Emilia Clarke

English actress Emilia Isabelle Euphemia Rose Clarke was born 23 October 1986 in London. She was brought up in Berkshire. Her father was a theatre sound engineer from Wolverhampton, West Midlands. She has an older brother. Clarke’s interest in acting began at the age of three after seeing the musical Show Boat, on which her father was working. She was educated at Rye St Antony School and at St Edward’s School, graduating in 2005. Clarke then studied at the Drama Centre London, where she appeared in a number of stage productions, and starred in a theatre production by the Company of Angels. After making her screen debut in a short film, her television debut came with a guest appearance as a character named Saskia Mayer in an episode of the British soap opera Doctors in 2009. Clarke’s early work includes two plays at St. Edwards, ten plays at Drama Centre London, the 2009 Company of Angels production of Sense, and two 2009 commercials for Samaritans. One of her first film roles was for a University of London students’ short film. The following year, she was named as one of the UK Stars of Tomorrow by Screen International magazine following her role as Savannah in the Syfy film Triassic Attack (2010).

In 2010 Clarke was cast as Daenerys Targaryen in the HBO fantasy series Game of Thrones, based on the Epic fantasy book series A Song of Ice and Fire by George R. R. Martin, when fellow British actress Tamzin Merchant was replaced for undisclosed reasons, Her portrayal of Daenerys, sees her transformed from a frightened girl who is forced to marry a warlord named Kal Drogo to an empowered woman, who unites the people and ends up at the head of a mighty army which threatens to take over Essos and Westeros.

The role has garnered her critical acclaim and several accolades, including three nominations for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series, and six nominations for the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Drama Series. Clarke won the 2011 EWwy Award for Best Supporting Actress in a Drama for her role as Daenerys. In 2013, Clarke was nominated for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series at the 65th Primetime Emmy Awards. She was nominated again in the category in 2015 and 2016. Clarke has received widespread praise for her performance.

In 2012, Clarke appeared in Spike Island, a film named after the location of The Stone Roses’ seminal 1990 gig. From March to April 2013, Clarke played Holly Golightly in a Broadway production of Breakfast at Tiffany’s, a role requiring Clarke to perform a nude scene. That year, she also starred in Dom Hemingway alongside Jude Law. Critical reaction to the film was mostly positive, though it was a commercial failure. Clarke was offered the role of Anastasia Steele in Fifty Shades of Grey but turned down the part because of the nudity required. She played Sarah Connor in Terminator Genisys opposite Arnold Schwarzenegger, Jai Courtney, and Jason Clarke and received nominations for awards like the Teen Choice Award for Choice Summer Movie Star – Female and Germany’s Jupiter Award for Best International Actress.

In 2016, Clarke starred as the female lead, opposite Sam Claflin, in the movie adaption of the best selling book Me Before You, The film was a commercial success, grossing over $200 million worldwide and is Clarke’s highest-rated film on the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes. For her role as Louisa Clark, she shared nominations with Sam Claflin for the Teen Choice Award for Choice Movie Liplock and the MTV Television Tearjerker Award. She played the lead as Nurse Verena, in the film Voice from the Stone which was released on April 2017 in limited release, video on demand and digital HD. In November 2016, Clarke was cast as Q’ira in Solo: A Star Wars Story. Clarke was cast as the lead in the upcoming English language adaptation of the 2015 Korean romantic comedy, The Beauty Inside and is starring in The Guns of August opposite Helena Bonham Carter, and Above Suspicion opposite Jack Huston

Emilia Clarke has also contributed time and effort to a variety of charitable organisations. In September 2011, she joined SMA Trust team as their celebrity ambassador. In August 2017, she became a patron of Open Door, a non-profit that aims to help young people gain access to drama school auditions. Clarke auctioned a chance to watch an episode of Game of Thrones with her at the 2018 Sean Penn Charity Gala, which raised over $120,000 benefiting the J/P HRO & Disaster Relief Organization. In February 2018, Clarke appeared at London’s Centerpoint Awards, which celebrates the courage shown by homeless young people. In April 2018, she was named ambassador to the Royal College of Nursing in the UK.

National Canning Day

National Canning day takes place annually on 23 October in honour of the process of canning food in order to stop harmful bacteria from forming. The idea is to make food available and edible long after the processing time. A 1997 study found that canned fruits and vegetables are as rich with dietary fiber and vitamins as the same corresponding fresh or frozen foods, and in some cases the canned products are richer than fresh or frozen foods. The heating process during canning appears to make dietary fibre more soluble, and therefore more readily fermented in the colon into gases and physiologically active byproducts. Canned tomatoes have a higher available lycopene content. Consequently, canned meat and vegetables are often among the list of food items that are stocked during emergencies.

Canning was invented during the Napoleonic Wars, after the French newspaper Le Monde, prompted by the government, offered a hefty cash award of 12,000 francs to any inventor who could devise a cheap and effective method of preserving large amounts of food. The larger armies of the period required increased, regular supplies of quality food as limited food availability was among the factors limiting military campaigns to the summer and fall months.

