World Milk Day

World Milk Day is a day established by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations to recognise the importance of milk as a global food and focus attention on milk and to publicise activities connected with milk and the dairy industry and provide an opportunity to educate the public concerning activities that are connected with the dairy sector.

Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals (including humans who are breastfed) before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother’s antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases. It contains many other nutrient including protein and lactose. Interspecies consumption of milk is not uncommon, particularly among humans, many of whom consume the milk of other mammals.

As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from non-human mammals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011,from 260 million dairy coWs. India is the world’s largest producer of milk, and is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports few other milk products. The ever increasing rise in domestic demand for dairy products and a large demand-supply gap could lead to India being a net importer of dairy products in the future. The United States, India, China and Brazil are the world’s largest exporters of milk and milk products. China and Russia were the world’s largest importers of milk and milk products until 2016 when both countries became self-sufficient. Throughout the world, more than six billion people consume milk and milk products. Over 750 million people live in dairy farming households

World milk Day has been observed annually on June 1 each year since 2001. The day is intended to World Milk Day was first designated by the FAO in 2001. June 1 was chosen as the date because many countries were already celebrating a milk day during that time of year. The fact that many countries choose to do this on the same day lends additional importance to individual national celebrations and shows that milk is a global food.

In 2016, World Milk Day was celebrated in over 40 countries. Activities included marathons and family runs, milking demonstrations and farm visits, school-based activities, concerts, conferences and seminars, competitions and a range of events focusing on promoting the value of milk and illustrating the important role played by the dairy industry in the national economy. On June 1, 2018 and 2019 a special campaign will be carried out by the Global Dairy Platform called “Raise a Glass” under the campaign hashtag: #WorldMilkDay.

Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club band

The Seminal album Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band by the Beatles was released on 1 June 1967 in the United States. Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band was the eighth studio album by English rock band the Beatles. Released on 26 May 1967 in the United Kingdoms, On release, the album was lauded by the vast majority of critics for its innovations in music production, songwriting and graphic design, for bridging a cultural divide between popular music and legitimate art, and for providing a musical ideal of its generation and the contemporary counterculture. It won four Grammy Awards in 1968, including Album of the Year, the first rock LP to receive this honour and it remains popular to this day.

The idea for Sgt Pepper came about During a return flight to London in November 1966, after Paul McCartney had an idea for a song involving an Edwardian era military band which eventually formed the impetus of the Sgt. Pepper concept. Tour Manager Mal Evans invented a name in the style of contemporary San Francisco-based groups such as Big Brother and the Holding Company and Quicksilver Messenger Service. Sessions for what was to become the Beatles’ eighth studio album began on 24 November in Abbey Road Studio Two with two compositions inspired from their youth, “Strawberry Fields Forever” and “Penny Lane”, but after pressure from EMI, the songs were released as a double A-side single and were not included on the album. In February 1967, McCartney suggested that the Beatles should record an entire album that would represent a performance by the fictional band. This alter ego group would give them the freedom to experiment musically.

In 1966, the American musician and bandleader Brian Wilson’s growing interest in the aesthetics of recording and his admiration for both record producer Phil Spector’s Wall of Sound and the Beatles’ album Rubber Soul resulted in the Beach Boys’ Pet Sounds LP, which demonstrated his production expertise and his mastery of composition and arrangement. The author Thomas MacFarlane credits the release with influencing many musicians of the time, with McCartney in particular singing its praises and drawing inspiration to “expand the focus of the Beatles’ work with sounds and textures not usually associated with popular music”. McCartney thought that his constant playing of the album made it difficult for Lennon to “escape the influence”, adding: “It’s very cleverly done … so we were inspired by it and nicked a few ideas.” Martin stated: “Without Pet Sounds, Sgt. Pepper never would have happened … Pepper was an attempt to equal Pet Sounds.” Freak Out! by the Mothers of Invention also influenced Sgt. Pepper and The music journalist Chet Flippo states that McCartney was inspired to record a concept album after hearing Freak Out!, considered the first rock concept album.

