IMG_6931I am currently reading The Tale of Beren and Lúthien by J.R.R. Tolkien  It is the epic story of the love and adventures of the mortal Man Beren and the immortal Elf-maiden Lúthien (Tenúviel) and is set during the First Age of Middle-earth, about 6500 years before the events of The Lord of the Rings. There are a numberof different versions of the story aside from the abbreviated version which appears in the Silmarillion, and the characters have different names and the events are slightly different in each version, happily most versions have been brought together and are featured in this book.

It features the warrior Beren, the last survivor of a group of Men led by his father Barahir who fought Morgoth, the Dark Enemy, during the Battle of Sudden Flame. The men were defeated allowing Morgoth to conquer much of northern Middle-earth. After this defeat Beren flees into the elvish realm Doriath Where he meets Lúthien the only daughter of King Thingol (Tinwelint) and Melian the Maia. Beren and Lúthien gradually fall in love, However Thingol doesn’t think Beren is worthy enough to marry his daughter. So to keep them apart Thingol sets Beren a seemingly impossible task to achieve before marrying Lúthien and asks him to bring him one of the Silmarils back from Melkor/ Morgoth’s stronghold of Angband. The Silmarils were three hallowed jewels made by the Elf Fëanor, which Melkor/Morgoth had previosly stolen from the elves.

So Beren leaves Doriath and sets out on his quest to Angband, the enemy’s fortress in the north of Middle Earth. Then Despite Thingol’s best efforts to stop her, Luthien escapes and follows Beren. On his journey to the enemy’s land Beren reached Nargothrond, an Elvish stronghold, where he is joined by ten warriors under the lead of King Finrod, who had sworn an oath of friendship to Beren’s father. However Fëanor’s sons, Celegorm and Curufin are not happy about this turn of events. The company accompanies Beren but are captured by servants of Sauron, despite the best efforts of Finrod to maintain their guise as Orcs, and imprisoned in Tol-in-Gaurhoth.

One by one they are killed by a werewolf until only Beren and Finrod remain. Unfortunately, Lúthien is also captured and brought to Nargothrond by Celegorm and Curufin. However Aided by Huan, Celegorm’s hound, she escapes. Beren is then captured by Tevildo Prince of Cats near Angband however Lúthien and Huan the hound help him escape. Beren and Lúthien eventually reach Melkor/ Morgoth’s fortress stronghold of Angband and set about retrieving the Silmarils from Morgoth’s crown. Lúthien tries to put Melkor/Morgoth to sleep while Beren recovers the silmarils. Unfortunately Carcaroth (Karkaras) a giant werewolf, who was bred as an opponent to Huan, wakes up And Chases Beren and Luthién before Biting off Beren’s hand. Beren and Lúthien manage to escape to Doriath. Unfortunately though Carcharoth, chases them and causes a great deal of carnage, death and destruction. So Beren and Huan set off to stop Carcaroth and recover the Silmaril.

World Suicide Prevention Day

World Suicide Prevention Day (WSPD) is an awareness day observed annually on 10 September, in order to provide worldwide commitment and action to prevent suicides via the organisation of global, regional and national multi-sectoral activities to increase awareness about suicidal behaviours and how to effectively prevent them. The International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP) collaborates with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Federation for Mental Health (WFMH) to host World Suicide Prevention Day. In 2011 an estimated 40 countries held awareness events to mark the occasion. According to WHO’s Mental health Atlas released in 2014, no low-income country reported having a national suicide prevention strategy, while less than 10% of lower-middle income countries, and almost a third of upper-middle and high-income countries had.

An estimated one million people per year die by suicide or about one person in 10,000 (1.4% of all deaths), or about 3,000 every day”. As of 2004 the number of people who die by suicide is expected to reach 1.5 million per year by 2020. On average, three male suicides are reported for every female one, across different age groups and in almost every country in the world. “Conversely, rates of suicide attempts tend to be 2-3 times higher in women than in men, although the gender gap has narrowed in recent years.” More people die from suicide than from murder and war; it is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide. According to WHO there are twenty people who have a failed suicide attempt for every one that is successful, at a rate approximately one every three seconds. Suicide is the “most common cause of death for people aged 15 – 24. According to WHO, suicide accounts for nearly half of all violent deaths in the world. Brian Mishara, IASP president, noted that, more people kill themselves than die in all wars, terrorist acts and interpersonal violence combined. As of 2008, the WHO refers the widest number of suicides occur in the age group 15 – 29, while the lowest in the 80+ although representing as well the one with the highest rate (per 100,000) of all age groups, with 27.8 suicides and 60.1 for females and males respectively. Social norms play a significant role in the development of suicidal behaviors. Late 19th century’s sociological studies recorded first ever observations on suicide: with statistics of the time at hand, sociologists mentioned the effects of industrialization as in relations between new urbanized communities and vulnerability to self-destructive behavior, suggesting social pressures have effects on suicide. Today, differences in suicidal behavior among different countries can show significant. Suicide prevention’s priorities, as declared on the 2012 World Suicide Prevention Day event, are stated below:

