Posted in Science-tech, steam locomotives

Thomas Newcomen

English inventor Thomas Newcomen sadly passed away 5 August 1729. He was Born around 4 February 1664 in Dartmouth, Devon, England, near a part of the country noted for its tin mines, where flooding was a major problem, limiting the depth at which the mineral could be mined. Newcomen’s great achievement was his steam engine, developed around 1712, combining the ideas of Thomas Savery and Denis Papin. It is likely that Newcomen was already acquainted with Savery, whose forebears were merchants in south Devon. Savery also had a post with the Commissioners for Sick and Hurt Seamen, which took him to Dartmouth.

Savery had devised a ‘fire engine’, a kind of thermic syphon, in which steam was admitted to an empty container and then condensed. The vacuum thus created was used to suck water from the sump at the bottom of the mine. The ‘fire engine’ was not very effective and could not work beyond a limited depth of around thirty feet. Newcomen replaced the receiving vessel (where the steam was condensed) with a cylinder containing a piston. Instead of the vacuum drawing in water, it drew down the piston. This was used to work a beam engine, in which a large wooden beam rocked upon a central fulcrum. On the other side of the beam was a chain attached to a pump at the base of the mine. As the steam cylinder was refilled with steam, readying it for the next power stroke, water was drawn into the pump cylinder and expelled into a pipe to the surface by the weight of the machinery. Newcomen and his partner John Calley built one of the first engines at the Conygree Coalworks near Dudley in the West Midlands. A working replica of this engine can be seen at the Black Country Living Museum nearby.

The Newcomen engine held its place without material change for about three-quarters of a century, spreading gradually to more and more areas of the UK and to mainland Europe. At first brass cylinders had been used but these were expensive and limited in size. New iron casting techniques pioneered by the Coalbrookdale Company in the 1720s allowed bigger and bigger cylinders to be used, up to about 6 feet (1.8 m) in diameter by the 1760s, and experience gradually led to better construction and minor refinements in layout. Its mechanical details were much improved by John Smeaton, who built many large engines of this type in the early 1770s; his improvements were rapidly adopted. By 1775 about 600 Newcomen engines had been built, although many of these had worn out before then, and been abandoned or replaced.The Newcomen Engine was by no means an efficient machine, although it was probably as complicated as engineering and materials techniques of the early eighteenth century could support. Much heat was lost when condensing the steam, as this cooled the cylinder. This did not matter unduly at a colliery, where unsaleable small coal (slack) was available, but significantly increased the mining costs where coal was not readily available, as in Cornwall.

As a result Newcomen’s engine was gradually replaced after 1775 in areas where coal was expensive (especially in Cornwall) by an improved design, invented by James Watt, in which the steam was condensed in a separate condenser. The Watt steam engine, aided by better engineering techniques including Wilkinson’s boring machine, was much more fuel efficient, enabling Watt and his partner Matthew Boulton to collect substantial royalties based on the fuel saved.Watt subsequently made other improvements, including the double-acting engine, where both the up and down strokes were power strokes. These were especially suitable for driving textile mills, and many Watt engines were employed in these industries. At first attempts to drive machinery by Newcomen engines had mixed success, as the single power stroke produced a jerky motion, but use of flywheels and better engineering largely overcame these problems. By 1800, hundreds of non-Watt rotary engines had been built, especially in collieries and ironworks where irregular motion was not a problem but also in textile mills. Despite Watt’s improvements, Common Engines (as they were then known) remained in use for a considerable time, and many more Newcomen engines than Watt ones were built even during the period of Watt’s patent (up to 1800), as they were cheaper and less complicated: of over 2,200 engines built in the eighteenth century, only about 450 were Watt engines. Elements of Watt’s design, especially the Separate Condenser, were incorporated in many “pirate” engines. Even after 1800 Newcomen type engines continued to be built and condensers were added routinely to these. They were also commonly retro-fitted to existing Newcomen engines (the so-called “pickle-pot” condenser).

