World Diabetes Day is the primary global awareness campaign focusing on diabetes mellitus and is held on November 14 each year. Led by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), each World Diabetes Day focuses on a theme related to diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes is largely preventable and treatable non-communicable disease that is rapidly increasing in numbers worldwide. Type 1 Diabetes is not preventable but can be managed with insulin shots. Topics covered have included diabetes and human rights, diabetes and lifestyle, diabetes and obesity, diabetes in the disadvantaged and the vulnerable, and diabetes in children and adolescents. While the campaigns last the whole year, the day itself marks the birthday of Frederick Banting who, along with Charles Best and John James Rickard Macleod, first conceived the idea which led to the discovery of insulin in 1922.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eye. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:
Type 1 DM results from the pancreas’s failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”. The cause is unknown. Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as “non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes. The most common cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise.Gestational diabetes is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels. Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco. Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with the disease. Type 1 DM must be managed with insulin injections. Type 2 DM may be treated with medications with or without insulin. Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar. Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 DM.Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.
As of 2015, an estimated 415 million people had diabetes worldwide,with type 2 DM making up about 90% of the cases which represents 8.3% of the adult population,with equal rates in both women and men As of 2014, trends suggested the rate would continue to rise.Diabetes at least doubles a person’s risk of early death. From 2012 to 2015, approximately 1.5 to 5.0 million deaths each year resulted from diabetes.The global economic cost of diabetes in 2014 was estimated to be US$612 billion. In the United States, diabetes cost $245 billion in 2012.
World Diabetes Day was launched in 1991 by the IDF and the World Health Organization (WHO) in response to the rapid rise of diabetes around the world. By 2016, World Diabetes Day was being celebrated by over 230 IDF member associations in more than 160 countries and territories, as well as by other organizations, companies, healthcare professionals, politicians, celebrities, and people living with diabetes and their families. Activities include diabetes screening programmes, radio and television campaigns, sports events.
Italian Composer Gioachino Antonio Rossini sadly passed away on 13th November at the age of 76 from pneumonia at his country house at Passy on Friday, 13 November 1868. He was buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, France. In 1887, his remains were moved to the Basilica di Santa Croce di Firenze, in Florence, at the request of the Italian government. He was Born 29 February 1792 into a family of musicians in Pesaro, a town on the Adriatic coast of Italy, he began his musical training early, and by the age of six he was playing the triangle in his father’s musical group, His father also played the horn in the orchestras of the theatres at which his wife sang and Rossini had three years of instruction in the playing of the harpsichord from Giuseppe Prinetti. He was eventually taken from Prinetti and apprenticed to a blacksmith. In Angelo Tesei, he found a congenial music master, and learned to sight-read, play accompaniments on the piano and sing well enough to take solo parts in the church when he was ten years of age. He was also a capable horn player and Around this time, he composed individual numbers to a libretto by Vincenza Mombelli called Demetrio e Polibio, which was handed to the boy in pieces.Though it was Rossini’s first opera, written when he was thirteen or fourteen, the work was not staged until the composer was twenty years old, premiering as his sixth official opera.
In 1806 Rossini became a cello student and learned to play the cello with ease. his first opera, La cambiale di matrimonio (The Marriage Contract), was produced at Venice when he was 18 years old But two years before this he had already received the prize at the Conservatorio of Bologna for his cantata Il pianto d’Armonia sulla morte d’Orfeo. Between 1810 and 1813 at Bologna, Rome, Venice and Milan, Rossini produced operas of varying success, most notably La pietra del paragone and Il signor Bruschino, with its brilliant and unique overture. In 1813, Tancredi and L’italiana in Algeri were even bigger successes, and catapulted the 20-year-old composer to international fame.Rossini’s most famous opera, ,The Barber of Seville, was produced on 20 February 1816, scholars generally agree that it was written in two or three weeks, although Rossini himself claimed to have written the opera in only twelve days.Perhaps one of the most well known parts of The Barber of Seville is Figaro’s Aria.
Between 1815 and 1823 Rossini produced 20 operas. Of these Othello formed the climax to his reform of serious opera, and offers a suggestive contrast with the treatment of the same subject at a similar point of artistic development by the composer Giuseppe Verdi. In 1823, he came to England, being much fêted on his way through Paris. and was given a generous welcome in England, The next year he became musical director of the Théâtre des Italiens in Paris, between 1824 and 1829, Rossini created the comic opera Le Comte Ory and Guillaume Tell (William Tell). which is a political epic adapted from Schiller’s play about the 13th-century Swiss patriot who rallied his country against the Austrians.By the age of thirty-eight he had composed thirty-eight operas as well as sacred music, chamber music, songs, and some instrumental and piano pieces. He also became famous for the inspired, song-like melodies which are evident throughout his scores, which mark a transitional stage in the history of opera, the overture serving as a model for romantic overtures throughout the 19th century.Rossini sadly passed away on 13th November at the age of 76 from pneumonia at his country house at Passy on Friday, 13 November 1868. But during his lifetime he recieve many Honors & tributes, He was a foreign associate of the institute, grand officer of the Legion of Honour and recipient of innumerable orders. In 1900 Giuseppe Cassioli created a monument to Rossini in the Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence. Rossini remains one of the most popular opera composers in history and The William Tell overture also remains one of the most famous and frequently recorded works in the classical repertoire In 1989 the conductor Helmuth Rilling also recorded a Requiem for Rossini.