Brett Anderson (Suede)

Best known as the lead vocalist of the band Suede. English singer-songwriter Brett Anderson was born 29 September 1967. He grew up in Lindfield, Sussex, a village two miles east of Haywards Heath. His mother was an artist and a dressmaker; his father was a taxi driver who Anderson described as an “obsessive classical-music fan.” He attended Lindfield Junior School, then Oathall Comprehensive School, then Haywards Heath Sixth Form College. In his teens, Anderson played guitar for garage bands such as The Pigs and Geoff, the latter featuring future Suede bassist Mat Osman. In the late 1980s, while a student at the Bartlett School of Architecture, University College, London, Anderson and Osman formed Suede with Anderson’s girlfriend, Justine Frischmann, soon recruiting guitarist Bernard Butler through an advertisement in the NME. After they had received temporary percussional help from former Smiths drummer Mike Joyce, in 1991 Simon Gilbert joined as their official drummer. It was around this time that Frischmann left Anderson for Blur frontman Damon Albarn, which created an early rift in the burgeoning Britpop scene of the early 1990s. After missing too many rehearsals and flaunting her relationship with Albarn while still living with Anderson, Frischmann was fired from the group, going on to front Elastica.

Anderson formed Suede in 1989 with Bernard Butler .Anderson became known for his distinctive wide ranging voice and androgynous style plus vague “confessions” about his sexuality which stirred controversy in the British music press. His infamous comment that he was “a bisexual man who never had a homosexual experience” was indicative of how he both courted controversy and a sexually ambiguous, alienated audience. In 1993, Suede hit number one on the UK charts. Combining Morrissey’s homoerotic posturing with David Bowie’s glam theatrics, Anderson achieved rapid fame in the UK. America, however, was still spellbound by the grunge revolution and Anderson’s grim yodellings clashed with the raw anger of Nirvana’s Kurt Cobain and Pearl Jam’s Eddie Vedder. Furthering complications across the Atlantic, due to a trademark dispute with the American lounge singer Suede, the band were forced to change their name to The London Suede for the American market. Although the departure of songwriting partner Butler in 1994 during the recording of second album Dog Man Star (number three on the UK charts) led many to fear Suede’s eventual demise, the band continued to release critically and increasingly commercially successful material in the UK, Europe and Asia, such as 1996’s critically acclaimed Coming Up (another number one for the band). The band went on to release Head Music (number one on the UK charts and in several countries) in 1999, but A New Morning was a commercial disappointment in 2002. In 2003, following the release of their “Singles” collection, Suede disbanded.

After Suede disbanded in 2003,Anderson and former Suede guitarist Bernard Butler briefly formed the band The Tears with Will Foster, Makoto Sakamoto and Nathan Fisher and released their debut album Here Come The Tears, which was met with generally favourable reviews. It was produced by Butler, recorded at 2 kHz Studios and Rak Studios (London) as well as at Butler’s home studio (“Alsation Nation”), and featured the singles “Refugees” and “Lovers”. Following the cancellation of a European tour in support of the album, the band were dropped by Independiente and the project was abandoned.

In 2006, Anderson announced details of a solo album consisting of 11 tracks, which was released In 2007. He told NME that the title would be Brett Anderson since “…that’s my name, you see.”The keyboardist-producer on his album is Fred Ball, and former Suede bass player Mat Osman joined the live band on tour. In 2007 Anderson modelled Nick Hart for Aquascutum’s autumn/winter 2007 campaign. Anderson’s second album “Wilderness” was released In 2008. For which Anderson plays the piano and the acoustic guitars, and is accompanied by Amy Langley on cello. One of the songs “Back to You” written with Fred Ball of the Norwegian band Pleasure is a duet with French actress Emmanuelle Seigner. Anderson’s third album, Slow Attack was co-written with Leo Abrahams, and, Brett Anderson stated that it was more orchestral than Wilderness with more instrumentation throughout the album. On tour, he was joined by Jim Dare [Minuteman], Didz Hammond (Dirty Pretty Things), Angie Pollock (Goldfrapp), Sebastian Sternberg (Pleasure, Marina and the Diamonds), Kris Sonne and Amy Langley, thus giving the songs a more art-rock edge. Anderson’s fourth solo album Black Rainbows, containing the single “Brittle Heart” was released in 2011 and returned to a simpler more commercial rock format inspired by old favourites like PIL’s “Rise”, and Siouxsie and the Banshees. As a solo musician during Suede’s career, Anderson collaborated with Stina Nordenstam and his guest vocals can be heard on the album This Is Stina Nordenstam. He also sang a duet with Jane Birkin in 1995 which appeared in 1998 on Birkin’s Best of album. In addition he sang the lyric “You’re going to reap just what you sow” in the Children in Need charity single “Perfect Day”.