There are examples of Newcomen engines in the Science Museum (London) and the Ford Museum, Dearborn amongst other places. The last Newcomen-style engine still remaining on its original site is at the Elsecar Heritage Centre, near Barnsley in South Yorkshire. The only Newcomen engines that can be shown working are believed to be the Newcomen Memorial Engine at Dartmouth and the replica engine at the Black Country Museum in Dudley, West Midlands. Sadly Newcomen died at his house in 1729, and his body was buried at Bunhill Fields, in north London. By the time of his death, about 75 of his engines, operating under Savery’s patent (extended by statute so that it did not expire until 1733), had been installed by Newcomen and others in most of the important mining districts of Britain: draining coal mines in the Black Country, Warwickshire and near Newcastle upon Tyne; at tin and copper mines in Cornwall; and in lead mines in Flintshire and Derbyshire.

Posted in music

Pat Smear (Foo Fighters)

Rock musician Pat Smear was born August 5, 1959. He has been a guitarist in several well-known bands including the Germs, Nirvana and Foo Fighters. He is also known for appearing regularly on the MTV fashion show House of Style with friend and supermodel Cindy Crawford. In 1993, he received a call from Nirvana’s frontman Kurt Cobain, asking him to join the band as a second guitarist for an upcoming tour. Smear accepted immediately and played his first show with Nirvana on Saturday Night Live on September 25, 1993. He toured with Nirvana for about six months, and appears on their live albums MTV Unplugged in New York and From the Muddy Banks of the Wishkah, as well as the compilations Nirvana and With The Lights Out. Smear’s time with Nirvana, which brought him his first mass audience exposure, came to an end with Cobain’s death in April 1994Following Cobain’s untimely demise, Nirvana drummer Dave Grohl formed a band to support his self-titled album, the first effort from the band which would become known as Foo Fighters.

Smear joined the group from its inception, but because the band’s first album was a collection of demos recorded solely by Grohl, Smear did not appear on a Foo Fighters album until 1997′s The Colour and the Shape. Later that year, Smear quit the band: he announced his departure and introduced his replacement Franz Stahl,During his absence from Foo Fighters, Smear kept a fairly low profile, producing the band Harlow’s debut album and making scattered television appearances.He has been employed as a creative consultant in a motion picture about the Germs and Darby Crash, entitled What We Do Is Secret, after one of the band’s best-known songs. In the film, he is depicted by actor Rick Gonzalez. In 2005, he also began performing reunion shows with the Germs, with actor Shane West (who portrays Darby Crash in the film) filling in as lead vocalist.

In May 2006, the Foo Fighters announced they would play limited acoustic dates across North America. It was announced Smear would be one of the touring musicians aiding the band during the shows. He also joined the band for the Bridge School Benefit Concert and is a featured musician on the Foo Fighters live album Skin and Bones, and also appeared on stage with the Foo Fighters at the UK’s V Festival, Meadowbank Stadium, Edinburgh and Marlay Park, Dublin, Ireland. In 2007 Smear joined the Foo Fighters for their MTV Music Video Awards party room show and was added to the band as a touring guitarist for their supporting tour of the album Echoes, Silence, Patience & Grace.

Smear also is credited with playing guitar on the song “Let It Die” off the same album later that year Smear joined the Foo Fighters on stage at the MTV Europe Music Awards, confirming his return to the band as a full member and also played both Foo Fighters dates at the O2 Arena, London. On December 22, 2010, the remaining members of Nirvana played together for the first time since the death of Kurt Cobain, at a last-minute Foo Fighters show at Paladino’s in Tarzana, California. Since then he has performed with Foo Fighters on all live performances including the Foo Fighters headlining set at the 2017 Glastonbury Festival.