In February 1967, after recording the “Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band” song, McCartney suggested that the Beatles should release an entire album that would represent a performance by the fictional Sgt. Pepper band. This alter ego group would give them the freedom to experiment musically. During the recording sessions, the band furthered the technological progression they had made with their 1966 album Revolver. Knowing they would not have to perform the tracks live, they adopted an experimental approach to composition and recording on songs such as “With a Little Help from My Friends”, “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” and “A Day in the Life”. Producer George Martin and engineer Geoff Emerick’s innovative recording of the album included the liberal application of sound shaping signal processing and the use of a 40-piece orchestra performing aleatoric crescendos. The cover, depicting the Beatles posing in front of a tableau of celebrities and historical figures, was designed by the British pop artists Peter Blake and Jann Haworth.

Sgt. Pepper is regarded by many as an early concept album that advanced the use of extended form in popular music while continuing the artistic maturation seen on the Beatles’ preceding releases. It has been described as one of the first art rock LPs, aiding the development of progressive rock, and credited with marking the beginning of the Album Era. An important work of British psychedelia, the album incorporates a range of stylistic influences, including vaudeville, circus, music hall, avant-garde, and Western and Indian classical music. In 2003, the Library of Congress placed Sgt. Pepper in the National Recording Registry, honouring the work as “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant”. Rolling Stone magazine ranked it number one in its list of the “500 Greatest Albums of All Time”. As of 2011, it has sold more than 32 million copies worldwide, making it one of the best-selling albums in history. Professor Kevin J. Dettmar, writing in the Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature, described it as “the most important and influential rock and roll album ever recorded”.

Sir Frank Whittle OM KBE CB FRS Hon FRAeS

British Royal Air Force (RAF) engineer officer and Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, OM, KBE, CB, FRS, Hon FRAeS was born 1st June 1907 . He is credited with independently inventing the turbojet engine (some years earlier than Germany’s Dr. Hans von Ohain) and is regarded by many as the father of jet propulsion. The Turbojet Engine was designed to overcome the limitations of traditional piston-engine turbo-prop engines, which could only fly up to a certain speed and height, because above that the air-flow was too fast and too thin for it to perform effectively. From an early age Whittle demonstrated an aptitude for engineering and an interest in flying.

Goster Meteor

 

Determined to be a pilot, he overcame his physical limitations to be accepted into the RAF, where his abilities earned him a place on the officer training course at Cranwell. He began his RAF career as an apprentice where he demonstrated an aptitude for engineering and an interest in flying. Determined to be a pilot, he was eventually accepted into the RAF, where his abilities earned him a place on the officer training course at Cranwell, where he excelled in his studies and became an accomplished pilot.While writing his thesis there he formulated the fundamental concepts that led to the creation of the turbojet engine, taking out a patent on his design in 1930. His performance on an officers’ engineering course earned him a place on a further course at the University of Cambridge where he graduated with a First.

Despite this success, official interest in the Jet Engine was limited, so Without Air Ministry support, he and two retired RAF servicemen formed Power Jets Ltd to build his engine with assistance from the firm of British Thomson-Houston. Despite limited funding, a prototype was created, which first ran in 1937 culminating in the historic flight of May 16th 1941 and leading the way for others. Official interest was forthcoming following this success, with contracts being placed to develop further engines, but the continuing stress seriously affected Whittle’s health, eventually resulting in a nervous breakdown in 1940 so he resigned from the board in 1946 In recognition for his acheivements Sir Frank was later knighted by King George VI and In 1948 Whittle retired from the RAF and received a knighthood. He joined BOAC as a technical advisor before working as an engineering specialist in one of Shell Oil’s subsidiaries followed by a position with Bristol Aero Engines. After emigrating to the U.S. in 1976 he accepted the position of NAVAIR Research Professor at the United States Naval Academy from 1977–1979. In August 1996, Whittle sadly died of lung cancer at his home in Columbia, Maryland on 9th August 1996, but his legacy lives on, and three examples of Whittle’s Jet Powered Gloster Meteor can be found at the RAF Aerospace Museum in Cosford.

Mike Joyce (The Smiths)

English Drummer Michael Adrian Paul “Mike” Joyce was born 1 June 1963 in Manchester to Irish Catholic parents. He attended St Gregory’s Grammar School in the city., he had previously drummed for Manchester band The Hoax and Irish punk rock group Victim. Joyce then joined The Smiths alongside vocalist Morrissey, guitarist Johnny Marr, bassist Andy Rourke and Joyce. This provided him with his first taste of success and was a member of The Smiths throughout the band’s existence (1982–87).