Suede reformed in 2010 and played London’s Royal Albert Hall as part of the 2010 Teenage Cancer Trust shows plus warm-up shows at the 100 Club in London and Ritz Ballroom in Manchester. Because of the huge success of the shows, a new European tour was announced for the summer of 2010 covering two festivals, Skanderborg Festival in Denmark and Parkenfestivalen in Norway. The tour continued in the autumn covering France, The Netherlands, Sweden, Germany and Belgium. A homecoming date at the O2 Arena closed the tour. Further festival dates occurred in 2011, along with UK dates where Suede performed their first three albums in full. Since reforming Suede have also released the albums “Bloodsports” and “Night Thoughts”.

Lockheed Martin/Boeing F-22 Raptor

The Lockheed Martin/Boeing F22 Raptor made its debut 29 September 1990. This single-seat, twin-engine fifth-generation supermaneuverable fighter aircraft uses stealth technology and was designed primarily as an air superiority fighter, but has additional capabilities that include ground attack, electronic warfare, and signals intelligence roles. Lockheed Martin Aeronautics are the prime contractor and are responsible for the majority of the airframe, weapon systems and final assembly of the F-22. Program partner Boeing Defense, Space & Security provides the wings, aft fuselage, avionics integration, and training systems.The aircraft was variously designated F-22 and F/A-22 during the years prior to formally entering USAF service in December 2005 as the F-22A. Despite a protracted and costly development period, the United States Air Force considers the F-22 a critical component of U.S. tactical air power, and claims that the aircraft is unmatched by any known or projected fighter

Development of the F-22 began in 1981, when the U.S. Air Force sought an Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) as a new air superiority fighter to replace the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon. This was made more crucial by the emerging worldwide threats, including development and proliferation of Soviet MiG-29 and Su-27 “Flanker”-class fighter aircraft. It would take advantage of the new technologies in fighter design on the horizon including composite materials, lightweight alloys, advanced flight-control systems, more powerful propulsion systems and stealth technology. In 1985 the Air Force sent out technical requests for proposals to a number of aircraft manufacturing teams. The formal request for proposal (RFP) was issued in July 1986, and two contractor teams, Lockheed, Boeing and General Dynamics, along with Northrop and McDonnell Douglas, were selected on 31 October 1986 to undertake a 50-month demonstration phase, culminating in the flight test of the two teams’ prototypes, the YF-22 and the YF-23.

The YF-22 was designed to meet USAF requirements for survivability, supercruise, stealth, and ease of maintenance. Because Lockheed’s submission was selected as one of the winners, the company, through its Skunk Works division, assumed leadership of the program partners. It would be responsible for the forward cockpit and fuselage, as well as final assembly at Palmdale, California. Meanwhile, the wings and aft fuselage would be built by Boeing, with the center fuselage, weapons bays, tail and landing gear built by General Dynamics. Compared with its Northrop/McDonnell Douglas counterpart, the YF-22 has a more conventional design – its wings have larger control surfaces, such as full-span trailing edge, and, whereas the YF-23 had two tail surfaces, the YF-22 had four, which made it more maneuverable than its counterpart. Two examples of each prototype air vehicle (PAV) were built for the Demonstration-Validation phase: one with General Electric YF120 engines, the other with Pratt & Whitney YF119 engines.