In 1809, a French confectioner and brewer, Nicolas Appert, observed that food cooked inside a jar did not spoil unless the seals leaked, and developed a method of sealing food in glass jars. The reason for lack of spoilage was unknown at the time, since it would be another 50 years before Louis Pasteur demonstrated the role of microbes in food spoilage. The French Army began experimenting with issuing canned foods to its soldiers, but the slow process of canning foods and the even slower development and transport stages prevented the army from shipping large amounts across the French Empire, and the war ended before the process was perfected.

Canning rapidly became ubiquitous, with any good housekeeper “putting up” fruits and vegetables for the winter. In recent decades the prevalence of fresh produce in our grocery stores from every corner of the world, and at every month of the year, has reduced reliance on canning, and for a while it seemed that canning produce would got the way of salt meat. However A few years ago the company that makes the rubber rings for glass mason jars announced they would not longer be available in western Canada. Luckily the decision was reversed. The preserving of peaches recommenced. Happily, the rise of the Eating Local movement seems to have given the art of canning a shot in the arm. Rather than buying the cherries from Argentina in the dead of winter, a younger generation is turning to their pantry where they have put up beautiful BC cherries months before. Canned goods and canning supplies sell particularly well in times of recession due to the tendency of financially stressed individuals to engage in cocooning, a term used by retail analysts to describe the phenomenon in which people choose to stay at home instead of adding expenditures to their budget by dining out and socializing outside the home. In 2009 during a recession, the United States saw an 11.5% rise in sales of canning-related items. Some communities in the US also have county canning centers which are available for teaching canning, or shared community kitchens which can be rented for canning one’s own foods.

National iPod day

National iPod Day is observed annually on October 23. Apple introduced the iPod on October 23, 2001. The iPod changed the way we listened to and purchased music. The first iPod was sold on November 10, 2001, for $399. However the price and Mac-only compatibility caused sales to be relatively slow until 2004. The iPod line came from Apple’s “digital hub” category, when the company began creating software for the growing market of personal digital devices. Digital cameras, camcorders and organizers had well-established mainstream markets, but the company found existing digital music players “big and clunky or small and useless” with user interfaces that were “unbelievably awful,” so Apple decided to develop its own. As ordered by CEO Steve Jobs, Apple’s hardware engineering chief Jon Rubinstein assembled a team of engineers to design the iPod line, including hardware engineers Tony Fadell and Michael Dhuey, and design engineer Sir Jonathan Ive. Rubinstein had already discovered the Toshiba hard disk drive while meeting with an Apple supplier in Japan, and purchased the rights to it for Apple, and had also already worked out how the screen, battery, and other key elements would work. The aesthetic was inspired by the 1958 Braun T3 transistor radio designed by Dieter Rams, while the wheel-based user interface was prompted by Bang & Olufsen’s BeoCom 6000 telephone. The product “the Walkman of the twenty-first century” was developed in less than one year and unveiled on October 23, 2001. Jobs announced it as a Mac-compatible product with a 5 GB hard drive that put “1,000 songs in your pocket.”

Apple did not develop the iPod software entirely in-house, instead using PortalPlayer’s reference platform based on two ARM cores. The platform had rudimentary software running on a commercial microkernel embedded operating system. PortalPlayer had previously been working on an IBM-branded MP3 player with Bluetooth headphones. Apple contracted another company, Pixo, to help design and implement the user interface under the direct supervision of Steve Jobs. As development progressed, Apple continued to refine the software’s look and feel. Starting with the iPod Mini, the Chicago font was replaced with Espy Sans. Later iPods switched fonts again to Podium Sans—a font similar to Apple’s corporate font, Myriad. Color display iPods then adopted some Mac OS X themes like Aqua progress bars, and brushed metal meant to evoke a combination lock. In 2007, Apple modified the iPod interface again with the introduction of the sixth-generation iPod Classic and third-generation iPod Nano by changing the font to Helvetica and, in most cases, splitting the screen in half by displaying the menus on the left and album artwork, photos, or videos on the right (whichever was appropriate for the selected item).

In 2006 Apple presented a special edition for iPod 5G of Irish rock band U2. Like its predecessor, this iPod has engraved the signatures of the four members of the band on its back, but this one was the first time the company changed the colour of the metal (not silver but black). This iPod was only available with 30GB of storage capacity. The special edition entitled purchasers to an exclusive video with 33 minutes of interviews and performance by U2, downloadable from the iTunes Store. In 2007, during a lawsuit with patent holding company Burst.com, Apple drew attention to a patent for a similar device that was developed in 1979. Kane Kramer applied for a UK patent for his design of a “plastic music box” in 1981, which he called the IXI.He was unable to secure funding to renew the US$120,000 worldwide patent, so it lapsed and Kramer never profited from his idea.