The need to continue to research suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour, addressing both risk and protective factors.
The need to develop and implement awareness campaigns, with the aim of increasing awareness of suicidal behaviours in the community, incorporating evidence on both risk and protective factors.

The need to target our efforts not only to reduce risk factors but also to strengthen protective factor, especially in childhood and adolescence.
The need to train health care professionals to better understand evidence-based risk and protective factors associated with suicidal behaviour.
The need to combine primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.
The need to increase use of and adherence to treatments shown to be effective in treating diverse conditions; and to prioritise research into effectiveness of treatments aimed at reducing self-harm and suicide risk.
The need to increase the availability of mental health resources and to reduce barriers to accessing care.
The need to disseminate research evidence about suicide prevention to policy makers at international, national and local levels.
The need to reduce stigma and promote mental health literacy among the general population and health care professionals.
The need to reach people who don’t seek help, and hence don’t receive treatment when they are in need of it.
The need to ensure sustained funding for suicide research and prevention.
The need to influence governments to develop suicide prevention strategies for all countries and to support the implementation of those strategies that have been demonstrated to save lives.

In much of the world, suicide is stigmatized and condemned for religious or cultural reasons. In some countries, suicidal behavior is a criminal offence punishable by law. Suicide is therefore often a secretive act surrounded by taboo, and may be unrecognized, misclassified or deliberately hidden in official records of death. Stigma, particularly surrounding mental disorders and suicide, means many people thinking of taking their own life or who have attempted suicide are not seeking help and are therefore not getting the help they need. The prevention of suicide has not been adequately addressed due to a lack of awareness of suicide as a major public health problem and the taboo in many societies to openly discuss it. Raising community awareness and breaking down the taboo is important for countries to make progress in preventing suicide.” In richer countries, three times as many men die of suicide than women do, but in low- and middle-income countries the male-to-female ratio is much lower at 1.5 men to each woman. In the United States, males are four times more likely to die from suicide than are females. However, females are more likely to attempt suicide than are males.

Some of the Main suicide triggers are poverty, unemployment, the loss of a loved one, arguments, mental and physical health problems, legal or work-related problems,  depression, financial problems, abuse, aggression,  social status, exploitation and mistreatment, hopelessness, unemployment, Changing gender roles, sexual orientation, difficulties with developing one’s identity, disassociation from one’s community or other social/belief group, and honour are among the most common causes which can contribute to the feelings of pain and trigger suicidal thoughts.

In 1999, death by self-inflicted injuries was the fourth leading cause of death among aged 15–44, in the world. In a 2002 study it’s reported the countries with the lowest rates tend to be in Latin America, ‘Muslim countries and a few Asian countries’, and noted a lack of information from most African countries where incidence of suicide tends to be under-reported and misclassified due to both cultural and social pressures, and possibly completely unreported in some areas. Since data might be skewed, comparing suicide rates between nations can result in statistically unsound conclusions about suicidal behavior in different countries. Nevertheless the statistics are commonly used to directly influence decisions about public policy and public health strategies.

