World Day for Audiovisual Heritage/Pumpkin Day

The World Day for Audiovisual Heritage takes place every 27 October. This commemorative day was chosen by UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) in 2005 to raise of awareness of the significance of and preservation risks recorded sound and audiovisual documents (films, sound and video recordings, radio and television programmes). Events are held in many countries, organised by national and regional sound and film archives, broadcasters, museums and libraries, and major audiovisual associations including the Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA),International Council on Archives (ICA), International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives (IASA) and International Federation of Film Archives (FIAF)). and the International Federation of Television Archives FIAT/IFTA http://www.fiatifta.org. The main objectives of World Day for Audiovisual Heritage as listed by UNESCO are:

  • To raise public awareness concerning the need for preservation;
  • To provide opportunities to celebrate specific local, national or international aspects of the heritage;
  • To highlight the accessibility of archives;
  • To attract media attention to heritage issues;
  • To raise the cultural status of audiovisual heritage;
  • To highlight dangers posed to audiovisual heritage especially in developing countries.

Audiovisual (AV) refers to the possession of both a sound and a visual component, such as slide-tape presentations, films, television programs, church services and live theater productions. Audiovisual services can generally be divided into three categories

  • Residential audiovisual: this encompasses in-ceiling speakers, flat panel TVs, projectors and projector screens. This could include lighting, blinds, cinema rooms.
  • Commercial audiovisual This refers to The professional audiovisual industry which is a multibillion-dollar industry, comprising the manufacturers, dealers, systems integrators, consultants, programmers, presentations professionals and technology managers of audiovisual products and services.
  • Audiovisual education: This uses Audiovisual Presentations for educational purposes where particular attention is paid to the audio and visual presentation of the material, with the goal of improving comprehension and retention.

Commercial audiovisual can sometimes be a very lengthy process to get it right. Boardroom audio visual can be installed for a number of reasons, but usually it is because the executives of the organization/business wants to have meetings with colleagues/customers/suppliers around the world. When creating an array of boardrooms for customers it has been seen that you have to be able to balance the pattern from the audio and microphone so there is no interruption in the sound quality for the individual/s listening in.

The proliferation of audiovisual communications technologies, including sound, video, lighting, display and projection systems, is evident in every sector of society: in business, education, government, the military, healthcare, retail environments, worship, sports and entertainment, hospitality, restaurants, and museums. The application of audiovisual systems is found in collaborative conferencing (which includes video-conferencing, audio-conferencing, web-conferencing and data-conferencing); presentation rooms, auditoriums, and lecture halls; command and control centers; digital signage, and more. Concerts and corporate events are among the most obvious venues where audiovisual equipment is used in a staged environment. Providers of this type of service are known as rental and staging companies, although they may also be served by an in-house technology team (e.g., in a hotel or conference center).

According to a 2006 market forecast study by InfoComm International, a leading trade association representing the audiovisual industry, 2006 was the fourth consecutive year that significant growth was projected for the industry. Revenue for surveyed North American companies was expected to grow by 40% in 2006, and by 10.7% for European audiovisual companies. The single biggest factor for this increase is the increased demand for networked audiovisual products due to the integration of audiovisual and IT technology. The two leading markets for AV equipment in North America and Europe continue to be business/IT and education, especially as conference room technologies become more advanced.


Pumpkin Day

Pumpkin Day takes place annually on 26 October. The purpose of Pumpkin Day is to celebrate these noble squash’s, and their history and traditions. Halloween, Is associated with Jack-o-Lanterns Pumpkin Pies and pumpkins, and even when you’re looking at that ‘false medieval’ imagery that’s present in most fantasy games, you’ll regularly see pumpkins being present, especially during Halloween events. However the pumpkin is actually a plant from the Americas, like all squash, so the image of pumpkin jack-o-lanterns in front of ancient medieval homes is just plain wrong. These are an all American (And South American) plant, and the jack-o-lantern at Halloween is a distinctly New World thing.