Posted in music

Adam Yauch (Beastie Boys)

Adam Yauch (A.K.A MCA) from the American hip hop band the Beastie Boys was born 5 August 1964 . The Beastie Boys formed in 1981 consisting of threeMCs and musicians Michael “Mike D” Diamond (vocals, drums), Adam “MCA” Yauch (vocals, bass) and Adam “Ad-Rock” Horovitz (vocals, guitar). Originally formed as a four-piece hardcore punk band by Michael Diamond (vocals), John Berry (guitar), Adam Yauch (bass) and Kate Schellenbach (drums), the band appeared on the compilation cassette New York Thrash, before recording their first EP Polly Wog Stew, in 1982 and the 1983 experimental hip hop 12-inch “Cooky Puss”. From 1984 they released a string of successful 12-inch singles, toured with Madonna in 1985 and released their debut album Licensed to Ill.

Prior to forming the Beastie Boys, Michael Diamond had been in Walden Jazz Band, BAN and The Young Aborigines. The Beastie Boys formed in July 1981 when the Young Aborigines bassist Jeremy Shatan left New York City for the summer and the remaining members Michael Diamond, John Berry and Kate Schellenbach formed a new hardcore punk band with Adam Yauch called Beastie Boys. The band supported Bad Brains, the Dead Kennedys, the Misfits and Reagan Youth at venues such as CBGB, A7, Trudy Hellers Place and Max’s Kansas City. in 1982, the Beastie Boys recorded the 7″ EP Polly Wog Stew at 171A studios, an early recorded example of New York hardcore. The Beastie Boys played Philip Pucci’s birthday recorded as a short concert film of the Beastie Boys, Beastie at Bard College’s Preston Drama Dance Department Theatre. Pucci’s Idea was to distribute a mixture of both a half dozen 16 mm Bell & Howell Filmo cameras, and 16 mm Bolex cameras to audience members and ask that they capture the Beastie Boys performance from the audience’s own point of view while a master sync sound camera filmed from the balcony of the abandoned theater. The opening band for that performance was The Young and the Useless, which featured Adam Horovitz as the lead singer. A one-minute clip of Beastie was used the “Egg Raid on Mojo” segment of the “Skills to Pay the Bills” video which later went on to be certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).

Berry left the group in 1982 (later forming Thwig, Big Fat Love and Bourbon Deluxe) and was replaced by Adam Horovitz, guitarist of The Young and the Useless. Kate Schellenbach left the band in 1984 And Diamond became drummer. TheBeastie Boys performed their first hip hop track, “Cooky Puss”, based on a prank call by the group to Carvel Ice Cream franchise in 1983. This demonstrated a combination of rap and the use of samples. Following the success of “Cooky Puss”, they began to incorporate rap into their sets. They decided to hire a DJ for their live shows and ended up getting an NYU student named Rick Rubin. Soon thereafter, Rubin began producing records. He formed Def Jam Recordings with fellow NY University student, Russell Simmons. Following the departure of drummer Kate Schellenbach Diamond, Yauch and Horovitz adopted their own hip hop monikers—Mike D, MCA and Ad-Rock respectively. They released the 12-inch single “Rock Hard” in 1984, In 1985, the band opened for John Lydon’s post-Sex Pistols band Public Image Ltd, supported Madonna on her North American The Virgin Tour and headlined with Fishbone and Murphy’s Law with DJ Hurricane. They also toured with Run DMC, Whodini, LL Cool J, and the Timex Social Club. The Beastie Boys released the songs “Hold It Now, Hit It” “She’s on It” And the double A-side 12″, “Paul Revere/The New Style”. In 1986 The band recleased the album Licensed to Ill which was lauded byRolling Stone magazine with the now-famous headline, “Three Idiots Create a Masterpiece”. Licensed to Ill became the first rap album to go number 1 on the Billboard 200 chart and number 2 on the Top R&B album charts and featured the songs, “(You Gotta) Fight for Your Right (To Party!)” and “No Sleep till Brooklyn”