The YF-22 was given the unofficial name “Lightning II” after Lockheed’s World War II-era fighter, the P-38 Lightning, which persisted until the mid-1990s when the USAF officially named the aircraft “Raptor”. The F-35 later received the Lightning II name in 2006. The first YF-22 (PAV-1, serial number 87-0700, N22YF), with the GE YF120, was rolled out on 29 August 1990 and first flew on 29 September 1990, taking off from Palmdale piloted by David L. Ferguson.[6][15] During the 18-minute flight, PAV-1 reached a maximum speed of 250 knots (460 km/h; 290 mph) and a height of 12,500 feet (3,800 m), before landing at Edwards AFB.[13] Following the flight, Ferguson said that the remainder of the YF-22 test program would be concentrated on “…the manoeuvrability of the aeroplane, both supersonic and subsonic”. The second YF-22 made its maiden flight on 30 October at the hands of Tom Morgenfeld.

Lockheed Martin claims that the Raptor’s combination of stealth, speed, agility, precision and situational awareness, combined with air-to-air and air-to-ground combat capabilities, makes it the best overall fighter in the world today. Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston, former Chief of the Australian Defence Force, said in 2004 that the “F-22 will be the most outstanding fighter plane ever built.” The high cost of the aircraft, a lack of clear air-to-air combat missions because of delays in the Russian and Chinese fifth-generation fighter programs, a U.S. ban on Raptor exports, and the ongoing development of the planned cheaper and more versatile F-35 resulted in calls to end F-22 production. In April 2009, the U.S. Department of Defense proposed to cease placing new orders, subject to Congressional approval, for a final procurement tally of 187 operational aircraft.

The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 lacked funding for further F-22 production. The final F-22 rolled off the assembly line on 13 December 2011 during a ceremony at Dobbins Air Reserve Base. Unfortunately during 2010, the F-22 was plagued by problems with its pilot oxygen systems which contributed to one crash and death of a pilot. In 2011 the fleet was grounded for four months before resuming flight operations, but reports of oxygen systems issues have continued. In July 2012, the Air Force announced that the hypoxia-like symptoms experienced were caused by a faulty valve in the pilots’ pressure vest; the valve was replaced and changes to the filtration system were also made.

Michaelmas

Michaelmas also known as the Feast of Saints Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael, the Feast of the Archangels, or the Feast of Saint Michael and All Angels) is a minor Christian festival observed in some Western liturgical calendars on 29 September. In some denominations a reference to a fourth angel, usually Uriel, is also added. Michaelmas has been one of the four quarter days of the financial year. The Serbian Orthodox Church observes the feast, whereas most Eastern Orthodox Churches do not. The Greek and Romanian Orthodox honor the archangels on 8 November instead, observed by the Cherubim and Seraphim also. In Christian angelology, the Archangel Michael is the greatest of all the Archangels and is honored for defeating Satan in the war in heaven. He is one of the principal angelic warriors, seen as a protector against the dark of night, and the administrator of cosmic intelligence. Michaelmas has also delineated time and seasons for secular purposes, as well, particularly in Britain and Ireland as one of the quarter days.

In the fifth century a basilica near Rome was dedicated in honour of Michael on 30 September, beginning with celebrations on the eve of that day, and 29 September is now kept in honour of Michael and all Angels throughout some western churches. The name Michaelmas comes from a shortening of “Michael’s Mass,” in the same style as Christmas (Christ’s Mass) and Candlemas (Candle Mass, the Mass where traditionally candles used throughout the year would be blessed)

During the Middle Ages, Michaelmas, or the Feast of St. Michael, was celebrated as a Holy Day of Obligation, but this tradition was abolished in the 18th century. In medieval England, Michaelmas marked the ending and beginning of the husbandman’s year, George C. Homans observes: “at that time harvest was over, and the bailiff or reeve of the manor would be making out the accounts for the year. Because it falls near the equinox, it is associated in the northern hemisphere with the beginning of autumn and the shortening of days. It was also one of the English, Welsh and Irish quarter days when accounts had to be settled. On manors, it was the day when a reeve was elected from the peasants.Michaelmas hiring fairs were held at the end of September or beginning of October.