Of the 34 member countries of the OECD, a group of mostly high-income countries that uses market economy to improve the Human Development Index, South Korea had the highest suicide rate in 2009. In 2008 it was reported that young people 15–34 years old in China were more likely to die by suicide, especially young Chinese women in rural places because of ‘arguments about marriage’. By 2011 however, suicide rate for the same age group had been declining significantly according to official releases, mainly by late China’s urbanisation and migration from rural areas to more urbanised: since the 1990s indeed, overall national chinese suicide rate dropped by 68%. According to WHO, in 2009 the four countries with the highest rates of suicide were all in Eastern Europe; Slovenia, Russia, Latvia, and Belarus. As of 2015 the highest suicide rates are in Eastern Europe, Korea and the Siberian area bordering China, in Sri Lanka and the Guianas, Belgium and few Sub-Saharan countries. suicide is considered a major public health issue in high-income and an emerging problem in low and middle-income countries. Among high-income countries (besides South Korea) highest rates in 2015 are found in these countries, Belgium, France, Japan, Croatia, Austria, Uruguay and Finland. According to WHO’s Mental health Atlas released in 2014, no low-income country reported having a national suicide prevention strategy, while less than 10% of lower-middle income countries, and almost a third of upper-middle and high-income countries had.

Socioeconomic status plays an important role in suicidal behavior, and wealth is a constant with regards to Male–Female suicide rate ratios, being that excess male mortality by suicide is generally limited or non existent in low- and middle-income societies, whereas it is never absent in high-income countries. Suicidal behavior has been studied bybeconomists since about the 1970s: although national costs of suicide and suicide attempts are very high, suicide prevention is hampered by scarce resources for lack of interest by mental health advocates and legislators; and moreover, personal interests even financial are studied with regards to suicide attempts. In the 1990’s The United Nations issued ‘National Policy for Suicide Prevention’ which is used as a basis for their assisted suicide policies. However the UN noted that suicide bombers’ deaths are seen as secondary to their goal of killing other people or specific targets and the bombers are not otherwise typical of people committing suicide.

According to a 2006 WHO press release, one third of worldwide suicides were committed with pesticides, “some of which were forbidden by United Nations (UN) conventions.” WHO urged the highly populated Asian countries to restrict pesticides that are commonly used in failed attempts, especially organophosphate-based pesticides that are banned by international conventions but still made in and exported by some Asian countries. WHO reports an increase in pesticide suicides in other Asian countries as well as Central and South America.It is estimated that such painful failed attempts could be reduced by legalizing controlled voluntary euthanasia options, as implemented in Switzerland. As of 2017, it is estimated that around 30% of global suicides are still due to pesticide self-poisoning, most of which occur in rural agricultural areas in low- and middle-income countries (consisting in about 80% world population). In high-income countries consisting of the remaining 20% world population most common methods are firearms, hanging and other self-poisoning.

European and American societies report a higher male mortality by suicide than any other, in western countries men are about 300% more likely to die by suicide than females.  suicide rates are globally higher among men than women even though women are more prone to suicidal thoughts than men. The disparity in suicide rates has been partly explained by the use of more lethal means and the experience of more aggression and higher intent to die, when suicidal, in men than women. There are many potential reasons for different suicide rates in men and women such as gender equality issues, differences in socially acceptable methods of dealing with stress and conflict for men and women, availability of and preference for different means of suicide, availability and patterns of alcohol consumption, and differences in care-seeking rates for mental disorders between men and women. However women had higher suicide rates in countries of the former Soviet Bloc and in some of Latin America. Globally. While in China women were up to 30% more likely than men to commit suicide and up to 60% in some other South Asian countries. Some suicide reduction strategies do not recognize the separate needs of males and females. Many young females are at a higher risk of attempting suicide, therefore policies tailored towards this demographic can reduce the overall rates.  Researchers have also recommended aggressive long-term treatments and follow up for males that show indications of suicidal thoughts.

C.B. Collett CME

The great Western Railways’ Chief Mechanical locomotive Engineer Charles Benjamin Collett was born 10 September 1871. He was educated at Merchant Taylors School and City and Guilds Engineering College in South Kensington, London, England, before he was made chief mechanical engineer of the Great Western Railway from 1922 to 1941. He designed (amongst others) the GWR’s 4-6-0 Castle and King Class express passenger locomotives. Collett’s predecessor, George Jackson Churchward had delivered to the GWR from Swindon a series of class leading and innovative locomotives, and arguably by the early 1920s the Great Western‘s 2-cylinder and 4-cylinder 4-6-0 designs were substantially superior to the locomotives of the other railway groupings.In 1922 Churchward retired, and Charles Benjamin Collett inherited a legacy of excellent standardised designs. But, with costs rising and revenues falling, there was a need to rationalise the number of pre-grouping designs and to develop more powerful locomotives.