the subsequent Licensed to Ill tour was mired in controversy. It featured female members of the crowd dancing in cages and a giant motorized inflatable penis similar to one used by The Rolling Stones in the 1970s. The tour was also troubled by lawsuits and arrests, with the band accused of provoking the crowd. This culminated in their notorious gig at the Royal Court Theatre, Liverpool, England which became a riot approximately 10 minutes after the Beasties hit the stage and culminated in the arrest of Adam Horovitz by Merseyside Police for assault causing grievous bodily harm. Following Licensed to Ill, the Beasties parted ways with Def Jam and ended their relationship with Rick Rubin . The movie Tougher Than Leather, by Rick Rubin was released as a star vehicle for Run-D.M.C. and Def Jam Recordings with appearances by the Beastie Boys was released in 1988. In 1989 Beastie Boys released their second album, Paul’s Boutique”named after a Lower East Manhattan thrift store andfeaturing the song, “Hey Ladies”. Rolling Stone described the album as “the Pet Sounds/The Dark Side of the Moon of hip hop.”Paul’s Boutique is a sample-laden album Produced by the Dust Brothers and Matt Dike.Rolling Stone ranked it number 156 on its list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. due to its large array of samples and intricate use of multi-layering. It was remastered and re-released in 2009.

The follow-up album, Check Your Head, was released in 1992. Featuring the songs “So What’cha Want”, “Pass the Mic”, Lighten Up”,”Something’s Got to Give”,”Time for Livin’”, and a Sly & the Family Stone cover. It was recorded in the band’s own “G-Son” studio in Atwater Village, California And the band was influenced to play instruments on this album by Dutch group Urban Dance Squad; with Mike D on drums, Yauch on bass, Horovitz on guitar and Mark Ramos Nishita (“Keyboard Money Mark”) on keyboards and introduced a more experimental direction, with funk and jazz inspired songs. The Beastie Boys signed an eclectic roster of artists to their Grand Royal label, including Luscious Jackson, Sean Lennon and promising Australian artist Ben Lee. The group owned Grand Royal Records until 2001 when it was then sold. In 1993, the Beastie Boys contributed the track “It’s the New Style” (with DJ Hurricane) to the AIDS benefit album No Alternative, produced by the Red Hot Organization.The Beastie Boys also published Grand Royal Magazine, with the first edition in 1993 featuring a cover story on Bruce Lee, artwork by George Clinton, and interviews with Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and A Tribe Called Quest MC Q-Tip. A 1995 issue contained a memorable piece on the mullet. The Oxford English Dictionary cites this as the first published use of the term, which was coined, and popularized, by the Beastie Boys”. Grand Royal Magazine is also responsible for giving British band Sneaker Pimps their name.

The Beastie boys next album Ill Communication, was released in 1994, Featuring the singles “Get It Together” and “Sabotage” with a music video, directed by Spike Jonze. In 1994 the Beastie Boys also released Some Old Bullshit, featuring the band’s early independent material and headlined at Lollapalooza with The Smashing Pumpkins. the Beastie Boys also performed three concerts (in Los Angeles, New York City, and Washington D.C.) to raise money for the Milarepa Fund and dedicated the royalties from “Shambala” and “Bodhisattva Vow” to the cause. The Milarepa Fund aims to raise awareness of Tibetan human rights issues and the exile of the Dalai Lama. In 1996, Yauch organized the largest rock benefit show since 1985’s Live Aid – the Tibetan Freedom Concert, a two-day festival at Golden Gate Park in San Francisco that attracted over 100,000 attendees. The Beastie Boys also played shows at Madison Square Garden and Chicago’s Rosemont Horizon. One dollar from each ticket sold went through Milarepa to local charities in each city on the tour. The Beastie Boys toured South America and Southeast Asia and released Aglio e Olio, a collection of eight songs lasting just 11 minutes harking back to their punk roots, in 1995. The in Sound from Way Out!, a collection of previously released jazz/funk instrumentals, was released on Grand Royal in 1996 as a homage to electronic pop music pioneers Perrey and Kingsley. In 1992, The Beastie Boys were prosecuted for unlicensed infringement ofcopyright after they sampled portions of the sound recording of “Choir” by James Newton in various renditions of their song “Pass the Mic” However The district court said that no license was required because the three-note segment of “Choir” lacked the requisite originality and was therefore not copyrightable.