The name iPod was proposed by Vinnie Chieco, a freelance copywriter, who (with others) was called by Apple to figure out how to introduce the new player to the public. After Chieco saw a prototype, he thought of the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey and the phrase “Open the pod bay door, Hal!”, which refers to the white EVA Pods of the Discovery One spaceship. Chieco saw an analogy to the relationship between the spaceship and the smaller independent pods in the relationship between a personal computer and the music player. Apple researched the trademark and found that it was already in use. Joseph N. Grasso of New Jersey had originally listed an “iPod” trademark with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) in July 2000 for Internet kiosks. The first iPod kiosks had been demonstrated to the public in New Jersey in March 1998, and commercial use began in January 2000, but had apparently been discontinued by 2001. The trademark was registered by the USPTO in November 2003, and Grasso assigned it to Apple Computer, Inc. in 2005.

The earliest recorded use in commerce of an “iPod” trademark was in 1991 by Chrysalis Corp. of Sturgis, Michigan, styled “iPOD”. In mid-2015, several new color schemes for all of the current iPod models were spotted in the latest version of iTunes, 12.2. Belgian website Belgium iPhone originally found the images when plugging in an iPod for the first time, and subsequent leaked photos were found by Pierre Dandumont. In 2017, Apple removed the iPod Nano and Shuffle from its stores, marking the end of Apple producing standalone music players. Currently, the iPod Touch is the only iPod produced by Apple.

Sam Raimi

Prolific American film director, producer, writer and actor Samuel M “Sam” Raimi was born October 23, 1959 in Royal Oak, Michigan.  He is the older brother of actor Ted Raimi and the younger brother of screenwriter Ivan Raimi. His sister is Andrea Raimi Rubin. Another older brother, Sander Raimi, died at 15 in an accidental drowning; Sam Raimi has said that the trauma knitted the remaining family closer together and affected everything he’s done for the rest of his life.” He was The fourth of five children born to Celia Barbara (née Abrams) and Leonard Ronald Raimi, Raimi grew up in Franklin, Michigan. He graduated from Groves High School and later went on to attend Michigan State University, where he majored in English but left after three semesters to film The Evil Dead.

Raimi became fascinated with making films when his father brought a movie camera home one day and he began to make Super 8 movies with childhood friend Bruce Campbell. In college, he teamed up with his brother’s roommate Robert Tapert and Campbell to shoot Within the Woods (1978), a 32-minute horror film which raised $375,000, as well as his debut feature film It’s Murder!. Through family, friends, and a network of investors, Raimi was able to finance production of the highly successful horror film The Evil Dead which became a cult hit and effectively launched Raimi’s career.

In 1985 He began work on his third film Crimewave, which was intended as a live-action comic book and then returned to the horror genre with the seminal Evil Dead II (which added slapstick humor to the over the top horror, showcasing his love of the Three Stooges). With his brother Ivan Raimi (and crediting himself as Celia Abrams), Sam Raimi also wrote Easy Wheels (1989), a parody of the Outlaw biker film genre. A long-time comic book buff, he then attempted to adapt “The Shadow” into a movie, but was unable to secure the rights, so he created his own super-hero, Darkman (1990). The film was his first major studio picture, and while it was only moderately successful, it spawned two sequels. Through it he was still able to secure funding for Evil Dead III, which was retitled Army of Darkness and turned away almost totally from horror in favor of fantasy and comedy elements. Army of Darkness, the final movie in the Evil Dead trilogy, which eventually became a cult classic.

In the 1990s, Raimi moved into other genres, directing such films as the western The Quick and the Dead (starring Sharon Stone and Gene Hackman), the critically acclaimed crime thriller A Simple Plan (1998) (starring Bill Paxton and Billy Bob Thornton), and the romantic drama For Love of the Game (1999) (starring Kevin Costner). Prior to directing the Spider-Man films, Raimi lobbied to direct Batman Forever when Tim Burton was ousted from the director’s chair, but was rejected in favor of Joel Schumacher, whose reputation at the time outshone Raimi’s. However Raimi achieved great critical and commercial success with the blockbuster Spider-Man (2002), which was adapted from the comic book series of the same name. The movie has grossed over US$800 million worldwide, spawning two sequels: Spider-Man 2 and Spider-Man 3, both directed by Raimi and each grossing roughly $800 million. After the completion of the third Spider-Man film, he planned on producing two more sequels (although Sony Pictures planned three sequels) but could not find a satisfactory script. Raimi Also founded the company Renaissance Pictures.

Raimi has also collaborated with Joel and Ethan Coen, beginning when Joel was one of the editors of Evil Dead. The Coens co-wrote Crimewave and The Hudsucker Proxy with Raimi in the mid-1980s (though Hudsucker was not produced for almost a decade). Raimi made cameo appearances in Miller’s Crossing, The Hudsucker Proxy, and with Joel Coen in Spies Like Us. The Coen brothers gave Raimi advice on shooting in snow for A Simple Plan, based on their experiences with Fargo.

