Charles Émile Reynaud

French inventor, Charles-Émile Reynaud was born 8 December 1844 in Montreuil-sous-Bois (now a suburb of Paris). His father Benoît-Claude-Brutus Reynaud was an engineer and medal engraver originally from Le Puy-en-Velay and his mother Marie-Caroline Bellanger had been a school teacher, but stayed at home to raise and educate Émile from his birth. Marie-Caroline was trained in watercolor painting by Pierre-Joseph Redouté and taught her son drawing and painting techniques. Brutus gave him little tasks in his workshop and by the age of 13 Émile was able to build small steam engines. In 1858 he became an apprentice at a Paris company where he repaired, assembled and developed optical and physics instruments.

He then learned industrial design at another company, before working as an operator for photographer Antoine Samuel Adam-Salomon. By 1862 he started his own career as a photographer in Paris. He became an assistant to the famous Abbé Moigno in 1864. Moigno gave lecture-screenings with the magic lantern and converted Émile to Catholicism, since his parents had raised him without religion. When his father died in December 1865 Émile moved with his mother to Puy-en-Velay where Brutus’ cousin Dr. Claude Auguste Reynaud further educated Émile in Greek, Latin, physics, chemistry, mechanics and natural science. In December 1873 Émile Reynaud started giving weekly scientific screening-lectures for the students of the industrial schools of Puy-en-Velay, free of charge and open to the general public. He used personally made photographic magic lantern slides in two projectors, sometimes dissolving from one projection to another. Reynaud read a series of articles on optical toys published in La Nature in 1876, and created a prototype praxinoscope out of a discarded cookie box. The praxinoscope improved upon the zoetrope) and the first projected animated films. He applied for a French patent on 30 August 1877 and returned to Paris in December 1877 to manufacture and market his invention.

On 21 October 1879 Émile Reynaud married Marguerite Rémiatte in Paris. They had two sons: Paul (1880) and André (1882). His Pantomimes Lumineuses premiered on 28 October 1892 in Paris And his Théâtre Optique film system, patented in 1888, The performances predated Auguste and Louis Lumière’s first paid public screening of the cinematographe on 26 December 1895, often seen as the birth of cinema. He went on to create a number of films including L’Aquarium, Le Jongleur, L’Équilibriste, Le Repas des Poulets, Les Bulles de Savon, Le Rotisseur, La Danse sur la Corde, Les Chiens Savants, Le Jeu de Corde, Zim, Boum, Boum, Les Scieurs de Long, Le Jeu du Volant, Le Moulin à Eau, Le Déjeuner de Bébé, La Rosace Magique, Les Papillons, Le Trapèze, La Nageuse, Le Singe Musicien , La Glissade, La Charmeuse, La Balançoire, L’Hercule, Les Deux Espiègles, Le Fumeur, Le Jeu de grâces, L’Amazone, Le Steeple-chase, Les Petits valseurs, Les Clowns

Saldy Reynaud’s late years were tragic after 1910 when, his creations outmoded by the cinematograph, dejected and penniless, he threw the greater part of his irreplaceable work and unique equipment into the Seine. The public had forgotten his “Théâtre Optique” shows, which had been a celebrated attraction at the Musée Grevin between 1892 and 1900. He died in a hospice on the banks of the Seine on 9 January 1918 where he had been since 29 March 1917. However Émile Reynaud’s importance has since been recognised and his birth is commemorated annually as International Animation Day on the anniversary of the premiere of Pantomimes Lumineuses.

National Chocolate day

National Chocolate Day is observed on 28 October. Celebration of the day includes the consumption of chocolate. chocolate was introduced to Europe By Christopher Columbus and the Spanish conquistadors. They first reached the shores of the New World on 12 October 1492, initially believing that he had reached India. This voyage was carried out to expand markets by establishing new trade routes and therefore rival the Portuguese Empire, which was already well established in Asia. Following the success of that first voyage to the New World, others were organised with the intention of exploring and creating new trade routes. On his fourth voyage, Columbus, in 1502, met an unexpected storm and was forced to temporarily land on 15 August on the Bay Islands.

