World Day for Audiovisual Heritage/Pumpkin Day

The World Day for Audiovisual Heritage takes place every 27 October. This commemorative day was chosen by UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) in 2005 to raise of awareness of the significance of and preservation risks recorded sound and audiovisual documents (films, sound and video recordings, radio and television programmes). Events are held in many countries, organised by national and regional sound and film archives, broadcasters, museums and libraries, and major audiovisual associations including the Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA),International Council on Archives (ICA), International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives (IASA) and International Federation of Film Archives (FIAF)). and the International Federation of Television Archives FIAT/IFTA http://www.fiatifta.org. The main objectives of World Day for Audiovisual Heritage as listed by UNESCO are:

  • To raise public awareness concerning the need for preservation;
  • To provide opportunities to celebrate specific local, national or international aspects of the heritage;
  • To highlight the accessibility of archives;
  • To attract media attention to heritage issues;
  • To raise the cultural status of audiovisual heritage;
  • To highlight dangers posed to audiovisual heritage especially in developing countries.

Audiovisual (AV) refers to the possession of both a sound and a visual component, such as slide-tape presentations, films, television programs, church services and live theater productions. Audiovisual services can generally be divided into three categories

  • Residential audiovisual: this encompasses in-ceiling speakers, flat panel TVs, projectors and projector screens. This could include lighting, blinds, cinema rooms.
  • Commercial audiovisual This refers to The professional audiovisual industry which is a multibillion-dollar industry, comprising the manufacturers, dealers, systems integrators, consultants, programmers, presentations professionals and technology managers of audiovisual products and services.
  • Audiovisual education: This uses Audiovisual Presentations for educational purposes where particular attention is paid to the audio and visual presentation of the material, with the goal of improving comprehension and retention.

Commercial audiovisual can sometimes be a very lengthy process to get it right. Boardroom audio visual can be installed for a number of reasons, but usually it is because the executives of the organization/business wants to have meetings with colleagues/customers/suppliers around the world. When creating an array of boardrooms for customers it has been seen that you have to be able to balance the pattern from the audio and microphone so there is no interruption in the sound quality for the individual/s listening in.

The proliferation of audiovisual communications technologies, including sound, video, lighting, display and projection systems, is evident in every sector of society: in business, education, government, the military, healthcare, retail environments, worship, sports and entertainment, hospitality, restaurants, and museums. The application of audiovisual systems is found in collaborative conferencing (which includes video-conferencing, audio-conferencing, web-conferencing and data-conferencing); presentation rooms, auditoriums, and lecture halls; command and control centers; digital signage, and more. Concerts and corporate events are among the most obvious venues where audiovisual equipment is used in a staged environment. Providers of this type of service are known as rental and staging companies, although they may also be served by an in-house technology team (e.g., in a hotel or conference center).

According to a 2006 market forecast study by InfoComm International, a leading trade association representing the audiovisual industry, 2006 was the fourth consecutive year that significant growth was projected for the industry. Revenue for surveyed North American companies was expected to grow by 40% in 2006, and by 10.7% for European audiovisual companies. The single biggest factor for this increase is the increased demand for networked audiovisual products due to the integration of audiovisual and IT technology. The two leading markets for AV equipment in North America and Europe continue to be business/IT and education, especially as conference room technologies become more advanced.


Pumpkin Day

Pumpkin Day takes place annually on 26 October. The purpose of Pumpkin Day is to celebrate these noble squash’s, and their history and traditions. Halloween, Is associated with Jack-o-Lanterns Pumpkin Pies and pumpkins, and even when you’re looking at that ‘false medieval’ imagery that’s present in most fantasy games, you’ll regularly see pumpkins being present, especially during Halloween events. However the pumpkin is actually a plant from the Americas, like all squash, so the image of pumpkin jack-o-lanterns in front of ancient medieval homes is just plain wrong. These are an all American (And South American) plant, and the jack-o-lantern at Halloween is a distinctly New World thing.

A pumpkin is a cultivar of a squash plant, most commonly of Cucurbita pepo, that is round, with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and deep yellow to orange coloration. The thick shell contains the seeds and pulp. Some exceptionally large cultivars of squash with similar appearance have also been derived from Cucurbita maxima. Specific cultivars of winter squash derived from other species, including C. argyrosperma, and C. moschata, are also sometimes called “pumpkin”. In New Zealand and Australian English, the term pumpkin generally refers to the broader category called winter squash elsewhere. pumpkins are widely grown for commercial use and are used both in food and recreation. Pumpkin pie, for instance, is a traditional part of Thanksgiving meals in Canada and the United States, and pumpkins are frequently carved as jack-o’-lanterns for decoration around Halloween, although commercially canned pumpkin puree and pumpkin pie fillings are usually made from different kinds of winter squash than the ones used for jack-o’-lanterns.

