Star Wars Day

Star WarsMany Star Wars fans celebrate Star Wars culture, books and honour the films annually on May 4th, which has been dubbed Star Wars Day because of the popularity of a common pun “May the fourth be with you”. If you wanted To prolong the celebrations you could also try Revenge of the 5ith, The la5t Jedi, Ro6ue One or Revenge of the Si(x)th. The original quote is derived from the famous quote ‘May the Force be with you” and was first used in an advertisement placed in the London Evening News when Margaret Thatcher was elected Britain’s first female Prime Minister on May 4, 1979, and The Conservative political party placed an advertisement in The London Evening News which read “May the Fourth Be with You, Maggie. Congratulations.” The line was also recorded in the UK Parliament’s Hansard. Star Wars creator George Lucas was also asked to say the famous sentence “May the Force be with you” during a 2005 interview on German news Channel N24 and the nterpreter simultaneously interpreted the sentence into German as Am 4. Mai sind wir bei Ihnen (“On May 4 we are with you.”).

The first organized celebration of Star Wars Day took place in Toronto, Ontario, Canada at the Toronto Underground Cinema in 2011 festivities included an Original Trilogy Trivia Game Show; a costume contest with celebrity judges; and the web’s best tribute films, mash-ups, parodies, and remixes on the big screen. The second annual edition took place on Friday, May 4, 2012. In 2013, Disney’sHollywood Studios is celebrating the holiday with several Star Wars events and festivities. To mark the event I have decided to watch the entire Star Wars saga in order from The Phantom manace to The Force Awakens over the next few days.

Phantom Menace

The Phantom Menace takes place during a trade dispute between The greedy Trade Federation and the Galactic Federation Over the Taxation of Trade Routes, and the Trade Federation blockade many trade routes. So Spreme Chancellor Velorum dispatches two Jedi Knights Qui Gonn Jinn anf Obi Wan Kenobi to negotiate. Meanwhile the evil Darth Sidious, a Sith Lord and the Trade Federation’s secret adviser, orders Federation Viceroy Nute Gunray to kill the Jedi and invade Naboo with an army of battle droids. The Jedi escape and flee to Naboo. During the invasion, Qui-Gon saves a Gungan outcast, Jar Jar Binks, from being run over and killed by a droid tank. Indebted to Qui-Gon, Jar Jar leads the Jedi to an underwater Gungan city. The Jedi unsuccessfully try to persuade the Gungan leader, Boss Nass, into helping the people of Naboo, though they are able to obtain transportation to Theed, the capital city on the surface. They rescue Queen Amidala, the ruler of the Naboo people, and escape the planet on her royal starship, which is damaged as they pass the Federation blockade.

Amidala’s ship lands for repairs on the desert planet Tatooine. Qui-Gon, Jar Jar, astromech droid R2-D2, and Amidala (in disguise as the handmaiden Padmé) visit Mos Espa to buy new parts at a junk shop. They meet the shop’s owner Watto and his nine-year-old slave, Anakin Skywalker, who is a gifted pilot and engineer and has created a protocol droid called C-3PO. Qui-Gon senses a strong presence of the Force within Anakin and is convinced that he is the “chosen one” of Jedi prophecy who will bring balance to the Force. Qui-Gon wagers Anakin’s freedom with Watto in a Podrace, which Anakin wins. Anakin joins the group to be trained as a Jedi, leaving his mother Shmi behind. En route to their starship, Qui-Gon encounters Darth Maul, Darth Sidious’s apprentice, who was sent to capture Amidala. A duel ensues, but Qui-Gon quickly disengages and escapes on board the starship.

Qui-Gon and Obi-Wan escort Amidala to the Republic capital planet of Coruscant so that she can plead her people’s case to Chancellor Valorum and the Galactic Senate. Qui-Gon asks the Jedi Council for permission to train Anakin as a Jedi, but the Council refuses, concerned that Anakin is vulnerable to the dark side. Undaunted, Qui-Gon vows to train Anakin himself. Meanwhile, Naboo’s Senator Palpatine persuades Amidala to make a vote of no confidence in Valorum to elect a more capable chancellor to resolve the crisis on Naboo. Though she is successful in pushing for the vote, Amidala grows frustrated with the corruption in the Senate and decides to return to Naboo. Qui-Gon and Obi-Wan are ordered by the Jedi Council to accompany the queen to Naboo, as well as to confirm the return of the Sith, whom they believe to be extinct.

