wedding ceremony, Mr. Mason and a lawyer declare that Mr. Rochester cannot marry because he is already married to Mr. Mason’s sister, Bertha. Mr. Rochester admits this is true but discovered that she was rapidly descending into congenital madness, so he locked her away in Thornfield, hiring Grace Poole as a nurse to look after her. When Grace got drunk, Rochester’s wife escaped and caused the mysterious events at Thornfield. Jane also discovers that her uncle, Mr. John Eyre, is a friend of Mr. Mason’s. Mr. Rochester asks Jane to go with him to the south of France, and live with him as husband and wife, even though they cannot be married. Refusing to go against her principles, and despite her love for him, Jane leaves Thornfield.

Jane leaves Thornfield. Tired and hungry She eventually arrives at the home of Diana and Mary Rivers, but is turned away by the housekeeper. She collapses on the doorstep. Luckily St. John Rivers, Diana, Mary’s brother and a clergyman, save her. After she recovers Jane gets a teaching position at a nearby village school. St. John learns Jane’s true identity and astounds her by telling her that her uncle, John Eyre, has died and left her his entire fortune of 20,000 pounds (equivalent to over £1.3 million in 2011 and reveals more about John Eyre. Jane, discover that she has more living family members, and Diana and Mary come back to live at Moor House. St. John then asks Jane to marry him and to go with him to India. Jane initially accepts going to India but suggests they travel as brother and sister instead. Jane then returns to Thornfield but discovers that tragedy has befallen Mr Rochester…

The Lion, the Witch and the wardrobe

The first book in the Chronicles of Narnia series “The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe” was published by C.S. Lewis on October 16 1950. It starts In 1940, with four siblings – Peter, Susan, Edmund, and Lucy Pevensie – being evacuated from London during World War II to escape the Blitz. They are sent to the countryside to live with professor Digory Kirke. Exploring the professor’s house, Lucy finds a wardrobe which doubles as a magic portal to a forest in a mythical land called Narnia which has been plunged into a permanent deep winter by an evil White Witch called “Jadis” for 100 years.

In Narnia Lucy meets Tumnus, a faun, who invites her to tea in his home. There the faun confesses that he invited her not out of hospitality, but with the intention of betraying her to the White Witch. The witch has ruled Narnia for years, using magic to keep it frozen in a perpetual winter. She has ordered all Narnians to turn in any humans (“Sons of Adam” or “Daughters of Eve”) they come across. But now that he has come to know and like a human, Tumnus decides to escort Lucy back to the lamppost instead. Lucy returns through the wardrobe and finds that only a few seconds have passed in normal time during her absence. Her siblings do not believe her story about another world inside the wardrobe, which is now found to have a solid back panel.

During a game of hide-and-seek on some days later, Lucy again passes into Narnia. This time her brother Edmund follows her and he meets Jadis, who calls herself Queen of Narnia. When she learns that he is human and has two sisters and a brother, she places an enchantment on him. She urges him to bring his siblings to her castle, promising in return to make him her heir. When Lucy and Edmund return together through the wardrobe, Edmund realizes that the queen he met and the witch Lucy describes are one and the same. He denies to the others that he has been in Narnia at all. Peter and Susan are puzzled by Lucy’s insistence, and consult the Professor.

Soon afterward, all four children enter Narnia together after hiding in the wardrobe to avoid the professor’s dour housekeeper, Mrs. Macready. Remembering the winter cold ahead, they take coats from the wardrobe before exploring. Lucy guides them to Tumnus’s cave, but they find it ransacked, with a notice from Jadis (the White Witch) proclaiming his arrest for harbouring humans. A talking beaver intercepts them, proves himself a friend, and hides the children in his den. There, he and Mrs. Beaver tell them of a prophecy that Jadis’s power will fail when two Sons of Adam and two Daughters of Eve fill the four thrones at Cair Paravel. Aslan, the great lion and the rightful King, has been absent for many years but is now “on the move again” in Narnia. Edmund steals away to Jadis’s castle, which is filled with statues of Narnian victims she has turned to stone. Jadis is furious when Edmund appears alone and angrier still to learn that Aslan may have returned. She takes him on her sledge to catch the others or to reach Aslan’s court before them.