Beastie Boys next album Hello Nasty was released in 1998 and featured bombastic beats, rap samples, and experimental sounds together with the addition of Mix Master Mike, this featured the song “Intergalactic”. The Beastie Boys won two Grammy Awards in 1999, receiving the Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album for Hello Nasty as well as the Grammy Award for Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group for “Intergalactic” and won Video Vanguard Award for their contribution to music videos at the 1998 MTV Video Music Awards. they also won the award for Best Hip Hop Video for their hit song “Intergalactic” At the1999 MTV Video Music Awards. The Beastie Boys also toured during 1998 and in1999, Beastie Boys joined Elvis Costello to play “Radio Radio” on the 25th anniversary season of Saturday Night Live. In 1999 The Beastie Boys released The Sounds of Science, a two-CD anthology of their works featuring one new song “Alive”, reachedIn 2000, Beastie Boys had planned to co-headline the “Rhyme and Reason Tour” with Rage Against the Machine and Busta Rhymes, but the tour was canceled when drummer Mike D suffered a serious injury following a bicycle accident which needed surgery and extensive rehabilitation. By the time he recovered, Rage Against the Machine had disbanded, although they would reunite seven years later. Mike D recorded an album, Country Mike’s Greatest Hits, Under the name “Country Mike” and Adam “Ad-Rock” Horovitz’s side project BS 2000 also released Simply Mortified in 2001.

Following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. The band increased their level of political activism organizing and headlining the New Yorkers Against Violence Concert at the Hamerstein Ballroom in October 2001. in 2002 the Beastie Boys released the protest song “In A World Gone Mad”, against the 2003 Iraq war. The 19th and 20th Tibetan Freedom Concerts were held in Tokyo and Taipei, Beastie Boys’ first Taiwan appearance. Beastie Boys also headlined the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival. The song “”Ch-Check It Out”, debuted on The O.C. in “The Vegas” episode from Season 1. In 2004 The Beastie Boys released the album To the 5 Boroughs featuring the song “Ch-Check It Out”. The album caused controversy with allegations that it installed spyware when inserted into the CD drive of a computer. The band denied this, stating that there is no copy protection software on the albums sold in the US and UK. The Beastie Boys rleased their next album the Mix-Up in 2007 and played several tracks from the album at the 2007 Virgin Festival at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore, Maryland and appeared at numerous festivals includingSónar (Spain), Roskilde (Denmark), Hurricane/ Southside (Germany), Bestival (Isle of Wight), Electric Picnic (Ireland) and Open’er Festival (Poland). Beastie Boys performed at the UK leg of Live Earth July 7, 2007 at Wembley Stadium, London with “Sabotage”, “So What’cha Want”, “Intergalactic”, and “Sure Shot” andworked with Reverb, a non-profit environmental organization, on their 2007 summer tour.

In 2008 They won a Grammy for The Mix-Up in the “Best Pop Instrumental Album” category at the 50th Annual Grammy Awards and Hello Nasty was also reissued on September 22, 2009. The Beastie Boys appeared at Bonnaroo Music and Arts Festival and performed the new single from the album titled “Too Many Rappers” alongside rapper Nas. Yauch announced the cancellation of several tour dates and the postponement of the new album due to the discovery of a cancerous tumor in his parotid gland and a lymph node. The group also had to cancel their co-headlining gig at the Osheaga Festival in Montreal as well as a headlining spot at 2009’s Lollapalooza and also another headlining spot for the first night of the All Points West Festival in Jersey City, New Jersey. The Beastie Boys album Hot Sauce Committee Part 2 was eventually released in 2011 containing the same 16 tracks originally slated for inclusion on Hot Sauce Committee Part 1 including a collaboration with Santigold who co-wrote and sang with the band on the track “Don’t Play No Game That I Can’t Win”. The third single for the album was “Make Some Noise” was made available for download on April 11, 2011 as well as a limited edition 7″ vinyl single for Record Store Day five days later with a Passion Pit remix of the track as a b-side which wassubsequently made available via their blog.