The oldest evidence of pumpkin-related seeds dates back to somewhere between 7000 and 5500 BC to seeds found in Mexico. The word Pumpkin is derived from the Greek word pepon, or ‘Large Melon’, but it didn’t go straight to pumpkin. First it was pompon to the French, and then pumpion to the British. It was the Americans that finally changed the word to its present Pumpkin. Since some squash share the same botanical classifications as pumpkins, the names are frequently used interchangeably. One often-used botanical classification relies on the characteristics of the stems: pumpkin stems are more rigid, prickly, and angular (with an approximate five-degree angle) than squash stems, which are generally softer, more rounded, and more flared where joined to the fruit.

Pumpkin fruits are known as a pepo. Traditional C. pepo pumpkins generally weigh between 3 and 8 kilograms (6 and 18 lb), though the largest cultivars (of the species C. maxima) regularly reach weights of over 34 kg (75 lb).The color of pumpkins derives from orange carotenoid pigments, including beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha and beta carotene, all of which are provitamin A compounds converted to vitamin A in the body. All pumpkins are winter squash: mature fruit of certain species in the genus Cucurbita. Characteristics commonly used to define “pumpkin” include smooth and slightly ribbed skin, and deep yellow to orange. Around 2005, white pumpkins became increasingly popular in the United States. Other colors, including dark green (as with some oilseed pumpkins), also exist.

Pumpkins are one of the most popular crops in the United States, 680,000,000 kilograms (1.5 billion pounds) of pumpkins are produced each year. The top pumpkin-producing states include Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and California. According to the Illinois Department of Agriculture, 95% of the U.S. crop intended for processing is grown in Illinois. Nestlé, operating under the brand name Libby’s, produces 85% of the processed pumpkin in the United States, at their plant in Morton, Illinois. In the fall of 2009, rain in Illinois devastated the Nestlé crop, resulting in a shortage affecting the entire country during the Thanksgiving holiday season.

Pumpkins are a warm-weather crop that is usually planted in early July. The specific conditions necessary for growing pumpkins require that soil temperatures 8 centimetres (3 in) deep are at least 15.5 °C (60 °F) and soil that holds water well. Pumpkin crops may suffer if there is a lack of water or because of cold temperatures (in this case, below 18 °C or 65 °F; frost can be detrimental), and sandy soil with poor water retention or poorly drained soils that become waterlogged after heavy rain. Pumpkins are, however, rather hardy, and even if many leaves and portions of the vine are removed or damaged, the plant can very quickly re-grow secondary vines to replace what was removed. Pumpkins produce both a male and female flower; honeybees play a significant role in fertilization. Pumpkins have historically been pollinated by the native squash bee Peponapis pruinosa, but this bee has declined, probably at least in part to pesticide (imidacloprid) sensitivity, and today most commercial plantings are pollinated by honeybees. One hive per acre (4,000 m2 per hive, or 5 hives per 2 hectares) is recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. If there are inadequate bees for pollination, gardeners often have to hand pollinate. Inadequately pollinated pumpkins usually start growing but abort before full development.

Horseless Carriage Day

London Steam Carriage

This years Horseless Carriage Day Takes place on Friday, October 26, 2018. Horseless carriage is an early name for the motor car or automobile. Prior to the invention of the motor car, carriages were usually pulled by animals, typically horses. The term can be compared to other transitional terms, such as wireless phone. These are cases in which a new technology is compared to an older one by describing what the new one does not have. Most horseless carriages are notable for their similarity to existing horse-drawn carriages, but with some type of mechanical propulsion.

Many of the first horseless carriages include tiller steering, an engine under the floorboards, and a high center of gravity. In the 19th century, steam engines became the primary source of power for railway locomotives and ships, and for powering processes in fixed installations such as factories. In 1803, what is said to have been the first horseless carriage was a steam-driven vehicle demonstrated in London, England, by Richard Trevithick. In the 1820s, Goldsworthy Gurney built steam-powered road vehicles. One has survived to be on display at Glasgow Museum of Transport. In the United States, a four-wheel steam carriage was made by Sylvester H. Roper in 1863.

The 1896 Armstrong horseless carriage is notable as an early hybrid vehicle, with combined an electric motor with battery and gasoline-fueled internal-combustion engine. In 1893, Frank Duryea is reported to have made the first horseless carriage trip on U.S. roads, in Springfield, Massachusetts, traveling approximately 600 yards (550 m) before engine problems forced him to stop and make repairs. He went on to found the first U.S. car company, the Duryea Motor Wagon Company, with his brother. In 2016, horseless carriages from the turn of 19th and the early 20th centuries were featured in a re-creation of the first London Motor Show show in 1896.