A traditional meal for the day includes goose (a “stubble-goose”, i.e. one prepared around harvest time). The custom of baking a special bread or cake, called Sruthan Mhìcheil, St Michael’s bannock, or Michaelmas Bannock on the eve of the Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel probably originated in the Hebrides. The bread was made from equal parts of barley, oats, and rye without using any metal implements. In remembrance of absent friends or those who had died, special Struans, blessed at an early morning Mass, were given to the poor in their names. Nuts were traditionally cracked on Michaelmas Eve. Folklore in the British Isles suggests that Michaelmas day is the last day that blackberries can be picked. It is said that when St. Michael expelled Lucifer, the devil, from heaven, he fell from the skies and landed in a prickly blackberry bush. Satan cursed the fruit, scorched them with his fiery breath, stamped, spat and urinated on them, so that they would be unfit for eating. As it is considered ill-advised to eat them after 29 September, a Michaelmas pie is made from the last of the season. In Anglican and Episcopal tradition, there are three or four archangels in its calendar for 29 September feast for St. Michael and All Angels: namely Michael, Gabriel, Raphael and, Uriel.

Because Saint Michael is the patron of some North American police officers, Michaelmas may also be a Blue Mass. However, the same can also be said for members of the United States military, and several of St. Michael’s other patronages. Lutheran Christians consider it a principal feast of Christ, and the Lutheran Confessor, Philip Melanchthon, wrote a hymn for the day that is still sung in Lutheran churches: “Lord God to Thee We Give”. Michaelmas is still celebrated in the Waldorf schools, which celebrate it as the “festival of strong will” during the autumnal equinox. Some consider it the second most important festival after Easter, Easter being about Christ (“He is laid in the grave and He has risen”). Michaelmas is about man once he finds Christ (“He is risen, therefore he can be laid in the grave”), meaning man finds the Christ (risen), therefore he will be safe in death (laid in the grave with confidence). In the City of London, Michaelmas is the day when the new Lord Mayor of London is elected, in the Common Hall.

Old Michaelmas Day falls on 11 October (10 October according to some sources – the dates are the result of the shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar). It is said that the Devil fell out of Heaven on this date, and fell into a blackberry bush, cursing the fruit as he fell. According to an old legend, blackberries should not be picked after this date. Legend states that the devil had either spat or uninated on them.

Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy


A digitally remastered version of the original 1981 comedy science fiction television Series “The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” by Douglas Adams is being released on DVD &Bluray with extra features and out-takes. The first part Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy was published 12th October 1979. The series follows the adventures of Arthur Dent, a hapless Englishman, Ford Prefect, who named himself after the Ford Prefect car to blend in with what was assumed to be the dominant life form, automobiles, and is an alien from a small planet somewhere in the vicinity of Betelgeuse and a researcher for the eponymous guidebook; Zaphod Beeblebrox, Ford’s semi-cousin and the Galactic President; the depressed robot Marvin the Paranoid Android; and Trillian, formerly known as Tricia McMillan, a woman Arthur once met at a party in Islington and the only other human survivor of Earth’s destruction.

Following Earths destruction by the Vogons the characters visit the legendary planet Magrathea, home to the now-collapsed planet-building industry, and meet Slartibartfast, a planetary coastline designer who was responsible for the fjords of Norway. Through archival recordings, he relates the story of a race of hyper-intelligent pan-dimensional beings who built a computer named Deep Thought to calculate the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything. When the answer was revealed to be 42, Deep Thought explained that the answer was incomprehensible because the beings didn’t know what they were asking. It went on to predict that another computer, more powerful than itself would be made to calculate the question for the answer. However This computer, was the Earth, and was destroyed by Vogons to make way for a hyperspatial express route, five minutes before the conclusion of its 10-million-year program. Two of a race of hyper-intelligent pan-dimensional beings who commissioned the Earth in the first place, disguised themselves as Trillian’s mice, and want to dissect Arthur’s brain to help reconstruct the question, since he was part of the Earth’s matrix moments before it was destroyed, and so he is likely to have part of the question buried in his brain.