In 2012 The Beastie Boys were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fames by Chuck D and LL Cool J. Sadly On May 4, 2012, Yauch died from cancer at the age of 47. In 2014 A children’s playground in Brooklyn was renamed for Adam Yauch in his honour. Mike D stated that neither he nor Horovitz would ever perform under the name the Beastie Boys again out of respect for Yauch. Sadly Founding Beastie Boys guitarist John Berry died on May 19, 2016, aged 52, as a result of frontotemporal dementia,after a decline of health for several years. He was credited with coming up with the Beastie Boys name, and played guitar on the first EP the Beastie Boys recorded. Before the Beastie Boys, he was also a part of Even Worse, Big Fat Love, Highway Stars, Bourbon Deluxe, and Idaho. The first Beastie Boys show took place at Berry’s loft.

The group sold 22 million albums in the United States and 40 million albums worldwide, making them, according to Billboard, “the biggest-selling rap group” since 1991. With seven platinum or better albums from 1986–2004, the Beastie Boys were one of the longest-lived hip hop acts worldwide, and they continued to enjoy commercial and critical success more than 25 years after Licensed to Ill. In 2009, the group released digitally remastered deluxe editions of their albums Paul’s Boutique, Check Your Head, Ill Communication and Hello Nasty. Their eighth studio album, Hot Sauce Committee Part Two, was released in 2011, and received positive reviews. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in April 2012, “just the third rap group to enter the Hall, after Run-D.M.C. (2009) and Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five (2007).” Sadly The following month, MCA died of cancer of the parotid salivary gland, which led to the speculation that the other members may decide to disband the group.

Posted in books

David Baldacci

Best selling American crime fiction novelist David Baldacci, was born August 5, 1960, and raised in Richmond, Virginia. A graduate of Henrico High School, he received a B.A. from Virginia Commonwealth University and a law degree from the University of Virginia, after which he practiced law for nine years in Washington, D.C..Baldacci began writing stories as a child, when his mother gave him a notebook in which to record them. He wrote for more than two decades, penning short stories and later screenplays without much success.

While practicing law in Washington DC he turned to novel writing, taking three years to write his first novel, Absolute Power. Which was published in 1996, and became an international best seller. Absolute Power tells the story of a fictional American President and his secret service agents who are willing to go to extreme lengths in order to cover up the accidental death of a woman with whom the president was having an affair. It has also been made into a film starring Clint Eastwood and Gene Hackman. Baldacci has since written 25 additional bestselling novels for adults as well as three novels for children.

Baldacci and his wife, Michelle, are the co-founders of the Wish You Well Foundation, which works to combat illiteracy in the United States and Baldacci also became involved with theNational Multiple Sclerosis Society after his sister, author Sharon Baldacci, was diagnosed with MS. In addition to writing novels, Baldacci wrote the screenplay for the film adaptation of his novel Wish You Well; the movie was shot on location in southwest Virginia in 2012 with Academy Award winner Ellen Burstyn, Josh Lucas, and Mackenzie Foy in the lead roles. Baldacci is also a consulting producer on King & Maxwell, a TNT television series based on his characters Sean King and Michelle Maxwell .so far Baldacci’s novels have been translated into over 45 languages and sold in more than 80 countries. Over 110 million copies of his books are in print worldwide. He currently lives in Vienna, Virginia, with his wife and two sons.