On Naboo, Padmé reveals herself to the Gungans as Queen Amidala and persuades them into an alliance against the Trade Federation. Jar Jar leads his people in a battle against the droid army while Padmé leads the hunt for Viceroy Gunray in Theed. During a battle in a starship hangar to free Naboo pilots, Anakin takes shelter in a vacant starfighter and inadvertently triggers its autopilot, joining the battle against the Federation droid control ship in space. Anakin blunders into the hangar of the droid control ship and destroys the ship from within before escaping, deactivating the droid army. Meanwhile, Qui-Gon and Obi-Wan battle Darth Maul, who mortally wounds Qui-Gon before being defeated by Obi-Wan. As he dies, Qui-Gon asks Obi-Wan to train Anakin. Subsequently, Palpatine is elected as the new Supreme Chancellor and Gunray is arrested. The Jedi Council promotes Obi-Wan to the rank of Jedi Knight and reluctantly accepts Anakin as Obi-Wan’s apprentice.

Attack of the Clones

Ten years after the Trade Federation’s invasion of Naboo, the Galactic Republic is threatened by a Separatist movement organized by former Jedi Master Count Dooku. Senator Padmé Amidala comes to Coruscant to vote on a motion to create an army to assist the Jedi against this threat. Narrowly avoiding an assassination attempt upon arrival, she is placed under the protection of Jedi Knight Obi-Wan Kenobi and his apprentice, Anakin Skywalker. The two Jedi thwart a second attempt on her life and subdue the assassin, Zam Wesell, but she is killed by her bounty hunter client before she can reveal his identity. The Jedi Council assigns Obi-Wan to identify and capture the bounty hunter, while Anakin is assigned to escort Padmé back to Naboo, where the pair develop a romantic attraction towards each other.

Obi-Wan’s investigation leads him to the remote ocean planet Kamino, where he discovers an army of clones is being produced for the Republic, with bounty hunter Jango Fett serving as their genetic template. Obi-Wan deduces Jango to be the bounty hunter he is seeking, and follows him and his clone son, Boba, to the desert planet Geonosis via a homing beacon placed on their ship, the Slave I. Meanwhile, Anakin becomes troubled by premonitions of his mother, Shmi, in pain, and travels to Tatooine with Padmé to save her. They meet Owen Lars, Anakin’s stepbrother and the son of Shmi’s new husband, Cliegg Lars. Cliegg tells Anakin that Shmi was abducted by Tusken Raiders weeks earlier and is likely dead. Determined to find her, Anakin ventures out and finds Shmi at the Tusken campsite, where she dies in Anakin’s arms. Enraged, Anakin massacres the Tuskens and returns to the Lars homestead with Shmi’s body. After revealing his deed to Padmé, Anakin says that he wants to prevent death.

On Geonosis, Obi-Wan discovers a Separatist gathering led by Count Dooku, whom Obi-Wan learns had authorized Padmé’s assassination and is developing a battle droid army with Trade Federation Viceroy Nute Gunray. Obi-Wan is captured. With knowledge of the droid army, Supreme Chancellor Palpatine is voted emergency powers to send the clones into battle. Anakin and Padmé journey to Geonosis to rescue Obi-Wan, but are also captured. The three are sentenced to death, but are eventually saved by a battalion of Jedi and clone troopers led by Mace Windu and Yoda; Jango Fett is killed by Mace during the rescue. As the clone and droid armies battle, Obi-Wan and Anakin intercept Dooku, and the three engage in a lightsaber battle. Dooku overpowers Obi-Wan and Anakin, but Yoda arrives and duels the count, however Dooku escapes to Coruscant, where he delivers blueprints for a superweapon to his Sith master, Darth Sidious. Meanwhile Anakin secretly marries Padmé on Naboo, with C-3PO and R2-D2 as their witnesses.

Revenge of the Sith

Three years after the start of the Clone Wars between the Galactic Republic and the Confederacy of Independent Systems, Jedi Knights Obi-Wan Kenobi and Anakin Skywalker lead a mission to rescue the kidnapped Supreme Chancellor Palpatine from Separatist commander General Grievous during a battle over the skies of Coruscant. After infiltrating Grievous’s flagship, the Jedi battle Count Dooku. Anakin subdues Dooku, and on Palpatine’s urging, executes him. Grievous flees the battle-torn cruiser, which the Jedi crash-land on Coruscant. There, Anakin reunites with his wife, Padmé Amidala, who reveals she is pregnant. While initially excited, Anakin begins to have prophetic visions of Padmé dying in childbirth, and his worry steadily grows.