In their first explorations of the area, Columbus’ group came upon a boat of Mayan origin travelling from the Yucatán Peninsula. The Spaniards were surprised by the large size of the vessel. Columbus detained the vessel and examined the cargo, which contained cocoa beans that he called almonds in his diary. However, he did not attach importance to these, and after this original inspection he let the boat proceed with its cargo. from 1517 to 1519, the Spanish conquistadors Bernal Díaz del Castillo (who referred to the use of cocoa by Aztecs in his book Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España) and Hernán Cortés both tried the drink and found it to have both bitter and spicy tastes due to the use of achiote. On occasions cornmeal and hallucinogenic mushrooms were also added to the drink. After the conquest of Mexico, the Aztec emperor, Montezuma, offered Hernán Cortés and his companions fifty jars of foaming chocolate. According to the account of Francisco Cervantes de Salazar, the great emperor had a stockpile of several thousand ‘charges’ (tens of thousands of cocoa “kernels”). Surprisingly Both The Italian Girolamo Benzoni in his book La Historia del Mondo Nuovo (1565) .José de Acosta disliked the drink, comparing the frothy foam capping chocolate to feces. Despite this, Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo characterised it as an interesting ingredient, while showing some reluctance to describe how some Indians, after drinking it, had stained their lips as if they had ingested human blood.

As the Spanish settlers began to run out the stocks they brought with them, they had to find substitute foods. They therefore began to plant vegetables, such as chickpeas, cereals such as wheat and fruits like oranges or pears. Additionally they introduced the cultivation of olives, grapes and sugar cane. The latter ingredient became important. From the end of the 16th century onwards, sugar cane began to be added to the cocoa paste, which led to greater acceptance of cocoa among the Spanish settlers. around the 1520s, the Spaniards had to get used to new foods and flavours while they attempted to adapt old world cultivation methods to the new climate. Equally, however, the new ingredients brought by the Spanish settlers such as wheat and chickpeas struggled to find acceptance among the native populations who preferred their own homegrown dishes. Spaniards from humble economic backgrounds often married richer Aztecs, often as concubines. Thus, they tended to eat food influenced by Aztec gastronomy. This hastened the spread of cocoa among both cultures. Bernal Díaz del Castillo mentioned that in a banquet held at the Plaza Grande in Mexico (built on the ruins of the Aztec capital) to celebrate peace between Carlos I of Spain and Francis I of France chocolate was served in golden tablets. The wide acceptance of cocoa by the Spanish conquistadors, especially the women, was also described by the Jesuit José de Acosta in his book Historia natural y moral de las Indias (published in 1590).

The Spanish modified Chocolate For example, sugar was added, mirroring the native Mexican and Mayan practice of adding honey to cacao beverages. New World spices were replaced with similar Old World spices, in part for the sake of familiarity, but also out of practicality. The Madrid physician Colmenero de Ledesma recommended substituting the rose of Alexandria for mecaxochitl flower blossoms and black pepper for Mexican chilies, when necessary. Cacao beverages containing maize, such as atole, gradually phased out because maize-less chocolate lasted longer, making it more suitable for cross-Atlantic trips. Eventually, cocoa became more popular and, supplies were sent to Spain. The second major transformation of chocolate at the hands of the Spanish was in the serving method: the cocoa was heated until it became a liquid. This was in contrast to the natives of the New World, who generally drank it cold or at room temperature.The third change was the addition of spices from the Old World like cinnamon, ground black pepper or aniseed.

By the 15th century, the Aztecs gained control of a large part of Mesoamerica and adopted cacao into their culture. They associated chocolate with Quetzalcoatl, who, according to one legend, was cast away by the other gods for sharing chocolate with humans,and identified its extrication from the pod with the removal of the human heart in sacrifice. In contrast to the Maya, who liked their chocolate warm, the Aztecs drank it cold, seasoning it with a broad variety of additives, including the petals of the Cymbopetalum penduliflorum tree, chile pepper, allspice, vanilla, and honey. The Aztecs were not able to grow cacao themselves, as their home in the Mexican highlands was unsuitable for it, so chocolate was a luxury imported into the empire. Those who lived in areas ruled by the Aztecs were required to offer cacao seeds in payment of the tax they deemed “tribute”. Cocoa beans were often used as currency.

Chocolate has been prepared as a drink for nearly all of its history. For example, one vessel found at an Olmec archaeological site on the Gulf Coast of Veracruz, Mexico, dates chocolate’s preparation by pre-Olmec peoples as early as 1750 BC. On the Pacific coast of Chiapas, Mexico, a Mokaya archaeological site provides evidence of cacao beverages dating even earlier, to 1900 BC.The residues and the kind of vessel in which they were found indicate the initial use of cacao was not simply as a beverage, but the white pulp around the cacao beans was likely used as a source of fermentable sugars for an alcoholic drink. Around 400 AD. Documents in Maya hieroglyphs stated chocolate was used for ceremonial purposes, in addition to everyday life. The Maya grew cacao trees in their backyards, and used the cacao seeds the trees produced to make a frothy, bitter drink.