Posted in aviation

Neil Armstrong

American astronaut, test pilot, aerospace engineer, university professor and United States Naval Aviator Neil Alden Armstrong was Born August 5, 1930 in Wapakoneta, Ohio, Armstrong’s love for flying started from an early age when his father took 2-year-old Neil to the Cleveland Air Races. Later when he was 6, he experienced his first airplane flight in Warren, Ohio, when he and his father took a ride in a Ford Trimotor, also known as the “Tin Goose. Neil attended Blume High School. Armstrong began taking flying lessons at the county airport, and was just 15 when he earned his flight certificate, before he had a driver’s license. Armstrong was active in the Boy Scouts and he eventually earned the rank of Eagle Scout. As an adult, he was recognized by the Boy Scouts of America with its Distinguished Eagle Scout Award and Silver Buffalo Award.In 1947, Armstrong began studying aerospace engineering at Purdue University,and was also accepted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), but the only engineer he knew (who had attended MIT) dissuaded him from attending, telling Armstrong that it was not necessary to go all the way to Cambridge, Massachusetts, for a good education. successful applicants committed to two years of study, followed by three years of service in the United States Navy, then completion of the final two years of the degree. At Purdue, he earned average marks in his subjects, with a GPA that rose and fell during eight semesters. He was awarded a Bachelor of Science degree in aeronautical engineering from Purdue University in 1955, and, from the University of Southern California in 1970, a Master of Science degree in aerospace engineering Armstrong held honorary doctorates from a number of universities.Armstrong’s call-up from the Navy, lasted almost 18 months. during this time he qualified for carrier landing aboard the USS Cabot and USS Wright and two weeks after his 20th birthday, Armstrong was informed by letter he was a fully qualified Naval Aviator.

His first assignment was to Fleet Aircraft Service Squadron 7 at NAS San Diego (now known as NAS North Island). Two months later he was assigned to Fighter Squadron 51 (VF-51), an all-jet squadron, and made his first flight in a jet, an F9F-2B Panther, on January 5, 1951. In June, he made his first jet carrier landing on the USS Essex and was promoted the same week from Midshipman to Ensign. By the end of the month, the Essex had set sail with VF-51 aboard, bound for Korea, where they would act as ground-attack aircraft. Armstrong first saw action in the Korean War on August 29, 1951, as an escort for a photo reconnaissance plane over Songjin and also flew armed reconnaissance over the primary transportation and storage facilities south of the village of Majon-ni,in total Armstrong flew 78 missions over Korea, for which he received the Air Medal for 20 combat missions, a Gold Star for the next 20, and the Korean Service Medal and Engagement Star.Armstrong left the Navy at the age of 22 on August 23, 1952, and became a Lieutenant, Junior Grade in the United States Naval Reserve. He resigned his commission in the Naval Reserve on October 21, 1960.

As a research pilot, Armstrong served as project pilot on the F-100 Super Sabre A and C variants, F-101 Voodoo, and the Lockheed F-104A Starfighter. He also flew the Bell X-1B, Bell X-5, North American X-15, F-105 Thunderchief, F-106 Delta Dart, B-47 Stratojet, KC-135 Stratotanker, and was one of eight elite pilots involved in the paraglider research vehicle program. After his service with the Navy, Armstrong returned to Purdue, where he graduated in 1955 with a bachelor’s degree in aeronautical engineering .Armstrong also completed a master of science degree in aeronautical engineering at the University of Southern California. Following his graduation from Purdue, Armstrong decided to become an experimental research test pilot. He applied at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics High-Speed Flight Station at Edwards Air Force Base , now known as the Dryden Flight Research Center, where he logged over 900 flights. He graduated from Purdue University and the University of Southern California.Armstrong’s first flight in a rocket plane was in the Bell X-1B, he later flew the North American X-15, and also flew with Chuck Yeager in a Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star, during his career, Armstrong flew more than 200 different models of aircraft