He has also worked in front of the camera in The Stand as a dimwitted hitman, John Carpenter’s Body Bags as a gas station attendant, and Indian Summer in what is perhaps his biggest role as a bumbling assistant to Alan Arkin. The film was written by his childhood friend writer-director Mike Binder and shot at the camp that they both attended when they were younger. Raimi also produced the entire The Grudge franchise. Raimi may direct By Any Means Necessary, the next film based on the “Jack Ryan” CIA character created by Tom Clancy for Paramount Pictures. Disney also approached him to direct W.I.T.C.H.: The Movie, based on the popular comic.

In 2009, Raimi produced the British supernatural thriller Refuge, which is directed by Corin Hardy and published by Mandate Pictures. He will produce the remake of the Danish thriller The Substitute, which will be directed by Scott Dickerson under his new label Spooky Pictures. Raimi produced with his company Ghost House Pictures the British thriller flick Burst 3D, which is directed by Neil Marshall. IN 2013 Raimi directed the fantasy film Oz the Great and Powerful, based on L.Frank Baum’s wizard of Oz and starring Michelle Williams and Mila Kunis. Raimi, along with Bruce Campbell and Rob Tapert, produced the remake of Raimi’s The Evil Dead. First-time feature filmmaker Fede Alvarez wrote and directed, and Diablo Cody was also brought in to revise/rewrite the script. Raimi directed the film World War 3 based on a possible future inspired by the book The Next 100 Years by George Friedman. Raimi is currently directing a thriller about the Bermuda Triangle with the script by Doug Miro and Carlo Bernard. He also worked as the producer of The Possession, and is also working on a film adaption of the critically acclaimed video game The Last of Us.

In addition to film, Raimi has also worked in television, producing such series as Hercules: The Legendary Journeys and its spin-off Xena: Warrior Princess, both featuring his younger brother Ted Raimi and long-time friend Bruce Campbell, American Gothic, Cleopatra 2525, M.A.N.T.I.S., 13: Fear Is Real, Young Hercules, and Jack of All Trades. In 2008, Raimi executive produced the TV series called Legend of the Seeker, based on Terry Goodkind’s best-selling The Sword of Truth fantasy series. He is also the executive producer of Starz original television series Spartacus: Blood and Sand and Spartacus: Gods of the Arena, Spartacus: Vengeance and Spartacus: War of the Damned. He directed the pilot episode of Ash vs Evil Dead for Starz.

Ang Lee

Academy Award winning Taiwanese-born American film director, screenwriter and producer Ang Lee; was born October 23, 1954. Throughout his career, Ang Lee has sought to explore complex themes in his movies. His earlier films frequently sought to explore the relationships and conflicts between tradition and modernity, eastern and western. This is clearly evident in films such as The Wedding Banquet, Pushing Hands, Eat Drink Man Woman. Lee also adeptly deals with the complexities of human emotion (particularly repressed, hidden emotions) in many of his films including Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, Hulk, and Brokeback Mountain. Whatever Lee has chosen to deal with in his films, he has done so in a way that demonstrates his remarkable insight into the human heart. It is this insight which has allowed his films to transcend cultural and linguistic barriers to speak to audiences all over the world Lee has won the Academy Award for Best Director twice, first for Brokeback Mountain(2005) and most recently for Life of Pi (2012). He also won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film for Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000). He is the first person ofAsian descent to win an Oscar, Golden Globe and BAFTA for Best Director, and the only director to win two Best Film Awards (Golden Bear) at the Berlin International Film Festival.

His first film Pushing Hands (1992) was a success in Taiwan both among critics and at the box office. It received eight nominations in the Golden Horse Film Festival, Taiwan’s premier film festival. Inspired by the success, Li-Kong Hsu collaborated with Lee in their second film, The Wedding Banquet (1993), which won the Golden Bear at the 43rd Berlin International Film Festival and was nominated as the Best Foreign Language Film in both the Golden Globe and the Academy Awards. In all, this film collected eleven Taiwanese and international awards and made Lee a rising star. These first two movies were based on stories of Chinese Americans, and both were filmed in the US.In 1995, Hsu invited Lee to return to Taiwan to make Eat Drink Man Woman, a film that depicts traditional values, modern relationships, and family conflicts in Taipei. The film was a box office hit and was critically acclaimed. For a second consecutive year, Lee’s film received the Best Foreign Language Film nomination in both the Golden Globe and Academy Awards, as well as in the British Academy Award. Eat Drink Man Woman won five awards in Taiwan and internationally, including the Best Director from Independent Spirit.The three films show the Confucian family at risk and star the Taiwanese actor Sihung Lung to form what has been called Lee’s “Father Knows Best” trilogy.