Frankenstein Friday

National Frankenstein Friday takes place on the last Friday in October to recognize author Mary  Wollstonecraft Shelley, her classic science fiction novel Frankenstein, the characters, Dr. Frankenstein and the monster. The novel Frankenstein; or The modern Prometheus, was published 11 March 1818 It contains elements of the Gothic novel and the Romantic movement and is also considered to be one of the earliest examples of science Fiction due to the use of modern experiments in the laboratory” to achieve fantastic results. It has had a considerable influence across literature and popular culture and spawned a complete genre of horror stories, films, and Television adaptations.

Frankenstein, concerns Captain Robert Walton, a failed writer who sets out to explore the North Pole and expand his scientific knowledge in hopes of achieving fame. During the voyage the crew spots a dog sled mastered by a gigantic figure. A few hours later, the crew rescues a nearly frozen and emaciated man named Victor Frankenstein. Frankenstein has been in pursuit of the gigantic man observed by Walton’s crew. As Frankenstein starts to recover from his exertion he recounts a story of his life to Walton.

Victor Frankenstein was Born into a wealthy Geneva family, where he and his brothers, Ernest and William, were encouraged to seek a greater understanding of the world through science. As a young boy, Victor became obsessed with studying outdated theories on simulating natural wonders. When Victor is five years old, his parents adopt an orphan, Elizabeth Lavenza, with whom Victor later falls in love. Sadly Weeks before he leaves for the University of Ingolstadt in Germany, his mother dies of scarlet fever, creating further impetus towards his experiments. At university, he excels at chemistry and other sciences, soon developing a secret technique to impart life to non-living matter using electricity, and he creates a grotesque but sentient being from the parts of other recently deceased people scavenged from Morgues.

Due to the difficulty in replicating the minute parts of the human body, Victor is forced to make the Creature roughly eight feet tall. As a result, the beautiful creation of his dreams is instead hideous, with yellow eyes and skin that barely conceals the muscle tissue and blood vessels underneath. Repulsed by his work, Victor flees. Saddened by the rejection, the Creature disappears. Victoria falls ill and is nursed back to health by his childhood friend, Henry Clerval. After a four-month recovery, he returns home when he learns of the murder of his brother William. Justine, William’s nanny, is hanged for the crime after William’s locket is found in her pocket. Upon arriving in Geneva, Victor sees the Monster at the crime scene, But he doubts anyone would believe the Creature was responsible.

Ravaged by grief and guilt, Victor retreats into the mountains. The Monster locates him, pleading for Victor to hear his tale. Now intelligent and articulate, the Creature tells how encounters with people led to his fear of them and drives him into the woods. While living near a cottage, he grew fond of the family living there. The Creature learned to speak by listening to them and he taught himself to read after discovering a lost satchel of books. When he saw his reflection in a pool, he realized his physical appearance was hideous. Despite this, he approached the family in hopes of becoming their friend, but they were frightened and fled their home. The Creature then burned the cottage in a fit of rage.The Monster then demands that Victor create a female companion like himself, arguing that as a living being, he has a right to happiness. The Creature promises he and his mate will vanish into the South American wilderness, never to reappear, if Victor grants his request.

Fearing for his family, Victor reluctantly agrees. Clerval accompanies him to England, but they separate in Scotland. Victor suspects that the Monster is following him. Working on the female creature on the Orkney Islands, he is plagued by premonitions of disaster, and has serious misgivings about creating a mate for the Creature which might lead to the breeding of a race that could plague mankind. So He destroys the female enraging the creature who nearly kills him. The Monster then vows to disrupt Victor and Elizabeth on their upcoming wedding night. He then kills Clerval and Victor is subsequently imprisoned for Clerval’s murder and suffers another mental breakdown in prison. After being acquitted, he returns home with his father.

In Geneva, Victor prepares to marry Elizabeth and confront the Monster. Wrongly believing the Creature threatened his life, the night before their wedding Victor asks Elizabeth to stay in her room while he looks for “the fiend”. While Victor searches the house and grounds, the Creature murders Elizabeth. From the window, Victor sees the Monster, who taunts Victor with Elizabeth’s corpse. Grief-stricken by the deaths of William, Justine, Clerval, and Elizabeth, Victor’s father dies. Seeking revenge, Victor Frankenstein pursues his creation to the North Pole, however this also ends in tragedy…..

