World Civil Defence day is a worldwide observance which takes place annually on 1st March. Civil defence or civil protection is described as an effort to protect the citizens of a state (generally non-combatants) from military attack by means of emergency operations, prevention, mitigation, preparation, response, or emergency evacuation and recovery, and World Civil Defence Day, was set up on March 1 to commemorate the implementation of the ICDO (International Civil Defence Organisation) constitution in 1972. Which was put in place As the threat of wars, aerial bombardment and Nuclear War grew. World Civil Defence Day has two main purposes:
- To Raise awareness in the public of the importance of Civil Protection and inform people about the preventative and self protection measures in place in the event of accidents or disasters;
- To pay tribute to the efforts, sacrifices and accomplishments made by all members of the national services who have worked to protect civilians in the event of accidents, war or disasters.
During the day a variety of national events: colloquies, conferences, radio and television debates, open days, disaster prevention and simulation exercises may be organised to raise awareness of the development of civil protection structures and of the technical facilities currently available. Since the end of the Cold War, the focus of civil defense has largely shifted from military attack to emergencies and disasters in general. Civil Defence includes things like crisis management, emergency management, emergency preparedness, contingency planning, emergency services, and civil protection.
In some countries, civil defense is seen as a key part of “total defense”. For example in Sweden, the Swedish word totalförsvar refers to the commitment of a wide range of resources of the nation to its defense – including to civil protection. Respectively, some countries (notably the Soviet Union) may have or have had military-organized civil defense units (Civil Defense Troops) as part of their armed forces or as a paramilitary service.