Lee’s three acclaimed first dramas opened the door to Hollywood for him. In 1995, Lee directed Columbia TriStar’s British classic Sense and Sensibility. The switch from Taiwanese to British films did not prevent Lee’s work from garnering awards: Sense and Sensibility made Lee a second-time winner of the Golden Bear at the Berlin Film Festival. It was nominated for 7 Academy Awards, and won Best Adapted Screenplay for screenwriter Emma Thompson, who also starred in the movie alongside Hugh Grant and Kate Winslet. Sense and Sensibility also won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama. After this, Lee directed two more Hollywood movies: The Ice Storm (1997), a drama set in 1970s suburban America, and Ride with the Devil, an American Civil War drama (1999). Although the critics still highly praised these latter two films, their box office was not impressive, and for a time this interrupted Lee’s unbroken popularity – from both general audiences and arthouse aficionados – since his first full-length movie. However, in the late 1990s and 2000s, The Ice Storm has had high VHS and DVD sales and rentals and repeated screenings on cable television, which has increased the film’s popularity among audience. In 1999, Li-Kong Hsu, Lee’s old partner and supporter, invited him to make a movie based on the traditional Chinese “wuxia” (martial arts and chivalry) genre. Excited about the opportunity to fulfill his childhood dream, Lee assembled a team from Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Mainland China for Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000). The film was a surprising success worldwide. With Chinese dialogue and English subtitles, the film became the highest grossing foreign film in many countries, including the United States and the United Kingdom, and was nominated in 10 categories at the Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Foreign Language Film, and Best Director. It ended up winning Best Foreign Language Film and three technical awards. The success of Crouching Tigerdemonstrated that Lee’s artistry had a general appeal; it also inspired such established directors as Zhang Yimou and Chen Kaige to explore wuxia films for Western audiences.

In 2003, Lee returned to Hollywood to direct Hulk, his second big-budget movie after the disappointment of Ride with the Devil’s restricted release. The film received mixed reviews and became a moderate success, grossing over $245 million at the box office. After the setback, Lee considered retiring early, but his father encouraged him to continue making movies.Lee decided to take on a small-budget, low-profile independent film based on Annie Proulx’s Pulitzer Prize-finalist short story, Brokeback Mountain. In a 2005 article by Robert K. Elder, Lee was quoted as saying, “What do I know about gay ranch hands in Wyoming?” In spite of the director’s removal from the subject at hand, Brokeback Mountain showcased Lee’s skills in probing the depths of the human heart. The 2005 movie about the forbidden love between two Wyoming sheepherders immediately caught public attention and became a cultural phenomenon, initiating intense debates and becoming a box office hit.The film was critically acclaimed at major international film festivals and won Lee numerous Best Director and Best Picture awards worldwide. Brokeback Mountain was the most acclaimed film of 2005, winning 71 awards and an additional 52 nominations. It won theGolden Lion (best film) award at the Venice International Film Festival and was named 2005’s best film by the Los Angeles, New York, Boston, and London film critics. It also won best picture at the 2005 Broadcast Film Critics Association, Directors Guild of America,Writers Guild of America (Adapted Screenplay), Producers Guild of America and the Independent Spirit Awards as well as the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama, with Lee winning the Golden Globe Award for Best Director. Brokeback also won Best Film and Best Director at the 2006 British Academy Awards (BAFTA). Brokeback Mountain was nominated for a leading eight Oscars and was the front runner for Best Picture heading into the March 5 ceremony, but lost out to Crash, a story about race relations in Los Angeles, in a controversial upset. He became the first person of Asian heritage and the first non-white person to ever win the Best Director at the Academy Awards. In 2006, following his Best Director Oscar, Ang Lee was bestowed the Order of Brilliant Star with Grand Cordon, the second highest civilian honour, by the Taiwanese government.

After Brokeback Mountain, Lee returned to a Chinese topic. His next film was Lust, Caution, which was adapted from a short novel by the Chinese author Eileen Chang. The story was written in 1950, and was loosely based on an actual event that took place in 1939–1940 in Japanese-occupied Shanghai, China, during World War II. Similar to Brokeback Mountain, Ang Lee adapted and expanded a short, simple story into a feature film in a way that allows individual figures to develop sophisticated layers of reserved emotions, without being sidetracked by complicated plots or overstuffed material.Lust, Caution was distributed by Focus Features and premiered at international film festivals in the summer and early fall of 2007. In the US, the movie received a NC-17 rating (no one 17 and under admitted) from the MPAA mainly due to several strongly explicit sex scenes. This was a challenge to the film’s distribution because many theater chains in the United States refuse to show NC-17 films. The director and film studio have decided not to appeal the decision. Lee removed 9 minutes from the film to make the content suitable for minor audiences in order to be permitted to show Lust, Caution in mainland China.Lust, Caution captured the Golden Lion from the 2007 Biennale Venice Film Festival, making Lee the winner of the highest prize for the second time in three years (Lee is one of only four filmmakers to have ever won the Golden Lion twice). When Lust, Caution was played in Lee’s native Taiwan in its original full-length edition, it was very well received. Staying in Taiwan to promote the film and to participate in a traditional Chinese holiday, Lee got emotional when he found that his work was widely applauded by fellow Taiwanese. Lee admitted that he had low expectations for this film from the US audience since “its pace, its film language – it’s all very Chinese.” Indeed, the film was ignored by the Oscars, receiving zero nominations, despite the generally positive critical reception and the fact most of Ang Lee’s past films had received multiple Academy Award nominations. It was snubbed even from consideration in the Best Foreign Language Film category; after being officially submitted by Taiwan, the Academy ruled that an insufficient number of Taiwanese nationals had participated in the production, thus disqualifying it from further consideration.Lee was chosen as president of the jury for the 2009 edition of the Venice Film Festival that took place from September 2 to 12, 2009