Worldwide Howl at the Moon Night/Mincemeat Day/ Mule day

Worldwide Howl at the Moon Night, also known as Howl at the Moon Day, is observed Annually on October 26th. Worldwide Howl at the Moon Night has been observed annually on October 26th since 2009. Across the world it is “known” that wolves howl at the moon….. or do they? Wolves are paired with the myth that they are actually howl at the moon itself, when in reality, they are nocturnal which is why we hear or see them in action more at night. Wolves communicate with one another and try to figure out whats going on around them by howling. They howl to scare enemies or confuse them, to gather their packs, to speak with one close wolf….. much like best friends or significant others. howling is like a wolf’s telephone system. and because they are nocturnal howling in the presence of the moon is common. This doesn’t have a correlation as far as we know though. wolves simply howl because they want to and or need to, this doesn’t mean we cant imagine that there isn’t a greater reason for wolves howling, and howling at the moon. It is a long time myth which has turned into a symbolic image. Many events are organised For Worldwide Howl at the moonNight. In Minneapolis this year The International Wolf Center celebrated its 30th anniversary year during its Howl at the Moon Gala on Saturday, May 9 at Midland Hills Country Club in Roseville, Minn.
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October 26 is also National Mincemeat Day so Mincemeat Pies could be eaten to celebrate Worldwide Howl at the moon night. Mincemeat is a mixture of chopped dried fruit, distilled spirits and spices, and sometimes beef suet, beef, or venison. Originally, mincemeat always contained meat. Many modern recipes contain beef suet, though vegetable shortening is sometimes used in its place. Variants of mincemeat are found in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, northern Europe, Ireland, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States. In other contexts mincemeat refers to minced or ground meat. English recipes from the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries describe a mixture of meat and fruit used as a pie filling. These early recipes included vinegars and wines, but by the 18th century, distilled spirits, frequently brandy, were being used instead. The use of spices like clove, nutmeg, mace and cinnamon was common in late medieval and renaissance meat dishes. The increase of sweetness from added sugars, and those produced from fermentation, made mincemeat less a savoury dinner course and helped to direct its use toward desserts.

By the mid-twentieth century the term was also used to describe a similar mixture that does not include meat, but that might include animal fat in the form of suet or butter, but could also substitute solid vegetable fats, making it vegetarian and vegan. Many recipes continue to include suet, venison, minced beef sirloin or minced heart, along with dried fruit, spices, chopped apple, and fresh citrus peel, Zante currants, candied fruits, citron, and brandy, rum, or other liquor. Mincemeat is aged to deepen flavours, activate the preserving effect of alcohol, which over time changes the overall texture of the mixture by breaking down the meat proteins. Preserved mincemeat may be stored for up to ten years. Mincemeat can be produced at home, often using a family recipe that varies by region or ancestry. Commercial preparations, primarily without meat, packaged in jars, foil lined boxes, or tins are commonly available. Mincemeat is frequently consumed during the Christmas holiday season when mince pies or mincemeat tarts are served. In the northeast United States, mincemeat pies are also a traditional part of the Thanksgiving holiday, sometimes served with a piece of Cheddar cheese.
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October 26 is also National Mule Day. A mule is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare). Horses and donkeys are different species, with different numbers of chromosomes. Of the two F1 hybrids (first generation hybrids) between these two species, a mule is easier to obtain than a hinny, which is the offspring of a female donkey (jenny) and a male horse (stallion). The size of a mule and work to which it is put depend largely on the breeding of the mule’s female parent (dam). Mules can be lightweight, medium weight or when produced from draft horse mares, of moderately heavy weight. Mules are reputed to be more patient, hardy and long-lived than horses and are described as less obstinate and more intelligent than donkeys.

The mule is valued because, while it has the size and ground-covering ability of its dam, it is stronger than a horse of similar size and inherits the endurance and disposition of the donkey sire, tending to require less food than a horse of similar size. Mules also tend to be more independent than most domesticated equines other than its parental species, the donkey. The median weight range for a mule is between about 370 and 460 kg (820 and 1,000 lb). While a few mules can carry live weight up to 160 kg (353 lb), the superiority of the mule becomes apparent in their additional endurance.
In general, a mule can be packed with dead weight of up to 20% of its body weight, or approximately 90 kg (198 lb). Although it depends on the individual animal, it has been reported that mules trained by the Army of Pakistan can carry up to 72 kilograms (159 lb) and walk 26 kilometres (16.2 mi) without resting. The average equine in general can carry up to approximately 30% of its body weight in live weight, such as a rider. A female mule that has estrus cycles and thus, in theory, could carry a fetus, is called a “molly” or “Molly mule”, though the term is sometimes used to refer to female mules in general. Pregnancy is rare, but can occasionally occur naturally as well as through embryo transfer. A male mule is properly called a horse mule, though often called a john mule, which is the correct term for a gelded mule. A young male mule is called a mule colt, and a young female is called a mule filly.

The mule has many characteristics of a donkey including a short thick head, long ears, thin limbs, small narrow hooves, and short mane. In height and body, shape of neck and rump, uniformity of coat, and teeth, it appears horse-like. The mule comes in all sizes, shapes and conformations. There are mules that resemble huge draft horses, sturdy quarter horses, fine-boned racing horses, shaggy ponies and more. The mule inherits from its sire the traits of intelligence, sure-footedness, toughness, endurance, disposition, and natural cautiousness. From its dam it inherits speed, conformation, and agility. Mules are reputed to exhibit a higher cognitive intelligence than their parent species. That said, there is a lack of robust scientific evidence to back up these claims. There is preliminary data from at least two evidence based studies, but they rely on a limited set of specialized cognitive tests and a small number of subjects. Mules are generally taller at the shoulder than donkeys and have better endurance than horses, although a lower top speed.