In The Restaurant at the End of the Universe , Zaphod gets separated from the others and finds he is part of a conspiracy to uncover who really runs the Universe. He then meets Zarniwoop, editor for The Guide, who knows where to find the secret ruler and is briefly reunited with the others for a trip to Milliways, the titular restaurant. Zaphod and Ford decide to steal a ship from there, however this turns out to be a stunt ship pre-programmed to plunge into a star as a special effect in a stage show and they are unable to change it’s course. Meanwhile Ford and Arthur, end up on a spacecraft full of the outcasts of the Golgafrinchan civilisation, which crashes on prehistoric Earth; leaving Ford and Arthur stranded, and it becomes clear that the inept Golgafrinchans are the ancestors of modern humans, having displaced the Earth’s indigenous hominids.

In the next novel “Life, the Universe and Everything” , Slartibartfast, enlists the aid of Ford, Arthur, Marvin, Zaphod and Trillian to prevent the people of the planet Krikkit from escaping their home planet, on which they have been imprisoned for trying to start a Galactic War and prevent them starting another Galactic War which will wipe out all life in the Universe. In So Long, and Thanks for All the Fish, Arthur returns home to Earth, where He meets and falls in love with a girl named Fenchurch, and discovers this Earth is a replacement provided by the dolphins in their Save the Humans campaign. Eventually he rejoins Ford, who claims to have saved the Universe in order to hitch-hike one last time and see God’s Final Message to His Creation. Along the way, they are also joined by Marvin, the Paranoid Android, who, although 37 times older than the universe itself (what with time travel and all), has just enough power left in his failing body to read the message and feel better about it all before expiring.

Finally, in Mostly Harmless, Vogons take over The Hitchhiker’s Guide (under the name of InfiniDim Enterprises), to finish the task of obliterating the Earth. Arthur loses Fenchurch and travels around the galaxy despondently, before crashing his spaceship on the planet Lamuella, where he settles in happily as the official sandwich-maker for a small village of simple, peaceful people. Meanwhile, Ford Prefect breaks into The Guide’s offices, gets himself an infinite expense account from the computer system, and then meets The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, Mark II, an artificially intelligent, multi-dimensional guide with vast power and a hidden purpose. Trillian leaves her daughter, Random Frequent Flyer Dent with Arthur, but she then steals The Guide Mark II and uses it to get to Earth. Arthur, Ford, Trillian, and Tricia McMillan (Trillian in this alternate universe) give chase & follow her to a crowded club, where an anguished Random accidentally kills Agrajag. Soon afterwards, The Guide Mark II removes all possible Earths from probability, which is bad news for all the main characters, apart from Zaphod, who were all on Earth at the time.

The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy was Originally a comedy radio broadcast, before being adapted to other formats, then over several years it gradually became an international multi-media phenomenon. Adaptations have included stage shows, a “trilogy” of five books and a 1981 six part science fiction television series, Featuring many of the actors from the radio series. Author Eoin Colfer (Artemis Fowl) wrote a sixth instalment entitled And Another Thing, which sees the characters awoken from virtual reality as death rays bear down on Earth before being picked up by Zaphod and joined by Bowerick Wowbagger, the Infinitely Prolonged and Thor to deal with the Vogons who are heading to the planet Nano in order to destroy a colony of people who escaped Earth’s destruction.

DC Comics published a comic book adaptation between 1993 and 1996 and. A2005 film version, produced and filmed in the UK starring Martin Freeman as Arthur, Mos Def as Ford, Sam Rockwell as Zaphod Beeblebrox and Zooey Deschanel as Trillian, with Alan Rickman providing the voice of Marvin the Paranoid Android (and Warwick Davis acting in Marvin’s costume), and Stephen Fry as the voice of the Guide/Narrator, was also released. Howver The plot of the film adaptation of Hitchhiker’s Guide differs widely from that of the radio show, book and television series. Between 2004 and 2005, BBC Radio also broadcast a series based on the third fourth and fifth novels.