Palpatine appoints Anakin to the Jedi Council as his representative, but the Council declines to grant Anakin the rank of Jedi Master and orders him to spy on Palpatine, causing Anakin’s faith in the Jedi to diminish significantly. Palpatine tantalizes Anakin with secret knowledge of the dark side of the Force, including the power to save his loved ones from dying. Meanwhile, Obi-Wan travels to the planet Utapau to deal with General Grievous, and Yoda travels to Kashyyyk to defend the planet from invasion. Tempting Anakin, Palpatine eventually reveals that he is the Sith Lord Darth Sidious, saying that only he has the knowledge to save Padmé from dying. Anakin reports Palpatine’s treachery to Mace Windu, who confronts and subdues the Sith Lord, severely disfiguring him in the process. Fearing that he will lose Padmé, Anakin intervenes on Palpatine’s behalf and severs Windu’s hand, allowing Palpatine to throw him out of a window to his death. Anakin pledges himself to Palpatine, who dubs him Darth Vader. Palpatine issues an order for the clone troopers to kill their Jedi commanders and dispatches Vader along with a legion of clones to kill everyone in the Jedi Temple. Vader massacres the remaining Separatist leaders hiding on the volcanic planet Mustafar, while Palpatine addresses the Galactic Senate, transforming the Republic into the Galactic Empire and declaring himself Emperor. Having survived the chaos, Obi-Wan and Yoda return to Coruscant and learn of Anakin’s treachery.

Unable to convince Padmé about Anakin’s turn to the dark side, Obi-Wan stows aboard her ship. Padmé travels to Mustafar and begs Vader to leave the dark side. He refuses, and upon witnessing Obi-Wan, chokes Padmé into unconsciousness. Obi-Wan duels and defeats Vader, severing most of his limbs and leaving him at the bank of a lava river where he is horribly burned. On Coruscant, Yoda battles Palpatine to a stalemate Yoda flees with Bail Organa. Palpatine, sensing that his apprentice is in danger, travels to Mustafar.

On the asteroid Polis Massa, Obi-Wan regroups with Yoda and Padmé gives birth to twins Luke and Leia before dying. A funeral is held for Padmé on Naboo. On Mustafar, Palpatine finds a severely burnt Vader still alive. After returning to Coruscant, Vader’s mutilated body is treated and covered in a black armored suit. Palpatine explains to Vader that he killed Padmé in his anger. Meanwhile, Obi-Wan and Yoda decide to conceal the twins from the Sith, as they are the galaxy’s only hope for freedom. Yoda exiles himself to the planet Dagobah, while Vader and the Emperor oversee the construction of a superstation, the Death Star. Bail Organa adopts Leia as his own daughter and takes her to Alderaan, while Obi-Wan delivers Luke to his step-family Owen and Beru Lars on Tatooine.

Rogue One

An Imperial technician named Galen Erso has a crisis of concience leaves the evil Empire and goes AWOL with his family Jyn and Lyra to the the remote planet Lahmu. Sadly though the Empire eventually locate him, catch up with him and take him prisoner and send his daughter Jyn to Wobani Labour Camp. However She is rescued by Guerrilla leader and Rebel extremist Saw Gerrera who teaches her to become a fighter with his militia as well as a smuggler and criminal.

However Jyn is abandoned by Gerrera, luckily though she is rescued by a Rebel named Ruescott Melshi and taken to the rebel base where she meets Mon Mothma and Cassian Andor. Meanwhile an Imperial Pilot Defector named Bodhi Rook is being held by Saw Gerrera at the holy city of Jedha having been sent by Galen Erso to warn the rebels that the Empire Is constructing a superweapon of unimagineable power which is capable of destroying whole planets and has been given the name Death StaR So The Rebels send Jyn Erso and rebel pilot Cassian Andor to Jedha where they encounter two Mystic Warriors Chirrut Imwe and Baze Malbus battling the Imperial Invaders. They also encounter Saw Gerrera who is also waging his own guerrilla warfare on the Empire and are imprisoned in his secret base on Jedha. However They are unexpectedly freed when unbeknownst to them, the Empire led by Grand Moff Tarkin and Scientist Orson Krennic decide to demonstrate the Death Star’s destructive capacity on Jedha. Cassian, Jyn, Bodhi Rook, Chirrut Imwe and Baze only just manage to escape the subsequent carnage.