Handlers of working animals generally find mules preferable to horses: mules show more patience under the pressure of heavy weights, and their skin is harder and less sensitive than that of horses, rendering them more capable of resisting sun and rain. Their hooves are harder than horses’, and they show a natural resistance to disease and insects. Many North American farmers with clay soil found mules superior as plow animals. A mule does not sound exactly like a donkey or a horse. Instead, a mule makes a sound that is similar to a donkey’s but also has the whinnying characteristics of a horse (often starts with a whinny, ends in a hee-haw). Mules sometimes whimper.

Mules come in a variety of shapes, sizes and colors, from minis under 50 lb (23 kg) to maxis over 1,000 lb (454 kg), and in many different colors. The coats of mules come in the same varieties as those of horses. Common colors are sorrel, bay, black, and grey. Less common are white, roans, palomino, dun, and buckskin. Least common are paint mules or tobianos. Mules from Appaloosa mares produce wildly colored mules, much like their Appaloosa horse relatives, but with even wilder skewed colors. The Appaloosa color is produced by a complex of genes known as the Leopard complex (Lp). Mares homozygous for the Lp gene bred to any color donkey will produce a spotted mule.

Intersex Awareness Day

Intersex Awareness Day is an internationally observed awareness day which takes pace annually on October 26. The purpose of Intersex Awareness day is to highlight the various human rights issues faced by intersex people.  Intersex people are born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, “do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies”. Such variations may involve genital ambiguity, and combinations of chromosomal genotype and sexual phenotype other than XY-male and XX-female. Intersex people were previously referred to as hermaphrodites, “congenital eunuchs”, or congenitally “frigid”. Such terms have fallen out of favor; in particular, the term “hermaphrodite” is considered to be misleading, stigmatizing, and scientifically specious. Medical description of intersex traits as disorders of sex development has been controversial since the label was introduced in 2006.

Intersex people may face stigmatization and discrimination from birth or discovery of an intersex trait. This may include infanticide, abandonment and the stigmatization of families. Globally, some intersex infants and children, such as those with ambiguous outer genitalia, are surgically or hormonally altered to create more socially acceptable sex characteristics. However, this is considered controversial, with no firm evidence of good outcomes. Such treatments may involve sterilization. Adults, including elite female athletes, have also been subjects of such treatment. Increasingly these issues are considered human rights abuses, with statements from international and national human rights and ethics institutions.Intersex organizations have also issued statements about human rights violations, including the Malta declaration of the third International Intersex Forum. Some intersex persons may be assigned and raised as a girl or boy but then identify with another gender later in life, while most continue to identify with their assigned sex.

Intersex Awareness Day commemorates the first public demonstration by intersex people in North America, which took place on October 26, 1996, outside the venue in Boston where the American Academy of Pediatrics was holding its annual conference. Intersex activists Morgan Holmes and Max Beck participated for the (now-defunct) Intersex Society of North America, alongside allies from Transsexual Menace including Riki Wilchins. Holmes has written that the event was intended not as a demonstration but as participation in the conference. She states that Beck and Holmes had intended to deliver an address, “on long-term outcomes and to challenge their still-prevailing opinion that cosmetic surgery to “fix” intersexed genitals was the best course of action”, but were “met, officially, with hostility and were escorted out of the conference by security guards”. The group only later demonstrated, carrying a sign saying “Hermaphrodites With Attitude”.

The commemoration day itself began in 2003 with the establishment of a central awareness raising site by Betsy Driver and Emi Koyama. A central awareness raising site was later re-established in 2015 by Morgan Carpenter with Laura Inter of Brújula Intersexual, and support from Open Society Foundations. In 2011, Christiane Völling became the first intersex person known to have successfully sued for damages in a case brought for non-consensual surgical intervention. In April 2015, Malta became the first country to outlaw non-consensual medical interventions to modify sex anatomy, including that of intersex people.

Multiple governmental bodies and civil society organizations have been vocal about Intersex Issues including the New South Wales Legistlative Council of Australia who passed a motion marking Intersex Awareness Day Following the publication of a a report in 2013 by the Australian Senate in concerning the involutary or coerced sterilistation of Intersex people in Australia. They also called on the State government to work with the Australian Government to implement the recommendations made by the Senate committee. For Intersex Awareness Day 2014, the Senate of the German Land of Berlin issued a statement calling for self-determination for intersex people and the Human Rights Commission of Mexico City, Distrito Federal, held an event on intersex issues.

