AVICII

Swedish musician, DJ, remixer and record producer Avicii (Tim Bergling) tragically died 20 April 2018. He was born 8 September 1989 in Stockholm, In May 2007, Avicii signed on with the Dejfitts Plays label. Bergling was a member of the Laidback Luke Forums, where he refined his craft and, at times, demonstrated his distinct deep house style. Between 2009 and 2010, Bergling was a prolific producer and was releasing music incredibly quickly. His remixes during this period were “Sound of Now”, “Muja”, “Ryu” and “Even”. Bergling explained that the name Avicii means “the lowest level of Buddhist hell” (Avīci) and he chose the moniker because his real name was already used upon creating his Myspace page. Then, in 2010, Bergling released the hit song “Seek Bromance”, He also remixed Nadia Ali’s classic single “Rapture” for her album Queen of Clubs Trilogy: Onyx Edition. In 2010, Bergling signed with the European A&R team with EMI Music Publishing

In 2011. Bergling began working with his manager and executive producer Ash Pournouri to start House for Hunger which is dedicated to alleviating global hunger. The pair wanted to showcase the giving spirit fostered by the house music community. AVICII also released his breakthrough single “Levels”. In 2012, his collaboration track “Sunshine” with David Guetta was nominated for a Grammy award under the category for Best Dance Recording and His track “Fade into Darkness” was sampled by Leona Lewis on her single “Collide”. In 2012, Bergling released the single “Last Dance”. At Ultra Music Festival 2012 in Miami, he premiered two tracks, “Girl Gone Wild” (Avicii’s UMF Remix) with Madonna and “Superlove” with Lenny Kravitz. Bergling also released the songs “Two Million” and “Silhouettes” featuring vocals from Salem Al Fakir.

In 2012 AVICII performed at Lollapalooza festival in Chicago’s Grant Park and released “Dancing in My Head” (Avicii’s ‘Been Cursed’ Mix) Featuring vocals from Eric Turner. A radio edit of the track, titled “Dancing in My Head” (Tom Hangs Mix) was also released plus an EP featuring remixes from Charlie Bernardo and Michael Woods. AVICII also headlined the world-famous Radio City Music Hall in New York City. supported by Matt Goldman and Cazzette playing his new track “Stay with You”.

His debut studio album, True was released in 2013 and featured electronic music blended with elements of several music genres and received generally positive reviews from music critics. The song was produced by Bergling and contains a vocal sample from the 1962 gospel-inspired “Something’s Got a Hold on Me” by Etta James. The same vocal sample was used first by Pretty Lights in his 2006 song “Finally Moving. This sample was also used by Drum and Bass producer Logistics on “Call Me Back” and by Flo Rida in his single “Good Feeling”, which was produced by DJ Prak and Cirkut.

His repertoire also includes the singles I’ll Be Gone” and “Let It Go”. The instrumental of “Let It Go” was mixed with the a capella of “Addicted to You” to become “Addicted to You (Avicii by Avicii), “I Could Be the One” with Nicky Romero, “You Make Me”, “X You”, “Hey Brother”, “The Days”, “The Nights”, “Waiting for Love”, “Without You” and “Lonely Together”. Bergling was nominated for Grammy Awards for his work on “Sunshine” with David Guetta in 2012 and the track “Levels”. in 2013 Bergling launched the Avicii X You project, a partnership with Ericsson, designed to create the world’s first “crowdsourced” hit song. The project enabled fans to send in basslines, effects, melodies, rhythms and vocals to Bergling as sound files over the Internet. The song features sequences from Kian Sang (melody), Naxsy (bassline), Martin Kupilas (beat), Ваня Хакси (break), Jonathan Madray, Mateusz Kolata, and Christian Westphalen (effects). Bergling acted as executive producer and created the finished song officially titled X You. AVICII also released “Three Million” featuring Negin. Bergling was nominated for a Grammy for Best Dance Recording with “Levels” at the 2013 Grammy Awards. He was nominated alongside Calvin Harris and Ne-Yo, Skrillex, Swedish House Mafia and John Martin, and Al Walser. AVICII toured Australia as one of the headline acts in the Future Music Festival alongside The Prodigy and The Stone Roses and also toured South America performing in Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil and Chil