Sadly in 1987 the Smiths disbanded and Immediately after the break-up of the band, Joyce and Smiths bassist Andy Rourke played with Sinéad O’Connor. They, along with Craig Gannon, also provided the rhythm section for two singles by Smiths’ singer Morrissey – “Interesting Drug” and “The Last of the Famous International Playboys” and their b-sides. Work with Suede, Buzzcocks, Public Image Limited, Julian Cope, P. P. Arnold and Pete Wylie followed throughout the 1990s. Joyce, Rourke, and Gannon reunited to work on a project with fellow Manchester musician Aziz Ibrahim (formerly of The Stone Roses and Simply Red), ex-Oasis guitarist Bonehead (as Moondog One), and Vinny Peculiar.

The Smiths breakup started in 1996, when Joyce controversially sued former Smiths’ colleagues Johnny Marr and Morrissey for an equal share of performance and recording royalties. Joyce won the case and was awarded damages of around one million pounds from Morrissey and Marr. According to Morrissey, who unsuccessfully appealed Joyce’s claims, Joyce first sued Morrissey and Marr in 1989 for 25% of The Smiths’ recording royalties. In 1996, Joyce won the case “on the basis of the 1890 Partnership Act”. The next year (1997), according to Morrissey, “Joyce was paid £ 215, 000 from me, and 215,000 pounds from Johnny Marr.

In 2001, as a final payment of back royalties, Johnny Marr paid Joyce 260 thousand pounds, plus ‘costs’. At this time I Morrissey was in the US and was not served with court proceedings, so Joyce obtained a Default Judgment. He then put forward a claim from me for 688 thousand pounds – well above and beyond the amount Johnny Marr was ordered to pay. In my absence, the figure was not contested. … Since 2001, and because of the Default Judgment against me, Joyce has taken out Third Party Orders against the following societies: my personal bank account in England, Smiths royalties from Warner Music, my personal PRS royalties, my personal PPL royalties, and he has attempted to seize UK concert fees from venue to venue. This money, to date, totals 700 thousand pounds. This figure is in addition to the figures mentioned above.” Morrissey went on to claim that the Joyce action is continuous. Because of his Default Judgment he continues to take my royalties, and the royalties of others mentioned above, from Warner Music – consequently I have not received record royalties since 2001.”

In July 2007, Joyce, along with former bandmate Andy Rourke released Inside The Smiths, a DVD which chronicled their experiences of being in the band. In October 2007, Joyce toured the UK playing drums for Vinny Peculiar with Bonehead on bass guitar, and in 2008 ran a successful night at The Brickhouse in Manchester called “Alternative Therapy”. In parallel to his music career, he works as a DJ and broadcaster, including occasional appearances on BBC 6 Music. Joyce has also hosted shows on East Village Radio, an internet station.

Marilyn Monroe

American actress, model, and singer Marilyn Monroe, was born 1st June in 1926. She became a major sex symbol, starring in a number of commercially successful motion pictures during the 1950s and early 1960s.Born Norma Jeane Mortenson (soon after changed to Baker), she spent much of her childhood in a succession of foster homes. It was during this time Monroe was told that someday she would become a movie star. Norma Jeane’s Foster Mother Grace was captivated by Jean Harlow, and would let Norma Jeane wear makeup and take her out to get her hair curled. They would go to the movies together, forming the basis for Norma Jeane’s fascination with the cinema and the stars on screen.

During the forties Monroe began a career as a model, which led to a film contract in 1946 with Twentieth Century-Fox. Her early film appearances were minor, but her performances in The Asphalt Jungle and All About Eve (both 1950) drew attention to her. By 1953, Monroe had progressed to a leading role in Niagara (1953), a melodramatic film noir that dwelt on her seductiveness. Her “dumb blonde” persona was used to comic effect in subsequent films such as Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953), How to Marry a Millionaire (1953) and The Seven Year Itch (1955).

Limited by typecasting, Monroe studied at the Actors Studio to broaden her range. Her dramatic performance in Bus Stop (1956) was hailed by critics and garnered a Golden Globe nomination. Her production company, Marilyn Monroe Productions, released The Prince and the Showgirl (1957), for which she received a BAFTA Award nomination and won a David di Donatello award. She received a Golden Globe Award for her performance in Some Like It Hot (1959).Monroe’s last completed film was The Misfits, co-starring Clark Gable with screenplay by her then-husband, Arthur Miller. The final years of Monroe’s life were marked by illness, personal problems, and a reputation for unreliability and being difficult to work with. The circumstances of her death, from an overdose of barbiturates, have been the subject of conjecture. Though officially classified as a “probable suicide”, the possibility of an accidental overdose, as well as of homicide, have not been ruled out. In 1999, Monroe was ranked as the sixth greatest female star of all time by the American Film Institute. In the decades following her death, she has often been cited as both a pop and a cultural icon as well as the quintessential American sex symbol.