Lee’s next film after 2009’s Taking Woodstock was Life of Pi, which was adapted from the novel of the same name written by Yann Martel.The story was a retrospective first-person narrative from Pi, a then 16-year-old boy from India, who is the only human to survive the sinking of a freighter on the way from India to Canada. He finds himself on a lifeboat with an orangutan, a hyena, a wounded zebra and a Bengal tiger. During this unlikely journey, young Pi faces a fight for survival and encounters many strange and dangerous situations, which cause him to start questioning his belief in God and the meaning of life. The novel was once considered impossible to make into a movie, but Lee persuaded 20th Century Fox to invest $120 million and heavily relied on 3D special effects in post-production. Unlike most other sci-fi precedents, Lee explores the artistic horizon of applying 3D effects and pushes the boundary of how this technology can serve the movie’s artistic vision. The movie made its commercial premiere during the Thanksgiving weekend of 2012 in the US and worldwide and became a highly critical and box office success. In January 2013, Life of Pi earned 11 Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay and Best Visual Effects; only one fewer than Steven Spielberg’s Lincoln. He went on to win the Academy Award for Best Director. In 2013 he was selected as a member of the main competition jury at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival

Michael Crichton

Best known for his work in the science fiction, medical fiction and thriller genres, Prolific author, physician, producer, director and screenwriter, John Michael Crichton MD was Born 23 October 1942. He was raised on Long Island, in Roslyn, New York and showed a keen interest in writing from a young age; at 14, he had a column related to travel published in The New York Times. He enrolled at Harvard College in 1960 as an undergraduate studying literature and obtained his bachelor’s degree in biological anthropology summa cum laude in 1964 and was initiated into the Phi Beta Kappa Society. He received a Henry Russell Shaw Traveling Fellowship from 1964 to 1965 and was a visiting lecturer in Anthropology at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom in 1965.Crichton later enrolled at Harvard Medical School, when he began publishing work under the pen names “John Lange” & “Jeffrey Hudson”( a famous 17th-century dwarf in the court of Queen consort Henrietta Maria of England).

His novels are usually within the action genre and heavily feature technology and epitomize the techno-thriller genre of literature, often exploring technology and failures of human interaction with it, especially resulting in catastrophes with biotechnology. Many of his future history novels have medical or scientific underpinnings, reflecting his medical training and science background.

In 1966 Michael Crichton published his first novel Odds On under the pseudonym of John Lange. This novel concerns an attempted robbery in an isolated hotel on Costa Brava, which is planned scientifically with the help of a critical path analysis computer program, however unforeseen events get in the way. Then In 1967 he published hos second novel Scratch One, which concerns A handsome, charming and privileged Chap named Roger Carr, a who practices law, as a means to support his playboy lifestyle than a career. Who is mistaken for an assassin after being sent to Nice, France, and finds his life in jeopardy, implicated in the world of terrorism. In 1968, Crichton published two more novels, Easy Go and A Case of Need, Easy Go relates the story of Harold Barnaby, a brilliant Egyptologist, who discovers a concealed message while translating hieroglyphics, informing him of an unnamed Pharaoh whose tomb is yet to be discovered. A Case of Need, is a medical thriller in which a Boston pathologist, Dr. John Berry, investigates an apparent illegal abortion conducted by an obstetrician friend, which caused the early demise of a young which earned him an Edgar Award in 1969.

In 1969, Crichton published three novels. The first, Zero Cool, dealt with an American radiologist on vacation in Spain who is caught in a murderous crossfire between rival gangs seeking a precious artifact. The second, The Andromeda Strain, follows a team of scientists investigating a deadly extraterrestrial microorganism that fatally clots human blood, causing death within two minutes. In 1969, Crichton published the Venom Business which concerns a smuggler who uses his exceptional skill as a snake handler to smuggle rare Mexican artifacts while importing snakes to be used by drug companies and universities for medical research. Crichton also wrote a review for The New Republic (as J. Michael Crichton), critiquing Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut.

In 1970, Crichton published three more novels: Drug of Choice, Grave Descend and Dealing: or the Berkeley-to-Boston Forty-Brick Lost-Bag Blues with his younger brother Douglas Crichton. “Dealing”, was written under the pen name ‘Michael Douglas’, using their first names. This novel was adapted to the big screen. Grave Descend earned him an Edgar Award nomination the following year. He also worked at Boston City Hospital, and graduated from Harvard, obtaining an MD in 1969, after which he undertook a post-doctoral fellowship study at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, where he experimented with astral projection, aura viewing, and clairvoyance, coming to believe that these included real phenomena which other scientists had dismissed as paranormal.