In 2013, AVICII released the album True which included the new bluegrass-tinged song “Wake Me Up”. Plus his new album promo mix on SoundCloud. containing songs from True, some non-album singlesPlus some of his ID’s such as “Black and Blue” and “Enough is Enough (Don’t Give Up On Us)”. AVICII also composed the anthem for the Eurovision Song Contest 2013 along with ex-ABBA members Björn Ulvaeus and Benny Andersson. AVICII ‘s next single, “Wake Me Up”, featuring Aloe Blacc was released 2013 which become the UK’s fastest selling single of 2013 after overtaking Robin Thicke’s “Blurred Lines”, having sold 267,000 copies in its first week on sale. In 2013, AVICII was ranked no.3 in the DJ Mag’s 2013 Top 100 DJs List he also released the single “Hey Brother” featuring Dan Tyminski. In 2013 AVICII won the award “Best Electronic” at the MTV EMA’s And the American Music Award for favorite Electronic Dance Music Artist and released thefourth single off the album True, “Addicted to You”featuring Audra Mae, who also sings on “Shame on Me” Dreaming of Me”,and “Long Road to Hell”. AVICII also released the single “Lay Me Down”, featuring vocals from Adam Lambert and guitar from Nile Rodgers. In 2014, French radio station NRJ released a web radio station called “NRJ AVICII”.

In 2014, AVICII released a remixed edition of his album True titled True: Avicii By Avicii containing remixes by himself of all the tracks, excluding “Heart Upon My Sleeve”. AVICII Also collaborated with Carlos Santana, Wyclef Jean and Alexandre Pires for the official FIFA World Cup Anthem titled “Dar um Jeito (We Will Find a Way)”. He was due to perform at the 2014 Ultra Music Festival, but was hospitalised on March, 2014 and was unable to playHe also released his single “Lay Me Down” and produced and collaborated with Chris Martin from Coldplay, co-writing and co-producing the track “A Sky Full of Stars” from the 2014 album Ghost Stories. AVICII also co-produced Lovers on the Sun” with David Guetta and collaborated with Wyclef Jean on a single titled “Divine Sorrow” from the album Clefication

AVICII worked on 70 songs foR the album Stories, which would include collaborations with Jon Bon Jovi, Serj Tankian of System of a Down, Chris Martin, Wyclef Jean and Matisyahu. During his tour for True, he also performed the single “No Pleasing a Woman” with vocals from Billie Joe Armstrong of American rock band Green Day. AVICII performed No Pleasing a Woman”. “In Love with Your Ghost” with Daniel “Danne” Adams-Ray, “Love to Fall” with Tom Odell and “Million Miles” with LP, which is the demo version of “Trouble”, a song from Stories with vocals from Wayne Hector. He released Lose Myself”, in collaboration with Chinese singer Wang Leehom.

On 8 September 2014, his 25th birthday, Bergling decided to cancel all of his remaining performances of 2014 due to health concerns. He also released “The Days” In collaboration with Robbie Williams, He also released a brand new track called “The Nights” on FIFA 15. That November Wyclef Jean released a track titled “Divine Sorrow” featuring Avicii. On 2 March 2015, Bergling performed the song “Heaven” live at Australia’s Future Music Festival , featuring Coldplay frontman Chris Martin, However, the vocals were later resung by singer Simon Aldred from Cherry Ghost; although Chris Martin received writing credits. Much of AVICII ‘s UMF set 2015 was released on the Internet including “Heaven”, “Waiting For Love,” and some of his ID’s “For A Better Day”, “City Lights”, “Can’t Catch Me”, “True Believer”, “What Would I Change It To”, “Can’t Love You Again” and “Attack”.

AVICII also previewed his bootleg of Kings of Tomorrow’s song “Finally” and “Papa Was a Rolling Stone” with ASH, he also released his rework of Nina Simone’s version of “Feeling Good”, and previewed the song “I’ll Be Gone”. He previewed the song Waiting for Love” featuring vocals from Simon Aldred of Cherry Ghost and co-produced by fellow DJ and producer Martin Garrix. He also previewed “Tracks of My Tears”, “Sorry Mr. Atari” and “Time to Get lll”. AVICII previewed two tracks from his album Stories on episode 37 of his LE7ELS podcast: “Broken Arrows” featuring Zac Brown Band and “Can’t Catch Me” featuring Wyclef Jean and Matisyahu. AVICII then released “For a Better Day” featuring American singer Alex Ebert and “Pure Grinding” featuring vocals from Kristoffer Fogelmark and Earl St. Clair. His next album Stories was released in 2015 alongside 3 promotional singles: “Broken Arrows” with Zac Brown, “Ten More Days” with Zak Abel and “Gonna Love Ya” with Sandro Cavazzi. Avicii was also mentioned in the song “I Took a Pill in Ibiza” by American singer and songwriter Mike Posner.