In 1958, he was selected for the U.S. Air Force’s Man In Space Soonest program. In November 1960, Armstrong was chosen as part of the pilot consultant group for the Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar, a military space plane; and in 1962, he joined the NASA Astronaut Corp and was named as one of six pilot-engineers who would fly the space plane when it got off the design board. As a participant in the U.S. Air Force’s Man In Space Soonest and X-20 Dyna-Soar human spaceflight programs. Armstrong’s first spaceflight was the NASA Gemini 8 mission in 1966, for which he was the command pilot, becoming one of the first U.S. civilians in space. On this mission, he performed the first manned docking of two spacecraft with pilot David Scott. The last crew assignment for Armstrong during the Gemini program was as backup Command Pilot for Gemini 11, announced two days after the landing of Gemini 8. Having already trained for two flights, Armstrong was quite knowledgeable about the systems and was more in a teaching role for the rookie backup Pilot, William Anders. The launch was on September 12, 1966 with Pete Conrad and Dick Gordon on board, who successfully completed the mission objectives, while Armstrong served as CAPCOM.

Armstrong’s second and last spaceflight came After he served as backup commander for Apollo 8, and he was offered the post of commander of Apollo 11, as 8 orbited the Moon. the Apollo 11 launch much noisier than the Gemini 8 Titan II launch – and the Apollo CSM was relatively roomy compared to the Gemini capsule. The objective of Apollo 11 was to land safely rather than to touch down with precision on a particular spot.On this mission, Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin descended to the lunar surface and spent 2½ hours exploring, while Michael Collins remained in orbit in the Command Module. The landing on the surface of the moon occurred at 20:17:39 UTC on July 20, 1969 The first words Armstrong intentionally spoke to Mission Control were, “Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed.” and Although the official NASA flight plan called for a crew rest period before extra-vehicular activity, Armstrong requested that the EVA be moved to earlier in the evening, Houston time. Once Armstrong and Aldrin were ready to go outside, Eagle was depressurized, the hatch was opened and Armstrong made his way down the ladder first. At the bottom of the ladder, Armstrong said “I’m going to step off the LEM now” (referring to the Apollo Lunar Module). He then turned and set his left boot on the surface at 2:56 UTC July 21, 1969, then spoke the famous words “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.”When Armstrong made his proclamation, Voice of America was rebroadcast live via the BBC and many other stations worldwide. The estimated global audience at that moment was 450 million listeners, out of a then estimated world population of 3.631 billion people. On their Return to Earth. The lunar module met and docked with Columbia, the command and service module. The three astronauts then returned to Earth and splashed down in the Pacific ocean, to be picked up by the USS Hornet .

In May 1970, Armstrong traveled to the Soviet Union to present a talk at the 13th annual conference of the International Committee on Space Research; after arriving in Leningrad from Poland, he traveled to Moscow where he met Premier Alexei Kosygin. He was the first westerner to see the supersonic Tupolev Tu-144 and was given a tour of the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, which Armstrong described as “a bit Victorian in nature”. At the end of the day, he viewed delayed video of the launch of Soyuz 9. Armstrong also received many honors and awards, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Congressional Space Medal of Honor, the Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy, the Sylvanus Thayer Award, the Collier Trophy from the National Aeronautics Association, and the Congressional Gold Medal. The lunar crater Armstrong, 31 mi (50 km) from the Apollo 11 landing site, and asteroid 6469 Armstrong are named in his honor. Armstrong was also inducted into the Aerospace Walk of Honor and the United States Astronaut Hall of Fame. Armstrong and his Apollo 11 crewmates were the 1999 recipients of the Langley Gold Medal from the Smithsonian Institution. He was also awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Richard Nixon along with Collins and Aldrin, the Congressional Space Medal of Honor by President Jimmy Carter in 1978, and the Congressional Gold Medal in 2009 and In a 2010 Space Foundation survey, Armstrong was ranked as the #1 most popular space hero. On November 18, 2010, at the age of eighty, Armstrong said in a speech during the Science & Technology Summit in The Hague, Netherlands, that he would offer his services as commander on a mission to Mars if he were asked, Neil Armstrong sadly passed away On August 25, 2012, in Cincinnati, Ohio, at the age of 82 due to complications from blocked coronary arteries however he leaves an amazing legacy behind.