They are then sent to an Imperial Research Facility on the windswept, inhospitable planet Eadu on a mission to find and extract Galen Erso, however unbeknownst to Jyn, Cassian is a secretly given orders by the rebels to assassinate Galen Erso instead. So they arrive on Eadu, Then the rest of the rebels arrive and it all kicks off. Whilst on Eadu Jyn, Cassian, Bodhi Rook, Chirut Imwe and Baze Malbus discover that the technical blueprints for the Empire’s superweapon are being stored in another Imperial Facility on the planet Scarif. So after reasoning that stealth is required rather than a full scale attack, they set off, unbeknownst to the Rebels, on an unsanctioned and very dangerous mission to Scarif to recover the technical blueprints for the Death Star.

Star Wars

Star Wars The first film in the original Star Wars Trilogy was originally released 25 May 1977. (Technically it is the fourth film, and chronologically the prequels take place before Star Wars, however they were released sixteen years after this date). Star Wars is described as taking place a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away and sees a young farm boy named Luke Skywalker thrust unwittingly into a Rebellion to rid the galaxy of an evil empire after acquiring two droids C3POandR2D2, who have escaped from a spaceship which has come under attack from the Empire and landed on the desolate planet Tattooine. Along the way He meets an old Jedi Knight named Obi Wan Kenobi and discovers that one of the droids is carrying the technical data for the Empire’s terrifying new weapon ‘The Death Star’ which is capable of destroying whole planets. Luke also learns that he has a special power and asks Obi Wan to teach him to master it. On Tattoine he also meets charismatic smuggler Han Solo and his wookiee first mate Chewbacca, who are asked to take them to the planet Alderaaan, home of Princess Leia to help mount an attack on the Death Star. However Princess Leia has been captured by the evil Empire, led by The Evil Sith Lord Emperor Palpatine and his sinister apprentice Darth Vader and taken to theDeath Star and Alderaan has been destroyed. so the rebels mount a daring rescue attempt to free Princess Leia and Luke gets swept up in the battle to destroy the Death Star

Empire Strikes Back takes place Three years later, and sees the Rebels attacked by the Empire on the ice world of Hoth and Luke traveling to find Jedi Master Yoda, who is living in exile on the swamp-infested world Dagobah, to begin his Jedi training. The Rebels manage to escape Hoth hotly pursued by the Empire. However, Luke is interrupted from his training when Vader lures him into a trap by capturing Han and the others who have journeyed to Cloud City on Bespin seeking help from Han’s old acquaintance Lando Calrissian. During a fierce lightsaber duel, Vader reveals that he is in fact Luke’s father and used to be Anakin Skywalker, and attempts to turn Luke to the dark side.

Return of the Jedi sees, Luke journeys to Tattoine to save Han from the clutches of the vile gangster Jabba the Hutt and then return to Yoda to complete his training. However, now over 900 years old, Yoda is on his deathbed. Before he passes away, Yoda confirms that Vader is Luke’s father; moments later, Obi-Wan’s spirit tells Luke that he must face his father before he can become a true Jedi, and that Leia is his twin sister. The Rebels then attempt to destroy a second Death Star which is being built near the forest moon of Endor and manage to pursuade the local inhabitants to help them. Meanwhile Luke confronts Vader as Palpatine watches; both Sith Lords intend to turn Luke to the dark side and take him as their apprentice. During the subsequent lightsaber duel, Luke succumbs to his anger and brutally overpowers Vader, but controls himself at the last minute; realizing that he is about to suffer his father’s fate, and he spares Vader’s life and declares his allegiance to the Jedi. An enraged Palpatine then attempts to kill Luke with Force lightning. However Darth Vader Redeems himself at the last moment, switching loyalties from the Empire to his Son, but pays the ultimate price. Subsequently Luke becomes a full-fledged Jedi, and the Rebels destroy the second Death Star.