In 2016, Bergling released his remix of Morten’s “Beautiful Heartbeat” and partnered with Coca-Cola For the global campaign anthem “Taste the Feeling” featuring Conrad Sewell. AVICII teamed up again with Coldplay to co-produce the band’s single “Hymn for the Weekend” from their album A Head Full of Dreams. HE also performed live at Ultra Music Festival and premiered new IDs such as “Without You (feat. Sandro Cavazza)”, “We Burn (Faster Than Light)”, and a collaboration with Australian pop star Sia (which he first played in Dubai). He also released his collaboration with Otto Knows titled “Back Where I Belong” and a remix of his own song, “Feeling Good” entitled “Feeling Good (Avicii by Avicii) On 28 August 2016, Bergling performed his final live performance in Ibiza, before retiring from touring citing health concerns. Avicii also parted ways with long-time manager Ash Pournouri and At Night Management along with Ash’s record label PRMD and signed with Universal Music Sweden.

In 2017, British singer Rita Ora debuted a semi-acoustic version of “Lonely Together” at a private event at Annabel’s in London and Bergling released the six-track EP Avīci (01) in August 2017. Avicii made a documentary entitled Avicii: True Stories chronicling his retirement from tour, and featuring interviews from his colleagues David Guetta, Tiësto, Wyclef Jean, Nile Rodgers and Chris Martin of Coldplay. Sadly In 2016, Bergling’s health deteriorated, and he was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis caused by excessive alcohol use. He subsequently stopped performing live. He died on 20 April 2018 near Muscat, Oman, at the age of 28.

Richard Trevithick

Cornish Inventor and Mining Engineer Richard Trevithick Sadly died April 22 1833 at the Bull Hotel, Dartford After spending a week in bed with pneumonia.
Born13 April 1771 in Tregajorran, Cornwall Trevithick’s most significant success was the high pressure steam engine and he also built the first full-scale working railway steam locomotive. On 21 February 1804 the world’s first locomotive-hauled railway journey took place as Trevithick’s unnamed steam locomotive hauled a train along the tramway of the Pen-y-darren Ironworks, near Merthyr Tydfil in Wales. Trevithick was an engineer at a mine in 1797 and with the help of Edward Bull pioneered the use of a High Pressure Steam Engine, but ran afoul of Matthew Boulton & James Watt, who were working on a similar device and held a number of Patents. He improved boiler technology allowing the safe production of high pressure steam, able to move pistons in steam engines instead of using atmospheric pressure.

William Murdoch also demonstrated a model steam carriage to Trevithick in 1794. In fact, Trevithick lived next door to Murdoch in Redruth in 1797 and 1798. Oliver Evans in the U.S. Was working on something similar and Arthur Woolf was also experimenting on a similar engine whilst working as the Chief Engineer of the Griffin Brewery. However Trevithick actually made high pressure steam work, eliminating the need for a condenser, and allowing the use of a smaller cylinder, saving space and weight. Making the engine more compact, lighter and small enough to carry its own weight even with a carriage attached. Trevithick started building his first stationary models of high pressure steam engines, then attached one to a road carriage. Exhaust steam was vented via a vertical chimney, thus avoiding a condenser and any possible infringements of Watt’s patent, with linear motion being converted into circular motion via a crank instead of a beam.

Trevithick built a full-size steam road locomotive in 1801 in Camborne. He named the carriage ‘Puffing Devil’ and, on Christmas Eve it successfully carried seven men from Fore Street up Camborne Hill, past Camborne Cross, to the nearby village of Beacon with his cousin and associate, Andrew Vivian, steering. This is inspired the popular Cornish folk song “Camborne Hill”. However, a steam wagon built in 1770 by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot may have an earlier claim. During further tests, Trevithick’s locomotive was prone to break down and on one occasion the Boiler was allowed to run dry and the machine exploded. Trevithick did not consider this a serious setback, but rather operator error. In 1802 Trevithick took out a patent for his high pressure steam engine.