Collett was a practical development engineer and gifted, technical Engineer who could look at existing designs and reliably improve them. he took Churchward’s designs and developed them – the Hall from the Saint class, and the Castle from the Star, in this way Collett was able to produce a standardized fleet of locomotives ideally suited to the GWR’s requirements. He was able to extract substantial performance gains out of the Churchward designs, and the Castle Class was testament to this.He was also responsible for more humble locomotives, such as many of the pannier tank classes. However he received criticism from contemporary engineers and later railway historians for undertaking very little innovation in his designs, instead sticking with Churchward’s style in every case. Arguably this meant that by the time Collett retired the superiority of Great Western locomotives was lost to more modern designs, particularly those of William Stanier, who worked at Swindon before moving to the LMS in 1932, and took Churchward’s style with him but developed it in line with the progression in steam technology.

Some of the classes which Charles Collett designed were the 1101 Class (0-4-0 T): 1101–1106, 1366 Class (0-6-0 PT): 1366–1371, 1400 Class (0-4-2 T): 1400–1474, 2251 Class (0-6-0): 2200–2299, 3200–3219, 2884 Class (2-8-0): 2884–2899, 3800–3864, 3100 Class (2-6-2 T): 3100–3104, Earl or Dukedog Class (4-4-0), Castle Class (4-6-0): 4073–4099, 5000–something bigger than the Castle class was required to haul heavy expresses at an average speed of 60 mph.something bigger than the Castle class was required to haul heavy expresses at an average speed of 60 mph.5099, 7000–7037, 4575 Class (2-6-2 T): 4575– 4599, 5500– 5574, 4800 Class (0-4-2 T): 4800– 4874 (later 1400–1474), Hall Class (4-6-0): 4900– 4999, 5900– 5999, 6900– 6958, 5101 Class (2-6-2 T): 5101–5199, 4100–4179, 5205 Class (2-8-0 T): 5205–5264, 5400 Class (0-6-0 PT): 5400–5424, 5600 Class (0-6-2 T): 5600–5699, 6600–6699, 5700 Class (0-6-0 PT): 57xx, 67xx, 77xx, 87xx, 97xx, 36xx, 37xx, 46xx, 96xx, 5800 Class (0-4-2 T): 5800–5819, King Class (4-6-0): 6000–6029, 6100 Class (2-6-2 T): 6100–6169, 6400 Class (0-6-0 PT): 6400–6439, Grange Class (4-6-0):6800–6879, 7200 Class (2-8-2 T): 7200–7253, 7400 Class (0-6-0 PT): 7400–7449, Manor Class (4-6-0): 7800– 7829, 8100 Class (2-6-2 T): 8100–8109, GWR diesel shunters: Diesel shunters 1 and 2 and GWR railcars: Diesel railcars 1–38

In 1926, Great Western’s General Manager Sir Felix Pole told Collett to proceed with the design and construction of a “Super-Castle” to haul heavy expresses at an average speed of 60 mph. The result was the King class 4-6-0 design which emerged from Swindon works in June 1927. This had dimensions never previously seen, and represented the ultimate development of Churchward’s four cylinder concept. It was the heaviest (136 tons), and had the highest tractive effort (40,300 lbs.) of any 4-6-0 locomotive ever to run in the United Kingdom. However Because of its weight, the King class was restricted to a limited number of routes. It was also under Collett’s control that diesel power first appeared on the GWR. He introduced the first streamlined rail cars in 1934 and by 1942 38 had been built, although the latter ones had more angular styling. Some were configured for long distance express services with buffet counters, others for branch line or parcels work, and some were designed as two-car sets.

Charles Collett sadly passed away 5 April 1952 but he leaves a long lasting legacy in the form of some excellent locomotives many of which are still in steam thanks to the dedication and hard work of many steam railway enthusiasts at various heritage lines such as the Great Central, North York Moors, East Lancashire, Severn Valley and Bluebell railways.