In 1972, Crichton published two novels. Binary, which concerns a villainous middle-class businessman, who attempts to assassinate the President of the United States by stealing an army shipment of the two precursor chemicals that form a deadly nerve agent. He also published, The Terminal Man, which concerns psychomotor epileptic sufferer, Harry Benson, who conducts himself inappropriately after suffering a seizure and then blacks out, only to wake up hours later with no knowledge of what he has done. Believed to be psychotic, he is investigated by the medical profession who implant electrodes in his brain with novel results. The novel was also adapted into a film starring George Segal, Joan Hackett, Richard A. Dysart and Donald Moffat, released in June 1974.

In 1975, Crichton wrote the historical novel The Great Train Robbery, which concerns the Great Gold Robbery of 1855, a massive gold heist, which took place on a train traveling through Victorian era England. The novel was also made into a 1979 film directed by Crichton himself, starring Sean Connery and Donald Sutherland. And was nominated for Best Cinematography Award by the British Society of Cinematographers, also garnering an Edgar Allan Poe Award for Best Motion Picture by the Mystery Writers Association of America. In 1976, Crichton published Eaters of the Dead, a novel about a tenth-century Muslim named Ahmed ibn Fadlan who travels with a group of Vikings to their settlement and recounts his journey north and his experiences with the early Russian peoples, whilst the remainder is based upon the story of Beowulf, culminating in battles with the ‘mist-monsters’, or ‘wendol’, a relict group of Neanderthals. The novel was adapted into film as The 13th Warrior, In 1980, Crichton published Congo, which centers on an expedition searching for diamonds in the tropical rain forest of Congo. The novel was loosely adapted into a 1995 film, starring Laura Linney, Tim Curry, and Ernie Hudson.

Crichton also wrote Five Patients, which recounts his experiences of practices in the late 1960s at Massachusetts General Hospital and the issues of costs and politics within American health care. The book follows each of five patients through their hospital experience and the context of their treatment, revealing inadequacies in the hospital institution at the time, which also includes abrief history of medicine up to 1969. Then In 1983, Crichton authored Electronic Life, a book that introduces BASIC programming and defined basic computer jargon, which was intended to introduce the idea of personal computers to a reader who might be unfamiliar and using them at work or at home for the first time. In 1987 Crichton published Sphere, a novel which relates the story of psychologist Norman Johnson, who is required by the U.S. Navy to join a team of scientists assembled by the U.S. Government to examine an enormous alien spacecraft discovered on the bed of the Pacific Ocean. The novel was adapted into a film in 1998, starring Dustin Hoffman as Norman Johnson, (renamed Norman Goodman), Samuel L. Jackson, Liev Schreiber and Sharon Stone.

In 1990, Crichton published the novel Jurassic Park. A cautionary tale Which features a biological preserve” created by Billionaire John Hammond Housing genetically recreated dinosaurs including Dilophosaurus, Velociraptor, Triceratops, Stegosaurus, and Tyrannosaurus rex. Thanks to human error The Dinosaurs all manage to escape and cause absolute chaos. Director Steven Spielberg then learned of the novel in October 1989, while he and Crichton were discussing a screenplay that would become the television series ER and Crichton’s novel Jurassic Park, and its sequels, were made into films starring Sam Neill as Dr. Alan Grant, Laura Dern as Dr. Ellie Sattler, Jeff Goldblum as Dr. Ian Malcolm (the chaos theorist), and Richard Attenborough, as John Hammond, the billionaire CEO, of InGen.

In 1992, Crichton published the novel Rising Sun, an international best-selling crime thriller about a murder in the Los Angeles headquarters of Nakamoto, a fictional Japanese corporation. The book was instantly adapted into a film, released the same year of the movie adaption of Jurassic Park in 1993, and starring Sean Connery, Wesley Snipes, Tia Carrere and Harvey Keitel. His next novel, Disclosure, published in 1994, addresses the theme of sexual harassment previously explored in his 1972 Binary. Particularly sexual politics in the workplace, emphasizing an array of paradoxes in traditional gender functions, by featuring a male protagonist who is being sexually harassed by a female executive. The novel was made into a film the same year by Barry Levinson, and starring Michael Douglas, Demi Moore and Donald Sutherland. Crichton then published The Lost World in 1995, as the sequel to Jurassic Park. It was made into a film sequel two years later in 1997, again directed by Spielberg and starring Jeff Goldblum, Julianne Moore, Vince Vaughn and Pete Postlethwaite. In 1996, Crichton published Airframe, an aero-techno-thriller concerning a quality assurance vice-president at the fictional aerospace manufacturer Norton Aircraft, who investigates an in-flight accident aboard a Norton-manufactured airliner.