Freedom from Hunger day

Freedom from Hunger Day takes place annually on 28 September. The first Freedom from Hunger Day was held on September 28, 2006 to increase awareness about global hunger and promote Freedom from Hunger’s empowerment of women around the world. The event included walk-through exhibits of regions where Freedom from Hunger operates – India, Latin America, West Africa, and the Philippines – where visitors enjoyed native food and entertainment. In addition, Freedom from Hunger provided children with passports that included historical and cultural information from each region that were stamped at each exhibit. As a result of the event’s success, Yolo County confirmed September 28 as “Freedom From Hunger Day”, the State of California declared the date as an official day of awareness and, in the Sacramento area, the event won a gold public relations awar

2007’s Freedom from Hunger Day also included an extensive online component. On September 28, Freedom from Hunger’s home page included video clips taken by the staff, sound bites of women sharing dreams for themselves and their families, a live video conference with Freedom from Hunger’s President Chris Dunford, and timed release of podcasts throughout the day. In honor of Freedom from Hunger Day, the website offered visitors the opportunity to send a free e-card to raise awareness about ending hunger. In addition, Freedom from Hunger invited the public to host parties in their homes by providing a party pack that includes an original board game, DVD, fliers, buttons, literature, and a CD of international music.

The 2008 online observance of Freedom from Hunger Day was held from September 25 to 28, 2008. Freedom from Hunger’s homepage was replaced by a page devoted to Freedom from Hunger Day. The new landing page will feature actions that website visitors can take in the face of the Global Food Crisis. Freedom from Hunger Day was a featured action on the Care2 network. Freedom from Hunger Day 2010 was observed online. Videos of Freedom from Hunger were posted of volunteers in action with volunteers and overseas staff sharing their experiences. You will also hear directly from the women that we reach – as they share their hopes and dreams for their families and how Freedom from Hunger is working with them to make those goals a reality.

International Right to Know Day

The International Right to Know Day takes place annually on 28 September. The event was first proposed on 28 September 2002 at a meeting of Freedom of information organisations from around the world in Sofia, Bulgaria, in order to raise awareness about people’s right to access government information while promoting freedom of information as essential to both democracy and good governance. Freedom of information organisations and advocates around the world have since marked the date with activities to celebrate and raise awareness of the right to information.

Freedom of information is an extension of freedom of speech, a fundamental human right recognized in international law, which is today understood more generally as freedom of expression in any medium, be it orally, in writing, print, through the Internet or through art forms. This means that the protection of freedom of speech as a right includes not only the content, but also the means of expression. Freedom of information also refers to the right to privacy in the content of the Internet and information technology. As with the right to freedom of expression, the right to privacy is a recognised human right and freedom of information acts as an extension to this right. Lastly, freedom of information can include opposition to patents, opposition to copyrights or opposition to intellectual property in general. The international and United States Pirate Party have established political platforms based largely on freedom of information issues.

As of 2006 nearly 70 countries had freedom of information legislations applying to information held by government bodies and in certain circumstances to private bodies including Antigua and Barbuda, Angola, Armenia, Colombia, the Czech Republic, the Dominican Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Panama, Poland, Peru, South Africa, Turkey, Trinidad and Tobago, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom. However The degree to which private bodies are covered under freedom of information legislation varies, in Angola, Armenia and Peru the legislation only applies to private companies that perform what are considered to be public functions. In the Czech Republic, the Dominican Republic, Finland, Trinidad and Tobago, Slovakia, Poland and Iceland private bodies that receive public funding are subject to freedom of information legislation. Freedom of information legislation in Estonia, France and UK covers private bodies in certain sectors. In South Africa the access provisions of the Promotion of Access to Information Act have been used by individuals to establish why their loan application has been denied. The access provisions have also been used by minority shareholders in private companies and environmental groups, who were seeking information on the potential environmental damage caused by company projects.