To prove his ideas, he built a stationary engine at the Coalbrookdale Company’s works in Shropshire in 1802. The Coalbrookdale company then built a rail locomotive for him, but little is known about it, including whether or not it actually ran. To date, the only known information about it comes from a drawing preserved at the Science Museum, London, together with a letter written by Trevithick to his friend, Davies Giddy. The design incorporated a single horizontal cylinder enclosed in a return-flue boiler. A flywheel drove the wheels on one side through spur gears, and the axles were mounted directly on the boiler, with no frame. Unfortunately The Puffing Devil could not maintain sufficient steam pressure and would have been of little practical use. In 1803 he built another steam-powered road vehicle called the London Steam Carriage, which attracted much attention from the public and press when he drove it that year in London from Holborn to Paddington and back. It was uncomfortable for passengers and proved more expensive to run than a horse-drawn carriage and so the project was abandoned.

In 1802 Trevithick built one of his high pressure steam engines to drive a hammer at the Pen-y-Darren Ironworks in Merthyr Tydfil, South Wales. With the assistance of Rees Jones, an employee of the iron works and under the supervision of Samuel Homfray, the proprietor, he mounted the engine on wheels and turned it into a locomotive. In 1803 Trevithick sold the patents for his locomotives to Samuel Homfray. Homfrey was so impressed with Trevithick’s locomotive that he made a bet with another ironmaster, Richard Crawshay, for 500 guineas that Trevithick’s steam locomotive could haul 10 tons of iron along the Merthyr Tydfil Tramroad from Penydarren to Abercynon , a distance of 9.75 miles (16 km). Amid great interest from the public, on 21 February 1804 it successfully carried 10 tons of iron, 5 wagons and 70 men the full distance in 4 hours and 5 minutes, an average speed of approximately 2.4 mph (3.9 km/h). As well as Homfray, Crawshay and the passengers, other witnesses included Mr. Giddy, a respected patron of Trevithick and an ‘engineer from the Government’. The locomotive was relatively primitive comprising of a boiler with a single return flue mounted on a four wheel frame. At one end, a single cylinder with very long stroke was mounted partly in the boiler, and a piston rod crosshead ran out along a slidebar, an arrangement that looked like a giant trombone. As there was only one cylinder, this was coupled to a large flywheel mounted on one side. The rotational inertia of the flywheel would even out the movement that was transmitted to a central cog-wheel that was, in turn connected to the driving wheels. It used a high pressure cylinder without a condenser, the exhaust steam was sent up the chimney assisting the draught through the fire, increasing efficiency even more. The proprietor of the Wylam colliery near Newcastle, heard of the success in Wales and wrote to Trevithick asking for locomotive designs. These were sent to John Whitfield at Gateshead, Trevithick’s agent, who built what was probably the first locomotive to have flanged wheels. Unfortunately Trevithick’s machine was too heavy for the wooden track.

Then In 1808 Trevithick publicised his steam railway locomotive expertise by building a new locomotive called ‘Catch me who can’, built for him by John Hazledine and John Urpeth Rastrick at Bridgnorth in Shropshire, This was similar to that used at Penydarren and named by Mr. Giddy’s daughter. This was Trevithick’s third railway locomotive after those used at Pen-y-darren ironworks and the Wylam colliery. He ran it on a circular track just south of the present day Euston Square tube station in London, Admission to the “steam circus” was one shilling including a ride and it was intended to show that rail travel was faster than by horse. So Recently a group of dedicated people down at the Severn Valley Railway decided to build a replica of Catch-Me-Who-Can.

In 1805 Cornish Engineer Robert Vazie, excavated a tunnel under the River Thames at Rotherhithe and had serious problems with flooding getting no further than sinking the end shafts. So Trevithick was consulted and paid £1000 (the equivalent of £67,387 as of 2014 to complete the tunnel, a length of 1220 feet (366 m). In August 1807 Trevithick began driving a small pilot tunnel and By 23 December after it had progressed 950 feet (285 m) progress was delayed after The tunnel was flooded twice and Trevithick, was nearly drowned. Progress stalled and the project was never actually completed until 1843 when Sir Marc and Isambard Kingdom Brunel built a tunnel under the Thames. Trevithick’s used a submerged tube to cross the Detroit River in Michigan with the construction of the Michigan Central Railway Tunnel, under the engineering supervision of The New York Central Railway’s engineering vice president, William J Wilgus. Construction began in 1903 and was completed in 1910. The Detroit–Windsor Tunnel which was completed in 1930 for automotive traffic, and the tunnel under the Hong Kong harbour were also submerged tube designs. Trevithick’s high-pressure steam engines had many applications including cannon manufacture, stone crushing, rolling mills, forge hammers, blast furnace blowers and traditional mining. He also built a barge powered by paddle wheels and several dredgers.