The Force Awakens

Thirty years have passed since the Death Star was destroyed and Emperor Palpatine defeated, however a new evil power has risen in the form of the First Order led by the Sinister Supreme Leader Snoke and his acolyte Kyle Ren. (Adam Driver). Meanwhile on the remote planet of Jakku a young woman named Rey (Daisy Ridley) eeks out a meager living by scavenging parts from obsolete space ships in exchange for food, she finds a droid BB-8, which contains a top secret map. Then a defector named Finn (John Boyega) crash-lands on Jakku, where he meets Rey (Daisy Ridley), Together, the young duo try to escape theFirst Order who are in hot pursuit and encounter Han Solo (Harrison Ford) before finding themselves drawn into the fight against the evil First Order, led by Princess Leia (Carrie Fisher) and the search for Luke Skywalker (Mark Hamill), the last of the Jedi Knights, who mysteriously vanished after a former pupil turned evil

 

International Firefighters Day

International Firefighters’ Day (IFFD) is observed annually on May 4. It was instituted In remembrance of five firefighters from the Geelong West Fire Brigade, Comprising of Garry Vredeveldt, Chris Evans, Stuart Davidson, Jason Thomas, and Matthew Armstrong , who all tragically died in tragic circumstances, While fighting a large bush fire in Linton, Victoria, Australia On December 2, 1998 after the wind suddenly changed direction engulfing the truck in which they were traveling in flames. This unfortunate incident  inspired JJ Edmondson to bring about an international holiday, called International Fire Fighters Day, to support the lives lost and dedicated fire fighters who risk their lives every day to save life and property.

One of the most significant symbols of International Fire Fighters Day is the red and blue ribbon. This ribbon is cut precisely five centimeters long and one centimeter wide, with the two separate colors conjoined at the top. JJ Edmonson chose red and blue because the red stood for the element of fire whereas the blue would represent the element of water. Coincidentally, red and blue are also the colors recognized world-wide to signify emergency services; therefore, red and blue being the best choice of color to recognize an international holiday. The ribbon is traditionally worn on the lapel-otherwise known as the fold of fabric on a shirt- but is not limited to that certain spot. Some people may also put it on their cars visors, hats, hang them in windows or off of car mirrors, or even hang them from trees in their front lawn. The places this ribbon can be placed are plentiful- just be creative! The red and blue ribbon is a simple but yet effective way to show support for International Fire Fighters Day.

May 4 used to be a traditional Firefighters’ Day in many European countries, because it is the day of Saint Florian, patron saint of firefighters. St. Florian was a patron from Noricum, Rome in 300 AD, who was said to be one of the first commanding fire fighters of an actual battalion. As legend states, St. Florian saved an entire village engulfed in flames using just a single bucket of water. Legend also states, because of this act St. Florian is known as the protector of those who have come in danger of fire. The duties St. Florian performed for his province are the same duties that fire fighters around the world perform every day—with the same dedication and braveries. On May 4, St. Florian is globally recognized and honored and is also known as the day of St. Florian. Therefore, International Fire Fighters Day was chosen to be honored on May 4 in honor of the saint.

Fire prevention and the need for more intensive and thorough training is one of the main aspects of International Fire Fighters Day. Fire fighters and their agencies around the world are constantly stressing fire prevention: in schools, to the community, at public events, at assemblies and even to their own families. The safest way to keep fire fighters alive and home to their families is training. In many paid fire departments, there is a mandatory amount of required training for each individual to complete within each shift. Unfortunately, it is not the amount you train but how you train. Therefore, training needs to be as intense and realistic as it can be. This ideal is one that International Fire Fighters Day stresses. That the need for proper training is one that needs to be met, and therefore IFFD is an opportunity to do exactly this.

Although International Firefighters Day originated from the deaths of five wild land fire fighters, they are not the only aspect of the service recognized. On IFFD, every person in the emergency service career gets recognized; Hazardous Materials Specialists, Fire Prevention Specialists, paid firefighters, volunteer fire fighters, wild land fire fighters, heavy equipment operators/mechanics, Emergency Medical Technicians, and many more. Some of these jobs may seem insignificant; however, without all sectors of the emergency department services working together one would not hold up without the other; therefore, resulting in International Fire Fighters Day to be a time to celebrate everyone who serves in the emergency services.

World Give Day

World Give Day was launched by GiveForward in 2010 for May 4 as “one day a year when people focus on giving. One day when people across the United States can join together to make a difference. One day, where every person, regardless of age or income level, can collectively have a huge impact. Whether people give money, time, resources, or random acts of kindness, it all helps.”