Access to information has increasingly been recognized as a prerequisite for transparency and accountability of governments, as facilitating consumers’ ability to make informed choices, and as safeguarding citizens against mismanagement and corruption. This has led an increasing number of countries to enact freedom of information legislation in the past 10 years. Recently private bodies have started to perform functions which were previously carried out by public bodies. Privatisation and de-regulation saw banks, telecommunications companies, hospitals and universities being run by private entities, has lead to demands for the extension of freedom of information legislation to cover private bodies.

In 1983 the United Nations Commission on Transnational Corporations adopted the United Nations Guidelines for Consumer Protection stipulating eight consumer rights, including “consumer access to adequate information to enable making informed choices according to individual wishes and needs”. Access to information became regarded as a basic consumer right, and preventive disclosure, i.e. the disclosure of information on threats to human lives, health and safety, began to be emphasized.

Secretive decision making by company directors and accountancy fraud has also been linked to a number of corporate scandals such as Enron, Worldcom, Tyco, Adelphia and Global Crossing. This Has prompted the US Congress to impose new information disclosure obligations on companies with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002. This led to freedom of information legislation which benefits investors.

Freedom of information (or information freedom) also refers to the protection of the right to freedom of expression with regard to the Internet and information technology. Freedom of information may also concern censorship in an information technology context, i.e. the ability to access Web content, without censorship or restrictions. The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) Declaration of Principles adopted in 2003 reaffirms democracy and the universality, indivisibility and interdependence of all human rights and fundamental freedoms. The Declaration also makes specific reference to the importance of the right to freedom of expression for the “Information Society” in stating:

“We reaffirm, as an essential foundation of the Information Society, and as outlined in Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, that everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; that this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. Communication is a fundamental social process, a basic human need and the foundation of all social organisation. It is central to the Information Society. Everyone, everywhere should have the opportunity to participate and no one should be excluded from the benefits the Information Society offers.”

The 2004 WSIS Declaration of Principles also acknowledged that it is necessary to prevent the use of information resources and technologies for criminal and terrorist purposes, while respecting human rights. The WSIS Declaration only contains a number of references to human rights and does not spell out any procedures or mechanism to assure that human rights are considered in practice.

The digital rights group Hacktivismo, founded in 1999, argues that access to information is a basic human right. The group’s beliefs are described fully in the “Hacktivismo Declaration” which calls for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) to be applied to the Internet. The Declaration recalls the duty of member states to the ICCPR to protect the right to freedom of expression with regard to the internet and in this context freedom of information. The Hacktivismo Declaration recognises the importance to fight against human rights abuses with respect to reasonable access to information on the Internet and calls upon the hacker community to “study ways and means of circumventing state sponsored censorship of the internet and implement technologies to challenge information rights violations. The Hacktivismo Declaration does, however, recognise that the right to freedom of expression is subject to limitations, stating “we recognised the right of governments to forbid the publication of properly categorized state secrets, child pornography, and matters related to personal privacy and privilege, among other accepted restrictions.” However, the Hacktivismo Declaration opposes the use of state power to control access to the works of critics, intellectuals, artists, or religious figures.”

In 2008 the Global Network Initiative (GNI) was founded upon its “Principles on Freedom of Expression and Privacy”. The Initiative was launched in the 60th Anniversary year of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and is based on internationally recognized laws and standards for human rights on freedom of expression and privacy set out in the UDHR, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) Participants in the Initiative include the Electronic Frontier Foundation, Human Rights Watch, Google, Microsoft, Yahoo, other major companies, human rights NGOs, investors, and academics. However although Cisco Systems was invited to the initial discussions they didn’t take part in the initiative. Harrington Investments, proposed that Cisco establish a human rights board, dismissed the GNI as a voluntary code of conduct not having any impact and called for bylaws to be introduced that force boards of directors to accept human rights responsibilities. The internet has been a revolution for censorship as much as for free speech. The concept of freedom of information has emerged in response to state sponsored censorship, monitoring and surveillance of the internet. Internet censorship includes the control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet.