In 1808, Trevithick entered a partnership with West Indian Merchant Robert Dickinson, who had supported Trevithick’s patents. Including the ‘Nautical Labourer’; a steam tug with a floating crane propelled by paddle wheels. He also patented Iron tanks in ships for storage of cargo and water instead of in wooden caskS, these were also used to raise sunken wrecks by placing them under the wreck and creating buoyancy by pumping them full of air. In 1810 a wreck near Margate was raised in this way. Trevithick worked on many other ideas on improvements for ships: iron floating docks, iron ships, telescopic iron masts, improved ship structures, iron buoys and using heat from the ships boilers for cooking. In May 1810, he caught typhoid and nearly died and in February 1811 he and Dickinson were declared bankrupt. Around 1812, Trevithick designed the ‘Cornish boiler’. These were horizontal, cylindrical boilers with a single internal fire tube or flue passing horizontally through the middle. Hot exhaust gases from the fire passed through the flue thus increasing the surface area heating the water and improving efficiency. These types were installed in the Boulton and Watt pumping engines at Dolcoath and more than doubled their efficiency.

Again in 1812, he installed a new ‘high-pressure’ experimental steam engine also with condensing at Wheal Prosper. This became known as the ‘Cornish engine’ and was the most efficient in the world at that time. Other Cornish engineers contributed to its development but Trevithick’s work was predominant. In the same year he installed another high-pressure engine, though non-condensing, in a threshing machine on a farm at Probus, Cornwall. It was very successful and proved to be cheaper to run than the horses it replaced. It ran for 70 years and is exhibited at the Science Museum. Trevithick attempted to build a ‘recoil engine’ similar to the aeolipile described by Hero of Alexandria in about AD 50, this comprised a boiler feeding a hollow axle to route the steam to a catherine wheel with two fine-bore steam jets on its circumference. The first wheel was 15 feet (4.6 m) in diameter and a later attempt was 24 feet (7.3 m) in diameter. To get any usable torque, steam had to issue from the nozzles at a very high velocity and in such large volume that it proved not to operate with adequate efficiency. Today this would be recognised as a reaction turbine.

Around 1811 a miner, named Francisco Uville bought one of Trevithick’s Hight Pressure Steam Engine for draining water from his silver mine at Cerro de Pasco, Peru. In 1813 Uville set sail again for England and, having fallen ill on the way, broke his journey via Jamaica. When he had recovered he boarded the Falmouth packet ship ‘Fox’ coincidentally with one of Trevithick’s cousins on board the same vessel. On 20 October 1816 Trevithick left Penzance on the whaler ship Asp accompanied by a lawyer named Page and a boilermaker bound for Peru where he travelled widely, acting as a consultant on mining methods. The government granted him certain mining rights and he found mining areas, but did not have the funds to develop them, with the exception of a copper and silver mine at Caxatambo.

After serving in the army of Simon Bolivar he returned to Caxatambo but was forced to leave the area and abandon £5000 worth of ore ready to ship. Uville died in 1818 and Trevithick soon returned to Cerro de Pasco And After leaving Cerro de Pasco, Trevithick passed through Ecuador on his way to Bogotá in Colombia. He arrived in Costa Rica in 1822 to build mining machinery. However transporting ore and equipment, using the San Juan River, the Sarapiqui River, and the railway proved treacherous And Trevithick was nearly killed on at least two occasions – he nearly drowned, and was nearly devoured by an alligator.He made his way to Cartagena where he met Robert Stephenson who was on his way home from Colombia. And Stephenson gave Trevithick £50 to help his passage home. He arrived at Falmouth in October 1827 with few possessions other than the clothes he was wearing, unsurprisingly Trevithick never returned to Costa Rica. In 1829 he built a closed cycle steam engine followed by a vertical tubular boiler. In1830 he invented an early form of storage room heater, which comprised a small fire tube boiler with a detachable flue which could be heated either outside or indoors with the flue connected to a chimney. To commemorate the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832 he designed a massive column to be 1000 feet (300 m) high, 100 feet (30 m) in diameter at the base tapering to 12 feet (3.6 m) at the top where a statue of a horse would have been mounted. but it was never built. he was also invited to work on an engine of a new vessel at Dartford, Which involved a reaction turbine.