Carol Decker (T’Pau)

English musician Carol Decker was born 10 September 1957. She is best known as the singer and front woman for the band, T’Pau, which had international success in the late 1980s. Although Decker’s music is mainly associated with the group, she also released a solo single in 1995, “One Heart,” in support of the Halifax World Cup Rugby League centenary. Decker was born in Huyton, now in Merseyside and educated in Wellington, Shropshire, along with other members of the band T’pau. T’pau were formed in 1986 in Shropshire, taking their name from a Vulcan priestess of the same name in the 1960s sci-fi series Star Trek. Prior to deciding on this name, they were called Talking America on early demos sent to record and publishing companies.Their first hit was the 1987 release “Heart and Soul”. Initially a flop in the UK, it first became a hit in the US Billboard Hot 100 chart, reaching No. 4 after being featured on a Pepe Jeansadvertisement; it repeated the feat in the UK Singles Chart some months later. Their next single, “China in Your Hand”, was their biggest UK hit, spending five weeks at number 1. It also reached the top spot in several European countries, but made little impact in the United States. Their debut album, Bridge of Spies (simply called T’Pau in the USA), also reached number 1 and went quadruple platinum in the UK. The album produced a total of five hit singles including “Valentine”, “Sex Talk” (a live recording of early flop single, “Intimate Strangers”), and “I Will Be with You”.

1988 saw the release of their second album Rage, which peaked at No. 4 in the UK and reached platinum status there, but failed to come close to the level of success of the band’s debut album the year before. It produced the UK Top 20 single “Secret Garden”, though chart returns were diminishing by this point, and two following singles earned very modest success. The third album The Promisefollowed in 1991, which peaked at No. 10 in the UK and earned a silver disc. It included one Top 20 hit, “Whenever You Need Me”, but the band’s commercial peak had now passed and they split up following its release. A compilation album was released in 1993, Heart and Soul – The Very Best of T’Pau, which charted within UK’s Top 40.Another greatest hits release appeared in 1997, and Decker reformed the band with a new line-up in 1998, for the release of a new studio album, Red. The record was not a commercial success, but T’Pau have continued to perform live on a semi-regular basis. Two singles “With a Little Luck” and “Giving Up the Ghost” were released from the album. Decker still made guest appearances on TV shows throughout the 2000s, including Hit Me, Baby, One More Time, Just the Two of Us or The Weakest Link. In 2007, marking the 20th anniversary of T’Pau’s first success, Ron Rogers and Carol Decker released a new single, “Just Dream”, exclusively as an Internet download. In 2008, T’Pau were part of the Here and Now 80s nostalgia tour. To mark the 25th anniversary of the formation of the band, Carol and Ron embarked on a 28-date UK tour during the spring of 2013.

In addition to her musical achievements, Decker has also acted on both stage and screen, including a part in the movie, Nine Dead Gay Guys. TV appearances include Hit Me, Baby, One More Time (in which she reached the final round, ultimately being beaten by Shakin’ Stevens). Decker also appeared in the British comedy series Trigger Happy TV in which she appeared in a “bull in a china shop” sketch (the joke being that she had previously had a hit with the song, “China in Your Hand”), and in another sketch where she accompanied Dom Joly, as he pretended to be a door-to-door salesman.Decker took part in the prime time BBC One show Just the Two of Us which began on 2 January 2007. However, despite singing duets with Beverley Knight, Tony Christie and Natasha Hamilton, she and her singing partner Gregg Wallace were the first to be eliminated from the show, after singing The Jackson Five’s “Blame It on the Boogie.”Decker appeared in the video for Peter Kay and Matt Lucas’s charity single “I’m Gonna Be (500 Miles)” for Comic Relief’s Red Nose Day 2007. She released a single, “Just Dream”, in download-only format in September 2007

Joe Perry (Aerosmith)

Joe Perry, the Guitarist with American Hard rock Band Aerosmith was born 10 September. Aerosmith are sometimes referred to as “The Bad Boys from Boston”and “America’s Greatest Rock and Roll Band.” Their style, which is rooted in blues-based hard rock, has come to also incorporate elements of pop, heavy metal, and rhythm and blues, and has inspired many subsequent rock artists. The band was formed in Boston, Massachusetts in 1970. Guitarist Joe Perryand bassist Tom Hamilton, originally in a band together called the Jam Band, met up with singer Steven Tyler, drummer Joey Kramer, and guitarist Ray Tabano, and formed Aerosmith. In 1971, Tabano was replaced by Brad Whitford, and the band began developing a following in Boston.

They were signed to Columbia Records in 1972, and released a string of multi-platinum albums, beginning with their 1973 eponymous debut album, followed by their 1974 album Get Your Wings. In 1975, the band broke into the mainstream with the albumToys in the Attic, and their 1976 follow-up Rocks cemented their status as hard rock superstars. Two additional albums followed in 1977 and 1979. Throughout the 1970s, the band toured extensively and charted a string of Hot 100 singles. By the end of the decade, they were among the most popular hard rock bands in the world and developed a loyal following of fans, often referred to as the “Blue Army”.