GiveForward.com was launched on August 14, 2008 in Chicago, Illinois. It is an online fundraising tool designed to help people raise money for the causes and organizations that they care about. GiveForward.com has become popular among the growing number of people who fundraise to help pay for a loved one’s medical bills. The Chicago Tribune called it the “future of medical fundraising in the Internet Age.”. GiveForward started an online and physical petition to support National Give Day. The purpose of this collection of signatures was to encourage the Mayor of Chicago, Richard M. Daley, to make May 4, 2010 the first National Give Day. GiveForward.com, has found a niche in the online fundraising industry by being one of few sites that allows people to fundraise for projects that are not affiliated with a registered 501(c)(3) (United States Internal Revenue Code). Due to the absence of this prerequisite, GiveForward cannot be designated a non-profit itself. Therefore GiveForward operates as a for-profit company with a strong social mission.

Since then Users have initiated fundraising pages on GiveForward.com to raise money for medical expenses incurred by a friend, a family member, or even a pet. In March 2009, two sisters used the site to raise $32,000 to pay for one sister’s kidney transplant.  After David Hartsock, a skydiving instructor, saved a woman’s life after a parachute failure and became a quadriplegic, he raised over $150,000 on GiveForward.

E. Nesbit

Celebrated English author and poet Edith Nesbit sadly passed away on 4 May 1924. born 15th August 1858. She wrote or collaborated on over 60 books of fiction for children, several of which have been adapted for film and television. She was also a political activist and co founoded the Fabian Society, a precursor to the modern Labour Party.Nesbit published approximately 40 books for children, including novels, collections of stories and picture books. Collaborating with others, she published almost as many more.According to her biographer Julia Briggs, Nesbit was “the first modern writer for children”: “(Nesbit) helped to reverse the great tradition of children’s literature inaugurated by Lewis Carroll, George MacDonald and Kenneth Grahame, in turning away from their secondary worlds to the tough truths to be won from encounters with things-as-they-are, previously the province of adult novels.” Briggs also credits Nesbit with having invented the children’s adventure story. Noël Coward was a great admirer of hers and, in a letter to an early biographer Noel Streatfeild, wrote “she had an economy of phrase, and an unparalleled talent for evoking hot summer days in the English countryside.”

Among Nesbit’s best-known books are The Story of the Treasure Seekers (1898) and The Railway Children. This concerns a family who move to “Three Chimneys”, a house near the railway, after the father, who works at the Foreign office, is imprisoned after being falsely accused of spying. The children befriend an Old Gentleman who regularly takes the 9:15 train near their home; he is eventually able to help prove their father’s innocence, and the family is reunited. The family take care of a Russian exile, Mr Szczepansky, who came to England looking for his family (later located) and Jim, the grandson of the Old Gentleman, who suffers a broken leg in a tunnel.The theme of an innocent man being falsely imprisoned for espionage and finally vindicated might have been influenced by the Dreyfus Affair, which was a prominent worldwide news item a few years before the book was written. And the Russian exile, persecuted by the Tsars for writing “a beautiful book about poor people and how to help them” and subsequently helped by the children, was most likely an amalgam of the real-life dissidents Sergius Stepniak and Peter Kropotkin who were both friends of the author.

The Railway Children was also adapted into 1970 British drama film based on the novel byE. Nesbit. The film was directed by Lionel Jeffries, and stars Dinah Sheridan, Jenny Agutter (who had earlier featured in the successful BBC’s 1968 dramatisation of the novel), Sally Thomsett and Bernard Cribbins in leading roles. The film was released to cinemas in the United Kingdom on 21 December 1970.The film rights were bought by Lionel Jeffries. It was his directorial debut, and he was also responsible for writing the screenplay for the film. The Railway Children turned out to be a critical success, both at the time of its release and in later years. It has gone on to gain a place in several surveys of the greatest films ever made, including surveys conducted by the British Film Institute and Total Film magazine.

Nesbitt also wrote The Wouldbegoods (1899), which recount stories about the Bastables, a middle class family that has fallen on relatively hard times. The Railway Children is also extremely well known. Her children’s writing also included numerous plays and collections of verse.She created an innovative body of work that combined realistic, contemporary children in real-world settings with magical objects – what would now be classed as contemporary fantasy – and adventures and sometimes travel to fantastic worlds. In doing so, she was a direct or indirect influence on many subsequent writers, including P. L. Travers (author of Mary Poppins), Edward Eager, Diana Wynne Jones and J. K. Rowling.

C. S. Lewis wrote of her influence on his Narnia series and mentions the Bastable children in The Magician’s Nephew. Michael Moorcock would go on to write a series of steampunk novels with an adult Oswald Bastable (of The Treasure Seekers) as the lead character.Nesbit also wrote for adults, including eleven novels, short stories and four collections of horror and has left a long lasting legacy in the form of some great novels and Poems