A pumpkin is a cultivar of a squash plant, most commonly of Cucurbita pepo, that is round, with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and deep yellow to orange coloration. The thick shell contains the seeds and pulp. Some exceptionally large cultivars of squash with similar appearance have also been derived from Cucurbita maxima. Specific cultivars of winter squash derived from other species, including C. argyrosperma, and C. moschata, are also sometimes called “pumpkin”. In New Zealand and Australian English, the term pumpkin generally refers to the broader category called winter squash elsewhere. pumpkins are widely grown for commercial use and are used both in food and recreation. Pumpkin pie, for instance, is a traditional part of Thanksgiving meals in Canada and the United States, and pumpkins are frequently carved as jack-o’-lanterns for decoration around Halloween, although commercially canned pumpkin puree and pumpkin pie fillings are usually made from different kinds of winter squash than the ones used for jack-o’-lanterns.

The oldest evidence of pumpkin-related seeds dates back to somewhere between 7000 and 5500 BC to seeds found in Mexico. The word Pumpkin is derived from the Greek word pepon, or ‘Large Melon’, but it didn’t go straight to pumpkin. First it was pompon to the French, and then pumpion to the British. It was the Americans that finally changed the word to its present Pumpkin. Since some squash share the same botanical classifications as pumpkins, the names are frequently used interchangeably. One often-used botanical classification relies on the characteristics of the stems: pumpkin stems are more rigid, prickly, and angular (with an approximate five-degree angle) than squash stems, which are generally softer, more rounded, and more flared where joined to the fruit.

Pumpkin fruits are known as a pepo. Traditional C. pepo pumpkins generally weigh between 3 and 8 kilograms (6 and 18 lb), though the largest cultivars (of the species C. maxima) regularly reach weights of over 34 kg (75 lb).The color of pumpkins derives from orange carotenoid pigments, including beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha and beta carotene, all of which are provitamin A compounds converted to vitamin A in the body. All pumpkins are winter squash: mature fruit of certain species in the genus Cucurbita. Characteristics commonly used to define “pumpkin” include smooth and slightly ribbed skin, and deep yellow to orange. Around 2005, white pumpkins became increasingly popular in the United States. Other colors, including dark green (as with some oilseed pumpkins), also exist.

Pumpkins are one of the most popular crops in the United States, 680,000,000 kilograms (1.5 billion pounds) of pumpkins are produced each year. The top pumpkin-producing states include Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and California. According to the Illinois Department of Agriculture, 95% of the U.S. crop intended for processing is grown in Illinois. Nestlé, operating under the brand name Libby’s, produces 85% of the processed pumpkin in the United States, at their plant in Morton, Illinois. In the fall of 2009, rain in Illinois devastated the Nestlé crop, resulting in a shortage affecting the entire country during the Thanksgiving holiday season.

Pumpkins are a warm-weather crop that is usually planted in early July. The specific conditions necessary for growing pumpkins require that soil temperatures 8 centimetres (3 in) deep are at least 15.5 °C (60 °F) and soil that holds water well. Pumpkin crops may suffer if there is a lack of water or because of cold temperatures (in this case, below 18 °C or 65 °F; frost can be detrimental), and sandy soil with poor water retention or poorly drained soils that become waterlogged after heavy rain. Pumpkins are, however, rather hardy, and even if many leaves and portions of the vine are removed or damaged, the plant can very quickly re-grow secondary vines to replace what was removed. Pumpkins produce both a male and female flower; honeybees play a significant role in fertilization. Pumpkins have historically been pollinated by the native squash bee Peponapis pruinosa, but this bee has declined, probably at least in part to pesticide (imidacloprid) sensitivity, and today most commercial plantings are pollinated by honeybees. One hive per acre (4,000 m2 per hive, or 5 hives per 2 hectares) is recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. If there are inadequate bees for pollination, gardeners often have to hand pollinate. Inadequately pollinated pumpkins usually start growing but abort before full development.

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