Then In 1999, Crichton published Timeline, a science fiction novel which tells the story of a team of historians and archaeologists studying a site in the Dordogne region of France, where the medieval towns of Castelgard and La Roque stood. They time travel back to 1357 to uncover some startling truths. The novel, addresses quantum physics and time travel. A film based on the book was released in 2003, directed by Richard Donner and starring Paul Walker, Gerard Butler and Frances O’Connor. In 2002, Crichton published Prey, another cautionary tale Which features a Nanorobotics company called Xymos, which is testing a revolutionary new medical imaging technology based on nanotechnology. However this is sabotaged by a rival company, MediaTronics with disasterous consequences. In 2004, Crichton published State of Fear, a novel concerning eco-terrorists who attempt mass murder to support their views. Michael Crichton’s final novel was Next, This follows transgenic animals, in the quest to survive in a world dominated by genetic research, corporate greed, and legal interventions, wherein government and private investors spend billions of dollars every year on genetic research.

Crichton sadly died November 4, 2008 and the novels Pirate Latitudes and Micro were found and both published posthumously and his science fiction novels continue to remain popular (so far I’ve read Jurassic Park, Prey and Timeline).

Gary Gabelich

On 23 October 1970 Gary Gabelich set a land speed record in a rocket-powered automobile called the Blue Flame, fueled with natural gas.The Blue Flame was the rocket-powered vehicle driven by Gary Gabelich that achieved the world land speed record on Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah on October 23, 1970. The vehicle set the FIA world record for the flying mile at 622.407 mph (1,001.667 km/h) and the flying kilometer at 630.388 mph (1,014.511 km/h). Blue Flame was constructed in Milwaukee, Wisconsin byReaction Dynamics, a company formed by Pete Farnsworth, Ray Dausman and Dick Keller who had developed the first hydrogen peroxide rocket dragster,called the X-1 and driven by Chuck Suba.Blue Flame used a combination ofhigh-test peroxide and liquified natural gas (LNG), pressurized by helium gas. The effort was sponsored by The American Gas Association, with technical assistance from the Institute of Gas Technology of Des Plaines, IL.

” Reaction Dynamics” was formed in 1965 and started out as “DFK Enterprises”, for Dausman, Farnsworth and Keller. At that time Dick Keller worked part time as a research assistant into gas technology at the Illinois Institute of Technology, which was the research arm of the American Gas Association. Pete Farnsworth was a Top Fuel dragster racer.The engine of Blue Flame was designed by Reaction Dynamics, Inc. and some of the components were manufactured by Galaxy Manufacturing Co. ofTonawanda, New York. Galaxy Mfg. Co. was formed in 1966 by Donald J Magro and Gerald Muhs and was principally engaged in flow control systems, cavitating venturi, and precision machining fields.The Blue Flame engine is a regeneratively cooled, liquid-propellent engine of the variable thrust type. It can operate on either a single or dual-propellant basis. In operation, the engine permits natural gas use as a liquid or gas or both with a two-stage combustion start. The oxidizer flow is established first, then LNG enters a heat exchanger where it vaporizes and is brought to combustion temperature. The gas is then injected into the combustion chamber with the oxygen provided by the hydrogen peroxide. A stable flame front is established and the remaining LNG is injected to bring the engine to full powerNominal design engine running time was 20 seconds at full thrust of 22,500 pounds-force (100,000 N) generating the equivalent of 58,000 horsepower (43,000 kilowatts).Dick Keller stated that the Goodyear Tire Company restricted their top speed to 700 mph (1,126.541 km/h). Reaction Dynamics subsequently modified the LNG flow in the 2-stage LNG injector system to almost halve the maximum thrust. The actual thrust during the record runs was between 13,000 pounds (5,900 kilograms) [equivalent of 35,000 horsepower (26,000 kilowatts) and 15,000 pounds (6,800 kilograms)

According to Dick Keller the kilometer timing traps were inside the mile. The Blue Flame record runs involved accelerating continuously to the mile mid-point, then coasting through the mile. The peak speed, of approximately 650 mph (1,046.074 km/h) was reached at that point and then the vehicle decelerated the rest of the way. The kilometer speed trap was biased towards one end of the mile, resulting in the 8 mph (12.875 km/h) higher speed. The frame of the Blue Flame is a semi-monocoque type aluminum, with welded tubular structure in the nose section and with an aluminum “skin.” The vehicle is 37 feet 4.6 inches (11.394 m) long, 8 feet 1.5 inches (2.477 m) high to the top of the tail fin , 7 feet 8 inches (2.34 m) wide and the wheelbase is 306 inches (7.8 m). It has an empty weight of 4,000 pounds (1,800 kilograms) and is approximately 6,600 pounds (3,000 kilograms) fully fueled and loaded. The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. designed 8:00-25 tires for the vehicle, with an outside diameter of 34.8 inches (880 mm) and smooth tire tread surface to help prevent heat buildup using Nitrogengas at 350 pounds per square inch (24 bar] The Blue Flame is now on permanent exhibition at the Auto- and Technik Museum Sinsheim in Germany.