Following his death Trevithick was buried in an unmarked grave in St Edmunds Burial Ground, East Hill, Dartford. The burial ground closed in 1857, with the gravestones being removed in the 1960s. A plaque marks the approximate spot believed to be the site of the grave. The plaque lies on the side of the park, near the East Hill gate, and an unlinked path.

Sir Henry Royce

Sir Henry Royce the co- founder of World Renowned Luxury Car Manufacturer Rolls-Royce sadly passed away 22 April 1933. Born 27th March 1863 in Alwalton, Huntingdonshire, near Peterborough, he was the youngest of their five children. His family ran a flour mill which they leased from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners but the business failed and the family moved to London. His father died in 1872 and Royce had to go out to work selling newspapers and delivering telegrams, having had only one year of formal schooling. In 1878 he started an apprenticeship with the Great Northern Railway company at its works in Peterborough thanks to the financial help of an aunt. After three years the money ran out and, after a short time with a tool-making company in Leeds, he returned to London and joined the Electric Light and Power Company. He moved to their Liverpool office in 1882working on street and theatre lighting. In 1884 with £20 of savings he entered a partnership with Ernest Claremont, a friend who contributed £50, and they started a business making domestic electric fittings in a workshop in Cooke Street, Hulme, Manchester, called F H Royce and Company. In 1894 they started making dynamos and electric cranes and F.H. Royce & Company was registered as a limited liability company. The company was re-registered in 1899 as Royce Ltd with a public share flotation and a further factory opened in Trafford Park, Manchester.

Henry Royce first started an electrical and mechanical business and made his first car, a two-cylinder Royce 10, in his Manchester factory in 1904, and was introduced to Charles Rolls at the Midland Hotel in Manchester on 4 May 1904 Rolls was proprietor of an early motor car dealership, C.S.Rolls & Co. in Fulham.In spite of his preference for three or four cylinder cars, Rolls was impressed with the Royce 10. Cars All would be badged as Rolls-Royces, and be sold exclusively by Rolls. The first Rolls-Royce car, the Rolls-Royce 10 hp, was unveiled at the Paris Salon in December 1904. Rolls-Royce Limited was formed on 15 March 1906, by which time it was apparent that new premises were required for production of cars. After considering sites in Manchester, Coventry, Bradford and Leicester, they moved to Derby. The new factory was largely designed by Royce, and production began in early 1908, with a formal opening on 9 July 1908 by Sir John Montagu. During 1906 Royce had been developing an improved six-cylinder model with more power than the 30hp. Initially designated the 40/50 hp, this was the company’s first all-new model. In March 1908 Claude Johnson, Commercial Managing Director and sometimes described as the hyphen in Rolls-Royce,succeeded in persuading Royce and the other directors that Rolls-Royce should concentrate exclusively on the new model, and all the earlier models were duly discontinued. After the First World War, Rolls-Royce successfully avoided attempts to encourage the British car manufacturers to merge. Faced with falling sales of the 40/50 (later known as Silver Ghost) the company introduced the smaller, cheaper Twenty in 1922, effectively ending the one-model policy followed since 1908.

After the introduction of the Phantom model in 1925 this 40/50 model was referred to as the Silver Ghost. The new 40/50 was responsible for the company’s early reputation with over 6,000 built. In 1921, the company opened a second factory in Springfield, Massachusetts in the United States (to help meet demand), where a further 1,701 “Springfield Ghosts” were built. This factory operated for 10 years, closing in 1931. Its chassis was used as a basis for the first British armoured car used in both world wars.In 1931 Rolls-Royce acquired the much smaller rival car maker Bentley after the latter’s finances failed to weather the onset of the Great Depression. From soon after World War II until 2002 standard Bentley and Rolls-Royce cars were often identical apart from the radiator grille and minor details. In 1933, the colour of the Rolls-Royce radiator monogram was changed from red to black because the red sometimes clashed with the coachwork colour selected by clients, and not as a mark of respect for the passing of Royce as is commonly stated. Rolls-Royce and Bentley car production moved to Crewe in 1946 where they began to assemble complete cars with bodies from the Pressed Steel Company (the new standard steel models) for the first time. Previously they had built only the chassis, leaving the bodies to specialist coach-builders.