Meanwhile, Mr Beaver realises that Edmund has betrayed them, and they set off at once to seek Aslan at the Stone Table. As they travel, the Witch’s spell over Narnia begins to break: Father Christmas (who has not been seen in Narnia for a hundred years) arrives with magical presents: a sword for Peter, a horn and a bow with arrows for Susan, a knife and a bottle of healing cordial for Lucy. The snow starts to thaw. Aslan welcomes the children and the Beavers to his camp near the Stone Table. Upon hearing Edmund’s situation, he orders a rescue party of loyal Narnians.
Despite his treachery, Edmund is eventually rescued and reunited with his siblings. Jadis approaches in truce to parley with Aslan. She insists that, according to “deep magic from the dawn of time”, she holds the right to kill Edmund following his treason. So Aslan makes a deal with Jadis. That evening, Aslan secretly returns to the Stone Table, shadowed by Susan and Lucy Who discover that He has traded his own life to the witch in order to save Edmund’s, with tragic results.

Confident now of victory, Jadis the White Witch, leads her army away to battle. However things are not what they seem, The Stone Table breaks and Aslan is revived because of “deeper magic from before the dawn of time” which resurrects an innocent killed in place of a traitor. Aslan, Susan and Lucy travel to Jadis’s Castle to rescue everyone who has been turned to stone by Jadis. Meanwhile, Peter and Edmund lead the Narnians against Jadis, however Edmund is seriously wounded. Then Aslan arrives with the former statues as reinforcements. Then Aslan, Edmund, Susan, Peter and Lucy all lead the Narnians in an exciting Battle against Jadis and the forces of evil…

Flea (Red Hot Chili Peppers)

Flea, a.k.a Michael Balzary, the Australian-American bass player, songwriter, and actor (Red Hot Chili Peppers, What Is This?, Atoms for Peace, and Fear) was born 16 October 1962. Formed in Los Angeles in 1983. The Red Hot Chili Peppers’ musical style is a mix of funk, alternative rock, hard rock and punk rock. The band’s influences include Defunkt, Parliament-Funkadelic, Jimi Hendrix, James Brown, Gang of Four, Bob Marley, Big Boys, Sly and the Family Stone, Ohio Players, Queen, Stevie Wonder, Elvis Presley, The Beatles, The Beach Boys, Black Flag, Ornette Coleman, Led Zeppelin, Bad Brains, Fugazi, Fishbone, Marvin Gaye, Billie Holiday, Santana, Elvis Costello, The Stooges, The Clash, Siouxsie and the Banshees, Devo, and Miles Davis. Live, they incorporate many aspects of jam rock due to the improvised nature of much of their performances. Currently, the band consists of founding members Anthony Kiedis (vocals) and Michael “Flea” Balzary (bass), longtime drummer Chad Smith, and guitarist Josh Klinghoffer, who joined in late 2009, following the departure of John Frusciante.

The Red Hot Chili Peppers have won seven Grammy Awards and sold over 80 million albums worldwide. In 2012 they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.The band’s original line-up featured guitarist Hillel Slovak and drummer Jack Irons, alongside Kiedis and Flea. Because of commitments to other bands, the two did not play on the debut album, The Red Hot Chili Peppers (1984). Cliff Martinez was the drummer for the first two records (Irons played on the third), and guitarist Jack Sherman played on the first. Slovak performed on two albums with the band (the second and third), Freaky Styley (1985) and The Uplift Mofo Party Plan (1987); he died of a heroin overdose in 1988, resulting in drummer Irons’ departure. Parliament-Funkadelic guitarist DeWayne McKnight was brought in to replace Slovak though his tenure was short and he was replaced by John Frusciante in 1988. Former Dead Kennedys drummer D.H. Peligro was brought in to replace Irons though after a short tenure with the band he was out and replaced by Chad Smith that same year. The line-up of Flea, Kiedis, Frusciante and Smith was the longest-lasting, and recorded five studio albums starting with 1989′s Mother’s Milk.In 1990, the group signed with Warner Bros. Records and recorded under producer Rick Rubin the album Blood Sugar Sex Magik (1991), which became the band’s first commercial success. Frusciante grew uncomfortable with the success of the band and left abruptly in 1992, in the middle of the album tour. His use of heroin increased. After recruiting guitarist Arik Marshall to complete the tour, Kiedis, Flea, and Smith employed Jesse Tobias though after a few weeks he was replaced by Dave Navarro of Jane’s Addiction for their subsequent album, One Hot Minute (1995). Although commercially successful, the album failed to match the critical or popular acclaim of Blood Sugar Sex Magik, selling less than half as much as its predecessor.