Alan Wilder (Depeche Mode)

Alan Wilder, British musician with Electronic Band Depeche Mode was Born 1st June 1959. Depeche Mode were formed in 1980 in Basildon, Essex The group’s original line-up consisted of Dave Gahan (lead vocals), Martin Gore (keyboards, guitar, vocals, chief songwriter after 1981), Andy Fletcher (keyboards) and Vince Clarke (keyboards, chief songwriter 1980–81). Vince Clarke left the band after the release of their 1981 debut album, Speak & Spell, and was replaced by Alan Wilder (keyboards, drums, occasional songwriter) with Gore taking over songwriting. Wilder also left the band in 1995 and since then Gahan, Gore, and Fletcher have continued as a trio.

Following the departure of Vince Clarke, Depeche Mode placed an advertisement in the music magazine Melody Maker: “Keyboard player needed for established band – no timewasters.” Even though the ad was looking for someone under 21 (Wilder was 22) he lied about his age to get the job, and got away with it. He joined Depeche Mode in January 1982, initially as a tour keyboardist, and soon thereafter as a full member of the recording band.Wilder wrote a handful of songs for Depeche Mode, including “The Great Outdoors” (the B-Side to “Get the Balance Right”), “Two Minute Warning” and “The Landscape Is Changing” (and a B-Side, “Fools”) from the album Construction Time Again, and “If You Want” (and a B-Side, “In Your Memory”) from the album Some Great Reward. However, Wilder’s more notable contributions to Depeche Mode were as a musician, arranger, and producer.In addition to playing synthesiser throughout his time with Depeche Mode, Wilder also played piano on the band’s signature ballad “Somebody,” and oboe on the band’s hit anthem, “Everything Counts.” In the documentary film 101, Wilder demonstrates how different synthesiser parts of a song are split and arranged across a sampling keyboard for playing them live during the concert, just one small example of Wilder’s ongoing contributions to Depeche Mode during his time as a member of the group. For the recording of the albumSongs of Faith and Devotion and its corresponding Devotional Tour Wilder learned to play live drums.For “Enjoy the Silence” from the album Violator, Wilder is credited with taking Martin Gore’s melancholy ballad-esque demo and re-envisioning the song as a percolating, melodic dance track. The resulting single went on to become one of the most commercially successful songs in Depeche Mode’s history. Wilder left Depeche Mode On 1 June 1995 (his 36th birthday)

After his split from Depeche Mode, Wilder was approached by Robert Smith with an offer to join The Cure. Wilder respectfully declined. According to Wilder himself, the possibility was offered on behalf of The Cure by Daryl Bamonte (tour manager for both Depeche Mode and The Cure, and brother of The Cure member Perry Bamonte), and he declined as joining another band was the last thing on his mind.He briefly reunited with Depeche Mode during the Teenage Cancer Trust concert at the Royal Albert Hall in London on 17 February 2010, and enjoyed a rapturous reception. During the encore, Wilder accompanied Martin Gore on piano for “Somebody”. Gore returned the favour and played a DJ set on one of Recoil’s Selected Events.In 2011, Wilder provided two mixes for the Depeche Mode track “In Chains”.Recoil began in 1986 as a two-track experimental EP. Simply entitled 1 + 2, this collection of primitive demos caught the attention ofMute Records label boss Daniel Miller and was inconspicuously released as a mini-album on 12″ vinyl. An album, Hydrology, soon followed in 1988 and both were eventually re-issued by Mute on CD as Hydrology plus 1 + 2. These early Recoil recordings revealed Alan’s position as a pioneer in the newly emerging world of sampling technology and demonstrated how he could turn the Depeche Mode sound around to create something entirely new.