In 2015, institutional events included the launch of an Intersex Human Rights Fund by Astraea Lesbian Foundation for Justice, and a motion submitted to New South Wales Legislative Assembly in Australia by Greens MP Jenny Leong. A lawsuit was filed by Dana Zzyym of the Intersex Campaign for Equality, with Lambda Legal, suing the United States Department of State for legal gender recognition on their passport as nonbinary and intersex. In 2016, the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights launched an awareness website, while UN experts, including the Committee against Torture, the Committee on the Rights of the Child and the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, along with the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and United Nations Special Rapporteurs called for an urgent end to human rights violations against intersex persons, including in medical settings.

Official recognition included statements by the United States Department of State and Australian Human Rights Commission also made statements, The South African government acknowledged a need for action to prevent human rights violations, and there was a first event in Kenya. In 2017, the State Department statement was cited in a policy paper by Joycelyn Elders, David Satcher, and Richard Carmona, three former Surgeons General of the United States, calling for a rethink of early genital surgeries on children with intersex traits.

Keith Strickland (B-52)

Keith Strickland, American guitarist and songwriter with American New Wave band,The B-52’s, Was born 26 October 1953. The B-52s were formed in Athens, Georgia in 1976. The original line-up consisted of Fred Schneider(vocals, percussion, keyboards), Kate Pierson (organ, bass, vocals), Cindy Wilson(vocals, bongos, tambourine, guitar), Ricky Wilson (guitars), and Keith Strickland (drums, guitars, synthesizers, various instruments) and cowbell player, poet and vocalist Fred Schneider played an impromptu musical jam session after sharing a tropical Flaming Volcano drink at a local Athens Chinese restaurant. Other ideas they had to name their band were the “Tina-Trons” and “Felini’s Children”. When they first jammed, Strickland played guitar and Wilson played congas. They later played their first concert (with Wilson playing guitar) in 1977 at a Valentine’s Day party for their friends.

The band’s name comes from a particular beehive hairdo resembling the nose cone of the aircraft of the same name. Keith Strickland suggested the name after a dream he had had one night, of a band performing in a hotel lounge. In the dream he heard someone whisper in his ear that the name of the band was “the B-52s.” The band’s quirky take on the new wave sound of their era was a combination of dance and surf music combined Ricky Wilson’s guitar and thrift-store chic. Their first single, “Rock Lobster”, recorded in 1978, was an underground success, which led to the B-52’s performing at CBGB and Max’s Kansas City in New York City. A rerecorded version of Rock Lobster was released as a single. In the UK and Germany it was backed with Running Around (Instrumental), which appeared on their second album Wild Planet. The buzz created by the record in the UK meant their first show in London at the Electric Ballroom, London, was packed with stars including Sandie Shaw, Green Gartside from Scritti Politti and Joe Jackson. The single went from cult hit to bona fide smash, in many countries.

In 1979 The B-52’s released their debut album containing a re-recorded versions of “Rock Lobster” and “52 Girls”, six originals recorded solely for the album, and a remake of the Petula Clark single “Downtown”. The sound was kept as close as possible to their actual live sound and became a major success for the band, alongside its three singles “Planet Claire”, “Rock Lobster”, and “Dance This Mess Around”. In the United States, the album was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. The follow-up album Wild Planet, containing the song Private Idaho was also successful. In 1980, The B-52’s performed on Saturday Night Live and also performed at the Heatwave festival (billed as the “New Wave Woodstock”) in Toronto, Canada as well as appearing in the Paul Simon film One Trick Pony. Their third release was a remix of tracks from their first two studio albums. Party Mix! took six tracks from the first two LPs and presented them in extended forms.

John Lennon cited “Rock Lobster” as an inspiration for his comeback. In 1981 the band collaborated with musician David Byrne to produce a third full-length studio album. Due to alleged conflicts with Byrne over the album’s musical direction recording sessions for the album were aborted, prompting the band to release Mesopotamia (1982) as an extended play (EP), in 1991, Party Mix! and Mesopotamia, the latter of which had been remixed, were combined and released together on a single compact disc. In 1983 the band released their fourth album Whammy!; containing the songs “Legal Tender” “Whammy Kiss” and “Song for a Future Generation”. After initial pressings of Whammy! were released, copyright issues with Yoko Ono led to the song “Don’t Worry” being removed and replaced on future pressings by “Moon 83”, a remixed version of the track “There’s a Moon in the Sky (Called the Moon)” from their debut album.

in 1985 the B52’s recorded Bouncing off the Satellites, their fifth studio record, and performed in Brazil, at Rock in Rio; their largest crowd ever. During the recording, guitarist Wilson had been suffering from AIDS/HIV-related health complications. None of the other band members were aware of his illness. In an interview, fellow band member Kate Pierson stated that Wilson had kept his illness secret from his fellow band members because he “did not want anyone to worry about him or fuss about him.” Tragically In 1985 Wilson died from AIDS at the age of 32. Leaving the rest of the band too depressed to carry on. However in 1987 they released a public service announcement in the style of The Beatles’ Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band album cover on behalf of AMFAR (The Foundation for AIDS Research) and Strickland switched full-time to guitar. The band subsequently added various musicians for their live shows. This included Sara Lee or Tracy Wormworth on (bass),Zachary Alford or Sterling Campbell on (drums, percussion) and Pat Irwin or Paul Gordon (keyboards & guitars).Rooted in new wave and 1960s rock and roll, the group later covered many genres including post-punk and pop rock. The “guy vs. gals” vocals of Schneider, Pierson, and Wilson, sometimes used in call and response style (“Strobe Light,” “Private Idaho”, and “Good Stuff”), are a trademark. Presenting themselves as a positive, fun, enthusiastic, slightly oddball and goofy party band, the B-52’s tell tall tales, glorify wild youth and celebrate sexy romance.