Unfortunately drug addiction and internal conflict took their toll on the band, which resulted in the departures of Perry and Whitford in 1979 and 1981, respectively; they were replaced byJimmy Crespo and Rick Dufay. The band did not fare well between 1980 and 1984, releasing a lone album, Rock in a Hard Place, which went gold but failed to match their previous successes.Perry and Whitford returned in 1984 and the band signed a new deal with Geffen Records. After a comeback tour, the band recorded Done with Mirrors (1985), which won some critical praise but failed to come close to commercial expectations. It was not until the band’s collaboration with rap group Run–D.M.C. in 1986, and the 1987 releasePermanent Vacation that they regained the level of popularity they had experienced in the 1970s.Throughout the late 1980s and 1990s, the band scored several hits and won numerous awards for music from the multi-platinum albums Pump (1989), Get a Grip (1993), and Nine Lives (1997), and embarked on their most extensive concert tours to date.

The band also became a pop culture phenomenon with popular music videos and notable appearances in television, film, and video games. Their comeback has been described as one of the most remarkable and spectacular in rock ‘n’ roll history. Additional albums followed in 2001 and 2004. The band toured throughout the 2000s, touring every year except 2008. After 43 years of performing, the band continues to tour and record music. Their latest album, Music from Another Dimension!, was released on November 6, 2012.Aerosmith is the best-selling American rock band of all time, having sold more than 150 million albums worldwide, including 66.5 million albums in the United States alone.They also hold the record for the most gold and multi-platinum albums by an American group. The band has scored 21 Top 40 hits on the Billboard Hot 100, nine number-one Mainstream Rock hits, four Grammy Awards, and ten MTV Video Music Awards. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2001, and were included among both Rolling Stone’s and VH1’s lists of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.

Don Powell

Best known as the drummer for Glam rock group Slade. The English musician Donald George Powell was born on 10 September 1946.As a child Powell joined the Boy Scouts where he became interested in the drums after being asked to join the band on a Sunday morning parade. After Etheridge Secondary Modern School he studied Metallurgy at Wednesbury Technical College. Powell then worked as a metallurgist in a small foundry before turning professional as a drummer. He was athletic and a keen amateur boxer, although an easy going personality, and apparently had his nose broken three times. It was he who was sent around with the hat money collection amongst early audiences. Powell then became a member of The Vendors, a band that guitarist Dave Hill later joined. The Vendors became the N’Betweens and bass guitarist / keyboard player / violinist / guitarist Jim Lea got in at an audition. Powell then spotted Noddy Holder playing with Steve Brett & The Mavericks and he and Hill got Holder to join the N’Betweens. They regrouped as Ambrose Slade, changed the name to Slade and the success began.

They rose to prominence during the glam rock era of the early 1970s with 17 consecutive top 20 hits and six number ones. The British Hit Singles & Albums names them as the most successful British group of the 1970s based on sales of singles. They were the first act to achieve three singlesenter at number one; all six of the band’s chart-toppers were penned by Noddy Holder and Jim Lea. Total UK sales stand at 6,520,171, and their best selling single, “Merry Xmas Everybody”, has sold in excess of one million copies. Following an unsuccessful move to the United States in 1975, Slade’s popularity waned however their popularity was unexpectedly revived in 1980 when they were last minute replacements for Ozzy Osbourne at the Reading Rock Festival. The band later acknowledged this to have been one of the highlights of their career.

The original line up split in 1992 but the band reformed the following year as Slade II. The band has continued, with a number of line-up changes, to the present day. They have now shortened the group name back to Slade. A number of diverse artists have cited Slade as an influence, including grunge icons Nirvana and the Smashing Pumpkins, punk pioneers the Ramones, Sex Pistols, the Undertones, the Runaways and the Clash, glam followers Kiss, Mötley Crüe, Twisted Sister, Quiet Riot, Poison and Def Leppard and pop-rock stalwarts the Replacements, Cheap Trick and Oasis. The Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Music mentions Holder’s powerful vocals, guitarist Dave Hill’s equally arresting dress sense and the deliberate misspelling of their song titles for which they became well known.