Navarro left the band in 1998. Frusciante, fresh out of drug rehabilitation, rejoined the band that same year at Flea’s request. The reunited quartet returned to the studio to record “Californication(“1999), which became the band’s biggest commercial success with 15 million copies worldwide. That album was followed three years later by “By the Way” (2002), and then four years later by the double album “Stadium Arcadium” (2006), their first number one album in America. After a world tour, the group went on an extended hiatus. Frusciante announced he was amicably leaving the band to focus on his solo career. Josh Klinghoffer, who had worked both as a sideman for the band on their Stadium Arcadium tour and on Frusciante’s solo projects, joined as lead guitarist in 2009. Their tenth studio album, “I’m with You”, was released in 2011 and their Eleventh Album “The Getaway” was released in 2016.

Bob Mould (Sugar, Hüsker Dü)

Bob Mould the American musician with the alternative rock bands Hüsker Dü and Sugar and successful solo artist, was born 16th October 1960. Hüsker Dü were formed in Saint Paul, Minnesota in 1979, with guitarist/vocalist Bob Mould, bassist Greg Norton, and drummer/vocalist Grant Hart. They first gained notice as a hardcore punk band with thrashing tempos and screamed vocals, but band developed a more melodic musical style as they drifted away from their early sound, helping to develop the alternative rock sound in the process. Mould and Hart split the songwriting and singing duties; Mould’s lyrics were known for being more soul-searching and intense than the often whimsical and cryptic ones of Hart .They released a series of albums including Zen Arcade (1984) and New Day Rising (1985). Sadly Hüsker Dü broke up in 1987 without having achieved a popular breakthrough, but they influenced later pop punk and alternative rock bands. Mould released two solo albums before forming Sugar in the early 1990s, while Hart released a solo album on SST and later formed Nova Mob. Norton has been less active musically since Hüsker Dü’s demise and has focused on being a restaurateur.

Bob Mould – HUBCAP http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=FvUkI6P5cEU

SUGAR – FILE UNDER EASY LISTENING http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=a8GQRO6AeT4

Sugar were Formed in 1992, by singer and guitarist Bob Mould (ex-Hüsker Dü),, bassist David Barbe (ex-Mercyland) and drummer Malcolm Travis (ex-Human Sexual Response). Their first concert was on February 20, 1992, at the 40 Watt Club in Athens, Georgia, after a few weeks warming up in R.E.M.’s downtown practice space. Later in 1992, the band released the album Copper Blue, which was named Album Of The Year 1992 by the NME. The following year they released Beaster, an EP of material recorded during the Copper Blue sessions. The single “If I Can’t Change Your Mind” was a moderate success in the UK Singles Chart. After an abortive attempt to record a second album, the band regrouped and released File Under: Easy Listening in September 1994. It reached No. 7 in the UK Albums Chart.A b-side compilation album, Besides, followed in July 1995. Mould broke the band up in spring 1996, because Barbe wished to spend more time with his growing family and expand his solo career. Travis took over the drumming slot in Kustomized. Bob Mould spent the summer of 2012 touring and playing Copper Blue in its entirety. Mould has since released the splendidly rocking solo albums Hubcap, Silver Age and Patch the Sky.

Gary Kemp (Spandau Ballet)

Gary Kemp, The English singer-songwriter actor and, guitarist, with 80’s new romantic band Spandau Ballet, was born 16 October 1959. Spandau Ballet were originally formed in London in 1976 and consisted of Gary Kemp and Steve Norman on guitar, later saxophone and percussion. They were joined by fellow student John Keeble and the three met regularly at lunchtimes to practise. Keeble was followed by bass player Michael Ellison. Tony Hadley, then joined as lead singer, Richard Miller replaced Michael Ellison on bass, before Kemp’s younger brother, Martin joined the band a couple of years later. The band was originally called ‘The Makers’ in the early years, but changed their name after a friend of the band, saw the name ‘Spandau Ballet’ scrawled on the wall of a nightclub lavatory during a visit to Berlin.

Spandau Ballet, began performing with this name and generating a positive buzz around London. Their music prior to then was in the style of the early Rolling Stones or The Kinks, but became more electronic as they began to hang out in clubs such as Billy’s and Blitz, where they would listen to bands like Kraftwerk and Telex. The Blitz was regarded as the New Romanticism.They released the first single “To Cut a Long Story Short”, just ten days after the band emerged from the studio in order to meet the huge demand created by the buzz they had established, “To Cut a Long Story Short” was an instant British top 5 hit in 1980. This was followed by hits with “The Freeze”, “Musclebound” and the well-received and Gold-certified album Journeys to Glory in 1981. The album had all the hallmarks of what would become known as the New Romantic sound and the sound of the early eighties.