According to the Reporters without Borders (RSF) “internet enemy list” the following states engage in pervasive internet censorship: Cuba, Iran, Maldives, Myanmar/Burma, North Korea, Syria, Tunisia, Uzbekistan, Vietnam and the Great Firewall of China. This system blocks content by preventing IP addresses from being routed through and consists of standard firewall and proxy servers at the Internet gateways. The system also selectively engages in DNS poisoning when particular sites are requested. Internet censorship in the People’s Republic of China is conducted under a wide variety of laws and administrative regulations. In accordance with these laws, more than sixty Internet regulations have been made by the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government, and censorship systems are vigorously implemented by provincial branches of state-owned ISPs, business companies, and organizations. In 2010, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, speaking on behalf of the United States, declared ‘we stand for a single internet where all of humanity has equal access to knowledge and ideas’. In her ‘Remarks on Internet Freedom’ she also draws attention to how ‘even in authoritarian countries, information networks are helping people discover new facts and making governments more accountable’, while reporting President Barack Obama’s pronouncement ‘the more freely information flows, the stronger societies become.

Louis Pasteur/World Rabies Day

World Rabies day takes place annually on 28 September, to mark the anniversary of the death of French Chemist, scientist and Microbiologist Louis Pasteur who, with the collaboration of his colleagues, developed the first efficacious rabies vaccine. He was born December 27, 1822 and became renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of diseases, and his discoveries have saved countless lives ever since. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of bacteriology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, and is popularly known as the “father of microbiology”. Pasteur also made significant discoveries in chemistry, most notably on the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals and racemization. He was the Director of the Pasteur Institute, established in 1887, till his death on 28 September 1895, and his body lies beneath the institute in a vault covered in depictions of his accomplishments in Byzantine mosaics

World Rabies Day is an international campaign coordinated by the Global Alliance for Rabies Control, a non-profit organization with headquarters in the United States and the United Kingdom, which is held to raise awareness about the impact of rabies on humans and animals, provide information and advice on how to prevent the disease, and how individuals and organizations can help eliminate the main global sources.

Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals. Early symptoms can include fever and tingling at the site of exposure. These symptoms are followed by one or more of the following symptoms: violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, fear of water, an inability to move parts of the body, confusion, and loss of consciousness. Once symptoms appear, the result is nearly always death. The time period between contracting the disease and the start of symptoms is usually one to three months, but can vary from less than one week to more than one year. The time depends on the distance the virus must travel along peripheral nerves to reach the central nervous system.

Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses, including the rabies virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. It is spread when an infected animal scratches or bites another animal or human. Saliva from an infected animal can also transmit rabies if the saliva comes into contact with the eyes, mouth, or nose. Globally, dogs are the most common animal involved. More than 99% of rabies cases in countries where dogs commonly have the disease are caused by dog bites. In the Americas, bat bites are the most common source of rabies infections in humans, and less than 5% of cases are from dogs. Rodents are very rarely infected with rabies. The disease can only be diagnosed after the start of symptoms.

Animal control and vaccination programs have decreased the risk of rabies from dogs in a number of regions of the world. Immunizing people before they are exposed is recommended for those at high risk, including those who work with bats or who spend prolonged periods in areas of the world where rabies is common.In people who have been exposed to rabies, the rabies vaccine and sometimes rabies immunoglobulin are effective in preventing the disease if the person receives the treatment before the start of rabies symptoms. Washing bites and scratches for 15 minutes with soap and water, povidone iodine, or detergent may reduce the number of viral particles and may be somewhat effective at preventing transmission. As of 2016 only fourteen people had survived a rabies infection after showing symptoms.

Rabies caused about 17,400 deaths worldwide in 2015. More than 95% of human deaths from rabies occur in Africa and Asia. About 40% of deaths occur in children under the age of 15. Rabies is present in more than 150 countries and on all continents but Antarctica. More than 3 billion people live in regions of the world where rabies occurs. A number of countries, including Australia and Japan, as well as much of Western Europe, do not have rabies among dogs.Many islands do not have rabies at all. It is classified as a neglected tropical disease.

World Rabies Day is also observed by the United Nations and has been endorsed by international human and veterinary health organizations such as the World Health Organization the Pan American Health Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the World Veterinary Association.