Almost immediately, Wilder found himself back in the studio to record what would become the most successful Depeche Mode album to date, Violator. It wasn’t until the band finally allowed themselves an extended break after the enormously successful World Violation Tour that Alan could return to Recoil—not, however, before agreeing to produce Ebbhead, another album for label-mates Nitzer Ebb.It was during this time that he cemented a working relationship with lead singer Douglas McCarthy who would return the favour by singing on Recoil’s next album, Bloodline. For the Bloodline LP, released in 1991, Between 1992–93 Wilder resumed his Depeche Mode duties as the band recorded the album Songs of Faith and Devotion. Released to universal acclaim, it topped the charts in the UK, US, Germany and a host of other countries. Enjoying hits with “I Feel You”, “Walking in My Shoes”, “In Your Room” and “Condemnation”, Depeche Mode embarked on their most adventurous tour to date, enduring a gruelling fifteen months on the road. Although the group had reached the pinnacle of success, aspects of the lifestyle had taken their toll on everyone and things eventually came to a head. In June 1995, having spent fourteen years as an integral part of one of the most popular and influential bands the UK has ever produced, Alan Wilder made the decision to leave Depeche Mode On 1 June 1995 (his 36th birthday) and Free from his group commitments, Wilder could now focus solely on Recoil and In the spring of 2000, Recoil released Liquid. Following a five-year break from recording, Alan Wilder returned with Recoil’s fifth studio album, entitled subHuman released in July 2007

So far Depeche Mode have had more than 48 songs in the UK Singles Chart including “Enjoy the Silence” “Policy of Truth” “Personal Jesus“ “World in My Eyes””Never Let Me Down Again” and “Walking in My Shoes” twelve top 10 albums in the UK charts, two of which debuted at #1. According to EMI, Depeche Mode have sold over 100 million albums and singles worldwide, making them the most successful electronic band in music history. Q magazine calls Depeche Mode “The most popular electronic band the world has ever known” and included the band in the list of the “50 Bands That Changed The World!”. In 2010 Depeche Mode were ranked No. 98 on VH1′s list of the “100 greatest artists of all time”. Martin Gore has also released a solo album called MG. Depeche Modes fourteenth album, Spirit Featuring the song “Where’s the Revolution, was released in 2017 followed by the Global Spirit Tour. the group also got a nomination for the 2017 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Focke Wulf Fw190

The maiden flight of the German Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighter-bomber airplane took place 1 June 1939. The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger (English: Shrike) is a German single-seat, single-engine fighter aircraft designed by Kurt Tank in the late 1930s and widely used during World War II. Along with its well-known counterpart, the Messerschmitt Bf 109, the Focke-Wulf 190 Würger became the backbone of the Luftwaffe’s Jagdwaffe (Fighter Force). The twin-row BMW 801 radial engine that powered most operational versions enabled the Fw 190 to lift larger loads than the Bf 109, allowing its use as a day fighter, fighter-bomber, ground-attack aircraft and, to a lesser degree, night fighter. The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger was one of the best German planes of all time.

Fw190

The Fw 190A started flying operationally over France in August 1941, and quickly proved superior in all but turn radius to the Royal Air Force’s main front-line fighter, the Spitfire Mk. V, especially at low and medium altitudes. The 190 maintained superiority over Allied fighters until the introduction of the improved Spitfire Mk. IX. In November/December 1942, the Fw 190 made its air combat debut on the Eastern Front, finding much success in fighter wings and specialised ground attack units called Schlachtgeschwader (Battle Wings or Strike Wings) from October 1943 onwards. In the opinion of German pilots who flew both the Bf 109 and the Fw 190, the latter provided increased firepower and, at low to medium altitude, manoeuvrability.

The Fw 190A series’ performance decreased at high altitudes (usually 6,000 m (20,000 ft) and above), which reduced its effectiveness as a high-altitude interceptor. From the Fw 190’s inception, there had been ongoing efforts to address this with a turbosupercharged BMW 801 in the B model, the much longer-nosed C model with efforts to also turbocharge its chosen Daimler-Benz DB 603 inverted V12 powerplant, and the similarly long-nosed D model with the Junkers Jumo 213. Problems with the turbocharger installations on the -B and -C subtypes meant only the D model would see service, entering service in September 1944. While these “long nose” versions gave them parity with Allied opponents, it arrived far too late in the war to have any real effect. The Fw 190 was well-liked by its pilots. Some of the Luftwaffe’s most successful fighter aces claimed a great many of their kills while flying it, including Otto Kittel, Walter Nowotny and Erich Rudorffer.