By the 15th century, the Aztecs gained control of a large part of Mesoamerica and adopted cacao into their culture. They associated chocolate with Quetzalcoatl, who, according to one legend, was cast away by the other gods for sharing chocolate with humans, and identified its extrication from the pod with the removal of the human heart in sacrifice. In contrast to the Maya, who liked their chocolate warm, the Aztecs drank it cold, seasoning it with a broad variety of additives, including the petals of the Cymbopetalum penduliflorum tree, chile pepper, allspice, vanilla, and honey. The Aztecs were not able to grow cacao themselves, as their home in the Mexican highlands was unsuitable for it, so chocolate was a luxury imported into the empire. Those who lived in areas ruled by the Aztecs were required to offer cacao seeds in payment of the tax they deemed “tribute”. Cocoa beans were often used as currency. For example, the Aztecs used a system in which one turkey cost 100 cacao beans and one fresh avocado was worth three beans.

Chocolate is derived from Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground, often flavored, as with vanilla. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods. Cacao has been cultivated by many cultures for at least three millennia in Mesoamerica. The earliest evidence of use traces to the Mokaya (Mexico and Guatemala), with evidence of chocolate beverages dating back to 1900 BC. In fact, the majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs, who made it into a beverage known as xocolātl Nahuatl . The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted. The shell is removed to produce cacao nibs, which are then ground to cocoa mass, pure chocolate in rough form. Because the cocoa mass is usually liquefied before being molded with or without other ingredients, it is called chocolate liquor. The liquor also may be processed into two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Unsweetened baking chocolate (bitter chocolate) contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, a combination of cocoa solids, cocoa butter or other fat, and sugar. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionally contains milk powder or condensed milk. White chocolate contains cocoa butter, sugar, and milk, but no cocoa solids. Cocoa solids are a source of flavonoids and alkaloids, such as theobromine, phenethylamine and caffeine.

Chocolate has become one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world, and a vast number of foodstuffs involving chocolate have been created, particularly desserts including cakes, pudding, mousse, chocolate brownies, and chocolate chip cookies. Many candies are filled with or coated with sweetened chocolate, and bars of solid chocolate and candy bars coated in chocolate are eaten as snacks. Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes (e.g., eggs, hearts) have become traditional on certain Western holidays, such as Easter and Valentine’s Day. Chocolate is also used in cold and hot beverages such as chocolate milk and hot chocolate and in some alcoholic drinks, such as creme de cacao. Although cocoa originated in the Americas, in the 2000s, Western Africa produces almost two-thirds of the world’s cocoa, with Ivory Coast growing almost half of it. In 2009, Salvation Army International Development stated that child labor and the human trafficking and slavery of child laborers are used in African cocoa cultivation. In the United States International Chocolate Day is celebrated on 13 September, so Chocolate Ice-cream Day is observed on 7 July instead. Various other more specific chocolate-themed days are celebrated throughout the world and on various dates, including Milk Chocolate Day on 28 July.


28 October is also

  • Plush Animal Lovers Day
  • Mother in Law Day
  • Horatio de Invierno
  • seperation of Church and State Day
  • St. Jude’s Feast Day
  • Visit a Cemetary Day
  • Wild foods Day
  • Wintertijd

Stephen Morris (Joy Dividion/New Order)

Stephen Morris, British musician with Joy Division and New Order was Born October 28th 1957. Joy Division were formed in 1976 in Salford, Greater Manchester. Originally named Warsaw, the band primarily consisted of Ian Curtis (vocals and occasional guitar), Bernard Sumner (guitar and keyboards), Peter Hook (bass guitar and backing vocals) and Stephen Morris (drums and percussion) .Joy Division rapidly evolved from their initial punk rock influences to develop a sound and style that pioneered the post-punk movement of the late 1970s. According to music critic Jon Savage, the band “were not punk but were directly inspired by its energy”.

Their self-released 1978 debut EP, An Ideal for Living, caught the attention of the Manchester television personality Tony Wilson. Joy Division’s debut album, Unknown Pleasures, was released in 1979 on Wilson’s independent record label, Factory Records, and drew critical acclaim from the British press. However despite the band’s growing success, vocalist Ian Curtis was beset with depression and personal difficulties, including a dissolving marriage and his diagnosis of epilepsy. Curtis found it increasingly difficult to perform at live concerts, and often had seizures during performances. On the eve of the band’s first American tour in May 1980, Curtis committed suicide. Joy Division’s posthumously released second album, Closer (1980), and the single “Love Will Tear Us Apart” became the band’s highest charting releases

After the untimely demise of Curtis in 1980, the remaining members formed New Order, with Bernard Sumner on vocals, guitars, synthesisers), Peter Hook playing bass, synthesisers and Stephen Morris playing drums, electronic drums, synthesisers, they were also joined by Gillian Gilbert playing keyboards, guitars, synthesizers. By combining post-punk and New Wave with electronic dance music, New Order became one of the most critically acclaimed and influential bands of the 1980s. Though the band’s early years were shadowed by the legacy and basic sound of Joy Division, their experience of the early 1980s New York City club scene increased their knowledge of dance music and saw them incorporate elements of that style into their work. The band’s 1983 hit “Blue Monday”, the best-selling 12-inch single of all time, is one example of how the band transformed their sound. New Order became the flagship band for Factory Records.