Bootsy Collins

American singer-songwriter and funk bass player (Parliament-Funkadelic) William Earl “Bootsy” Collins was born October 26, 1951 in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. He became famous with James Brown in the early 1970s, and later with Parliament-Funkadelic, Collins’s driving bass guitar and humorous vocals established him as one of the leading names in funk.Collins is a member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, inducted in 1997 with fifteen other members of Parliament-Funkadelic. In 1968 Collins formed a funk band called The Pacemakers With his elder brother Phelps “Catfish” Collins, Frankie “Kash” Waddy and Philippé Wynne and they were hired as James Brown’s backing band and became known as The J.B.’s. (They are often referred to as the “original” J.B.’s to distinguish them from later line-ups that went by the same name.) appearing on “Get Up (I Feel Like Being a) Sex Machine”, “Bewildered”, “Super Bad”, “Soul Power”, “Talkin’ Loud and Sayin’ Nothing”, and two instrumental singles, the much-sampled “The Grunt” and “These Are the J.B.’s”.

After parting ways with James Brown, Bootsy returned to Cincinnati and formed House Guests with his brother Phelps Collins, Rufus Allen, Clayton “Chicken” Gunnels, Frankie Waddy, Ronnie Greenaway and Robert McCullough and released the song “What So Never the Dance”. Collins moved to Detroit, after Philippé Wynne suggested joining The Spinners. However, following the advice of singer and future Parliament member Mallia Franklin both Collins brothers joined George Clinton and Frankie Waddy in Funkadelic. Bootsy played bass on most of Funkadelic and all of Parliament’s albums (with the exception of Osmium) through the early 1980s, garnering several songwriting credits as well. In 1976 Bootsy, Catfish, Waddy, Joel Johnson, Gary “Mudbone” Cooper, Robert Johnson and The Horny Horns formed Bootsy’s Rubber Band, a separate touring unit of Clinton’s P-Funk collective. The group recorded five albums together, the first three of which are often considered to be among the quintessential P-Funk recordings. The group’s 1978 album Bootsy? Player of the Year reached the top of the R&B album chart and contained the single “Bootzilla”.Like Clinton, Bootsy took on several alter egos, from Casper the Funky Ghost to Bootzilla, “the world’s only rhinestone rockstar monster of a doll”, all as parts of the evolving character of an alien rock star who grew gradually more bizarre as time went on . He also adopted his trademark “space bass” around this time.

In 1980 Bootsy released his first “solo” album “Ultra-Wave”, and Sweat Band, on George Clinton’s Uncle Jam label with a group billed as Bootsy’s Sweat Band. He also was credited for producing the debut of P-Funk spinoffs Zapp and Roger.In 1984, Bootsy collaborated with Jerry Harrison of Talking Heads to produce “Five Minutes”, a dance record sampled and edited from Ronald Reagan’s infamous “Five Minutes” speech. The record was credited to “Bonzo goes to Washington” (also referenced in the 1985 Ramones song “Bonzo goes to Bitburg”, derived from Reagan’s starring role as Professor Peter Boyd in the 1951 comedy film Bedtime for Bonzo).After a nearly five-year hiatus, Bootsy had a comeback in 1988 (with some help from producer Bill Laswell). What’s Bootsy Doin’?flaunted a new sound that foreshadowed the 90’s, such as the dancefloor smash “Party On Plastic”. Laswell introduced Bootsy to Herbie Hancock, resulting in Perfect Machine. The techno-funk they recorded featured turnables for scratch appeal, and the smoothly-stylized vocals of Leroy “Sugarfoot” Bonner of chart-topping Ohio Players.In 1990, Bootsy collaborated with Deee-Lite on their massive hit “Groove Is in the Heart” where he contributed additional vocals. Although he also appeared in the music video playing the bass, the bassline in the song is actually a sample of a Herbie Hancocksong called “Bring Down the Birds”.