The follow-up album, Diamond, was released in 1982 and was certified Gold by the BPI and featured the funk-flavoured single “Chant No. 1″. The second single from Diamond was “Paint Me Down”, the third was, “She Loved Like Diamond”, Trevor Horn remixed the track “Instinction”, which was released as the fourth single from the album.With a slicker, more pop sound, the band released their third album True in March 1983. The album topped the charts all around the world, and launched several international hit singles, such as Gold and the title track which reached number 1 in several countries. The follow-up album, Parade, was released in June 1984 and the album’s opening song was, “Only When You Leave”. At the end of 1984, the band performed on the Band Aid charity single and in 1985 they performed at Wembley Stadium as part of Live Aid.During this same year, Spandau Ballet achieved platinum status with the compilation, The Singles Collection, which kept the focus on the band between two studio albums and celebrated their five years of success.

The band split acrimoniously in 1990, and Martin Kemp went on to land an acting role in the UK soap opera EastEnders, while Tony Hadley tried to establish a solo career. Gary Kemp did a little more acting, appearing in a supporting role in the Whitney Houston hit The Bodyguard, and in 1995 he released his only solo album, Little Bruises. Both Kemp brothers also appeared in the film “The Krays”.In early 2009, there was much speculation that the band was set to perform later that year. Although the band did not initially comment on these reports, the official Spandau Ballet website encouraged fans to sign up “for an exciting announcement. The band eventually confirmed the rumours at a press conference. to announce their comeback tour. The band began a world tour in October 2009, starting with eight dates across Ireland and the UK, the first of which was in Dublin on 13 October 2009. They gave their “first public performance and interview anywhere in the world for 19 years” on Jonathan Ross’s BBC television show Friday Night with Jonathan Ross on 24 April 2009. The group released both their new album Once More, which featured two new songs plus reworked versions of their previous material, and the single of the same name on 19 October 2009.Virgin Media awarded Spandau Ballet as the Best Comeback of 2009 in their Virgin Media Awards. Spandau Ballet also got back together in 2014 to perform a few tracks for a television show.

Cordell Mosson (Parliament Funkadelic)

Cordell Mosson, American bass player with Parliament-Funkadelic  was born 16 October 1952 and joined Parliament Funkadelic during the 1960’s. Parliament Funkadelic were a collective of musicians led by George Clinton who pioneered late 1960s and early ’70s funk. The fusion of R&B rhythms, infectious melodies, and psychedelia and also created a new pop/soul/rock hybrid called Funkadelic, the impact of which has proven lasting and widespread. George was the also the mastermind of the bands Parliament and Funkadelic during the 1970s.The collective’s origins date back to the doo-wop group The Parliaments, which was formed in the late 1950s in Plainfield, New Jersey by a then teenage George Clinton and For a period in the 1960s Clinton was also a staff songwriter for Motown. Despite initial commercial failure (and one major hit single, “(I Wanna) Testify” in 1967), The Parliaments eventually found success under the names Parliament and Funkadelic in the seventies as a funk, soul and rock music collective headed by George Clinton. Funkadelic had a psychedelic rock touch whose influences include the amplifier sounds of Jimi Hendrix and Led Zeppelin, James Brown’s funk, blues, Sun Ra’s experimentation, Frank Zappa’s and the Coasters’ humour, the concept albums of the Beatles and the Who and southern soul artists like Otis Redding and Screamin’ Jay Hawkins, other influences also include the funky side of Hendrix and Sly Stone, Motown soul groups turned funk groups like the Temptations, the political songs of the Impressions, Rufus Thomas’ southern funk, doo-wop groups like the Coasters for the humour and Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers. Their style has been dubbed P-Funk.

Collectively the group has existed under various names since the 1960s and has been known for top-notch musicianship, politically charged lyrics, outlandish concept albums and memorable live performances. Overall, the collective achieved thirteen top ten hits in the American R&B music charts between 1967 and 1983, including six number one hits and and three platinum albums.By the early 1980s, Clinton consolidated the collective’s multiple projects and continued touring under the names “George Clinton and the P-Funk All-Stars” or “George Clinton and Parliament-Funkadelic”. In 1982, Clinton released the songs Computer Games and “Atomic Dog”. During the next four years, Clinton released three more studio albums (You Shouldn’t-Nuf Bit Fish, Some of My Best Jokes Are Friends and R&B Skeletons in the Closet) as well as a live album, Mothership Connection (Live from the Summit, Houston, Texas) and charting three singles in the R&B Top 30, “Nubian Nut”, “Last Dance”, and “Do Fries Go with That Shake?”.