Rolls-Royce also started to produce diesel engines in 1951. Initially, these were intended for heavy tractors and earth-movers but, later, they were installed in lorries (e.g. Scammell), railcars, diesel multiple units and Sentinel shunting locomotives. Rolls-Royce took over Sentinel’s Shrewsbury factory for diesel engine production in 1956. The Rolls-Royce diesel business was acquired by Perkins in the 1980s. In 1971, Rolls-Royce was crippled by the costs of developing the advanced RB211 jet engine, resulting in the nationalization of the company as Rolls-Royce (1971) Limited. In 1973, the car division was separated from the parent company as Rolls-Royce Motors. Rolls Royce also made Torque converters and railcar engines were often used with Twin Disc torque converters which were built by Rolls-Royce under licence from Twin Disc of the USA. “Twin Disc” is the name of the company (which originally manufactured friction clutches) and does not describe the construction of the torque converter.Sadly in 1971 Financial problems caused largely by development of the new RB211 turbofan engine led – after several cash subsidies – to the company being nationalised by the government. (Delay in production of the RB211 engine has been blamed for the failure of the technically advanced Lockheed TriStar, which was beaten to launch by its chief competitor, the Douglas DC-10.)In 1973 the motor car business was spun off as a separate entity, Rolls-Royce Motors. The main business of aircraft and marine engines remained in public ownership until 1987, when it was privatised as Rolls-Royce plc, one of many privatisations of the Thatcher government. Since then it has been bought by German Automobile Manufacturer BMW.

Earth Day 🌎🌍🌏

Earth Day is an annual event, celebrated on April 22, to increase awareness and appreciation of the Earth’s natural environment.It was first celebrated in 1970, and is now coordinated globally by the Earth Day Network, and celebrated in more than 192 countries each year.

The name and concept of Earth Day was allegedly pioneered by Peace activist John McConnell in 1969 at a UNESCO Conference in San Francisco to honour the Earth And the concept of Peace. Earth Day was first observed in San Francisco and other cities on March 21, 1970, the first day of spring in the northern hemisphere. This day of nature’s equipoise was later sanctioned in a Proclamation written by McConnell and signed by Secretary General U Thant at the United Nations. A month later a separate Earth Day was founded by United States Senator Gaylord Nelson as an environmental teach-in first held on April 22, 1970. Nelson was later awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom Award in recognition of his work. While this April 22 Earth Day was focused on the United States, an organization launched by Denis Hayes, who was the original national coordinator in 1970, took it international in 1990 and organized events in 141 nations. Numerous communities celebrate Earth Week, an entire week of activities focused on environmental issues

The day was later sanctioned in a Proclamation signed by Secretary General U Thant at the United Nations where it is observed each year. About the same time a separate Earth Day was founded by United States Senator Gaylord Nelson as an environmental teach-in first held on April 22, 1970. While this April 22 Earth Day was focused on the United States, an organization launched by Denis Hayes, who was the original national coordinator in 1970, took it international in 1990 and organized events in 141 nations. Numerous communities celebrate Earth Week, an entire week of activities focused on environmental issues

The first Earth Day family had participants and celebrants in two thousand colleges and universities, roughly ten thousand primary and secondary schools, and hundreds of communities across the United States. More importantly, it “brought 20 million Americans out into the spring sunshine for peaceful demonstrations in favor of environmental reform.”To mark the occasion many events are held worldwide. Earth Day is now coordinated globally by the Earth Day Network, and is celebrated in more than 192 countries every year..  coordinated by the nonprofit Earth Day Network, chaired by the first Earth Day 1970 organizer Denis Hayes, according to whom Earth Day is now “the largest secular holiday in the world, celebrated by more than a billion people every year.” Environmental groups have sought to make Earth Day into a day of action which changes human behavior and provokes policy changes.

In 2009, the United Nations designated April 22 International Mother Earth Day  under Resolution A/RES/63/278. The Resolution was introduced by The Plurinational State of Bolivia and endorsed by over 50 member states. It recognizes that “the Earth and its ecosystems are our home” and that “it is necessary to promote harmony with nature and the Earth.” The term Mother Earth is used because it “reflects the interdependence that exists among human beings, other living species and the planet we all inhabit”. It is decided to designate April 22 as International Mother Earth Day. General Assembly President Miguel d’Escoto Brockmann welcomed the creation of International Mother Earth Day, saying: “International Mother Earth Day promotes a view of the Earth as the entity that sustains all living things found in nature. Inclusiveness is at the heart of International Mother Earth Day; fostering shared responsibilities to rebuild our troubled relationship with nature is a cause that is uniting people around the world.”