Bootsy’s Rubber Band appeared with Deee-Lite during a world tour and also recorded the EP “Jungle Bass”, their first recording in 11 years. In 1992, Bootsy joined with guitarist Stevie Salas and drummer Buddy Miles to form the funk-metal fusion group Hardware and released the album, Third Eye Open, before disbanding.Bootsy collaborated with bluegrass legends Del McCoury, Doc Watson and Mac Wiseman to form the GrooveGrass Boyz, playing a fusion of bluegrass and funk.In 1994, Bootsy contributed extensively to the Soup Dragons’ last album, Hydroponic.Bootsy’s New Rubber Band then released “Blasters of the Universe”.In 1995, Bootsy played in the remake of Jimi Hendrix’s “If 6 Was 9,” for Axiom Funk, a Funkadelic-like one-off supergroup produced by Bill Laswell and featuring (Funkadelic members) George Clinton, Bernie Worrell, Bootsy Collins, (the guitar of the late) Eddie Hazel, Gary Shider and Bill Laswell. The group released only one album, and one song which appeared in the soundtrack of the movie Stealing Beauty. Bootsy’s New Rubber Band released “Keepin’ dah Funk Alive 4-1995″, recorded over two nights in Tokyo.In 1996, Bootsy collaborated on George Clinton’s album “The Awesome Power Of A Fully Operational Mothership”.

In 2000 Bootsy Collins appeared at “Heineken’s Amsterjam 2005″ alongside Madonna, Iggy Pop, Little Richard, and The Roots’ Questlove, in an American TV commercial. Bootsy also collaborated with Bill Laswell and sang on two Fatboy Slim records, as well as reading a poem at the end of FatBoy Slims’s release in the LateNightTales DJ mix series. Bootsy also sang on the TobyMac album Welcome to Diverse City and appears on Nicole C. Mullens’ latest album, Everyday People. He has also worked with the Lo-Fidelity Allstars on the album Don’t be Afraid of Love, with Praxis, and with Buckethead on several occasions, Bootsy was featured in the 2002 film Standing in the Shadows of Motown. In 2004 he appeared on Snoop Dogg’s Rhythm & Gangsta album and on the cover of “The Joker” on the Fatboy Slim album Palookaville. He also performed a cover of the “Power of Soul” on the 2004 tribute album Power of Soul: A Tribute to Jimi Hendrix’. In 2005, Collins co-wrote a song celebrating this hometown team, the Cincinnati Bengals called “Fear Da Tiger” which features several Bengals players and The music video features cameos by many other Bengals players.

Collins also appeared with Little Richard, Bernie Worrell as the band playing with Hank Williams, Jr. during for the 2006 season. He also sings “Marshal Law”, the theme song of the Cincinnati Marshals indoor football team. In 2006, a DVD/CD was released of Bootsy Collins and the New Rubber Band’s concert at the 1998 North Sea Jazz Festival. In 1998 Bootsy released the holiday album “Christmas Is 4 Ever” which features funky re-workings of Christmas standards as well as original compositions. In 2006, Collins recorded music for the animated television series Loonatics Unleashed and also voiced the character Bootes Belinda. between 2008 and 2010 Bootsy opened a restaurant/club with restaurateur Jeff Ruby called “Bootsy’s.” Which featured live musical acts, a museum dedicated to Bootsy’s musical career and Spanish, Central and South American cuisine. In 2007 Bootsy Collins, along with Phelps Collins, Clyde Stubblefield, John “Jabo” Starks, and Bernie Worrell, also participated in the recording of the soundtrack for the movie Superbad and performed at the first tribute concert remembering James Brown.

In 2008 The album Living On Another Frequency, was released featuring guitarist Buckethead and drummer Brain.Collins promoted Rock the Vote for its 2008 campaign together with Buckethead.Bootsy also produced Junkyard Waltz by Freekbass. His influence in popular culture is seen in a number of television series. In The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air episode “Sooooooul Train”, Geoffrey sneaks into the Soul Train tapings posing as Bootsy Collins, while in The Mighty Boosh episode “The Legend of Old Gregg” an alien creature named ‘The Funk’ lands on Bootsy’s house, giving him his ability to play the bass guitar “like some kinda delirious funky priest”. His song I’d Rather Be With You, from the album Stretchin’ Out In Bootsy’s Rubber Band was featured in the movie Baby Boy i. Red Hot Chili Peppers bassist Flea, cited Collins as one of his primary influences, & appeared in unmistakably Bootsy-esque clothing in the video for RHCP’s “Dani California”, and Bootsy’s “What’s a Telephone Bill?” was sampled for 2Pac’s “Str8 Ballin’” track off the THUG LIFE album. In 2009 Collins collaborated with Talib Kweli and Hi-Tek on the track “Internet Connection” and in October 2010 Bootsy was awarded a Bass Player Magazine Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2011 Bootsy and his wife visited Franklin L. Williams M.S #7’s Little Kids Rock program and he also appeared on Later… with Jools Holland, performing a memorable snippet of funk with Jools. Collins also performed at the 10th Annual Bonnaroo Music and Arts Festival in Manchester, TEnnassee.