In 1985, George Clinton was recruited by the Red Hot Chili Peppers to produce their album Freaky Styley, because the band members were huge fans of George Clinton and funk in general. Clinton, in fact, wrote the vocals and lyrics to the title track which was originally intended by the band to be left as an instrumental piece. The album was not a commercial success at the time, but has since sold 500,000 copies after the Red Hot Chili Peppers became popular years later.Clinton is also a notable music producer working on almost all of the albums he performs on, as well as producing albums for Bootsy Collins and also contribute to several tracks on Primal Scream’s studio album Give Out But Don’t Give Up, and also sang “Mind Games” on the John Lennon tribute Working Class Hero. Clinton also worked with Tupac Shakur on the song “Can’t C Me” from the album All Eyez on Me; Ice Cube on the song and video for “Bop Gun (One Nation)” on the Lethal Injection album (which sampled Funkadelic’s earlier hit “One Nation Under A Groove”); Outkast on the song “Synthesizer” from the album Aquemini; Redman on the song “J.U.M.P.” from the album Malpractice; Souls of Mischief on “Mama Knows Best” from the album Trilogy: Conflict, Climax, Resolution; Killah Priest on “Come With me” from the album Priesthood, and the Wu Tang Clan on “Wolves” from the album 8 Diagrams.

Mosson sadly passed away 18 April 2013.  however in 1997 all Sixteen members of Parliament-Funkadelic (Including Clinton) were inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and P-Funk’s effect on modern popular music is still immense. Besides their innovation in the entire genre of funk music, George Clinton and P-Funk are still heard often today, especially in hip-hop sampling. The song “Atomic Dog” is one of the most sampled songs in the history of hip hop, especially in the sub-genre G-funk. The Red Hot Chili Peppers video for their 2006 single Dani California featured a tribute to Parliament-Funkadelic. Parliament-Funkadelic’s musical influence can also be heard in R&B, Soul music, Electronica, Gospel, Jazz, and New Wave.

Oscar Wilde

Prolific Irish writer and poet Oscar Wilde was Born 16 October 1854. He became one of London’s most popular playwrights during the early 1890s. Today he is remembered for his epigrams and plays, and the circumstances of his imprisonment which was followed by his early death.Wilde’s parents were successful Dublin intellectuals. Their son became fluent in French and German early in life. At university Wilde read Greats; he proved himself to be an outstanding classicist, first at Dublin, then at Oxford. He became known for his involvement in the rising philosophy of aestheticism, led by two of his tutors, Walter Pater and John Ruskin.

After university, Wilde moved to London into fashionable cultural and social circles. As a spokesman for aestheticism, he tried his hand at various literary activities: he published a book of poems, lectured in the United States and Canada on the new “English Renaissance in Art”, and then returned to London where he worked prolifically as a journalist. Known for his biting wit, flamboyant dress, and glittering conversation, Wilde had become one of the most well-known personalities of his day.At the turn of the 1890s, he refined his ideas about the supremacy of art in a series of dialogues and essays, and incorporated themes of decadence, duplicity, and beauty into his only novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray (1890). Oscar Wilde then wrote Salome (1891) in French in Paris but it was refused a licence. Unperturbed, Wilde produced four society comedies in the early 1890s, making him one of the most successful playwrights of late Victorian London.

At the height of his fame and success, while The Importance of Being Earnest (1895), was still on stage in London, Wilde had the Marquess of Queensberry, the father of his lover, Lord Alfred Douglas, prosecuted for libel, a charge carrying a penalty of up to two years in prison. Unfortunately The trial unearthed evidence that caused Wilde to drop his charges and led to his own arrest and trial for gross indecency with other men. After two more trials he was convicted and imprisoned for two years’ hard labour. In prison he wrote De Profundis (written in 1897 and published in 1905), a long letter which discusses his spiritual journey through his trials, forming a dark counterpoint to his earlier philosophy of pleasure. Upon his release he left immediately for France, never to return to Ireland or Britain. There he wrote his last work, The Ballad of Reading Gaol (1898), a long poem commemorating the harsh rhythms of prison life. Amazingly despite the success of his novels, Wilde died destitute in Paris at the age of forty-six on 30th November 1900. However. His novels continue to remain popular and have been adapted for Radio, Television and film numerous times.