Their minimalist album sleeves and “non-image” (the band rarely gave interviews and were known for performing short concert sets with no encores) reflected the label’s aesthetic of doing whatever the relevant parties wanted to do, including an aversion to including singles as album tracks. Sadly In 1993 the band broke-up amidst tension between bandmembers, but reformed in 1998. In 2001, Phil Cunningham (guitars, synthesisers) replaced Gilbert, who left the group due to family commitments. However In 2007, Peter Hook left the band and the band broke-up again, with Sumner saying in 2009 that he no longer wishes to make music as New Order. The band reunited in 2011 without Hook, with Gilbert returning to the fold and Tom Chapman replacing Hook on bass. During the band’s career and in between lengthy breaks, band members have been involved in several solo projects, such as Sumner’s Electronic and Bad Lieutenant; Hook’s Monaco and Revenge and Gilbert’s and Morris’ The Other Two. New Order’s latest album “Music Complete” was released in 2015 without Peter Hook but with Gillian Gilbert returning on Synthesisers and is considered something of a return to form by some.

Bill Gates

American business magnate, software executive and philanthropist William Henry “Bill” Gates III was born October 28th, 1955. Bill Gates is the former chief executive and current chairman of Microsoft, the world’s largest personal-computer software company, which he co-founded with Paul Allen. He is consistently ranked among the world’s wealthiest people and was the wealthiest overall from 1995 to 2009, excluding 2008, when he was ranked third; in 2011 he was the third wealthiest American and the second wealthiest person. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of CEO and chief software architect, and remains the largest individual shareholder, with 6.4 percent of the common stock. He has also authored or co-authored several books.Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. Gates has been criticized for his business tactics, which have been considered anti-competitive, an opinion which has in some cases been upheld by the courts. In the later stages of his career, Gates has pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, donating large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, established in 2000.

Gates stepped down as chief executive officer of Microsoft in January 2000. He remained as chairman and created the position of chief software architect. In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning from full-time work at Microsoft to part-time work, and full-time work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. He gradually transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie, chief software architect, and Craig Mundie, chief research and strategy officer. Gates’s last full-time day at Microsoft was June 27, 2008. He remains at Microsoft as non-executive chairmanthiest American and the second wealthiest person. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of CEO and chief software architect, and remains the largest individual shareholder, with 6.4 percent of the common stock. He has also authored or co-authored several books.

Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. Gates has been criticized for his business tactics, which have been considered anti-competitive, an opinion which has in some cases been upheld by the courts. In the later stages of his career, Gates has pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, donating large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, established in 2000.Gates stepped down as chief executive officer of Microsoft in January 2000. He remained as chairman and created the position of chief software architect. In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning from full-time work at Microsoft to part-time work, and full-time work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. He gradually transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie, chief software architect, and Craig Mundie, chief research and strategy officer. Gates’s last full-time day at Microsoft was June 27, 2008. He remains at Microsoft as non-executive chairman.

International Animation Day

International Animation Day is celebrated annually on October 28. It was created in 2002 by the ASIFA (International Animated Film Association/ Association Internationale du Film d’Animation) as the main global event to celebrate the art of animation and commemorate the first public performance of Charles-Émile Reynaud’s Théâtre Optique at the Grevin Museum in Paris, 1892. Unfortunately by 1895, the Cinematograph of the Lumière brothers outshone Reynaud’s invention, driving Émile to bankruptcy. However, his public performance of animation inspired the public and entered the history of optical entertainments as shortly predating the camera-made movies.

The International Animated Film Association (French: Association Internationale du Film d’Animation, ASIFA) is an international non-profit organization founded in 1960 in Annecy, France, by the best known animation artists of the time such as the Canadian animator, Norman McLaren. There are now more than 30 chapters of the Association located in many countries of the world. The organization’s ASIFA-Hollywood branch also presents the annual Annie Awards.

ASIFA’s board of directors comprise animation professionals from all over the world and they meet at ASIFA-sponsored animation film festivals on a regular basis. Some of the most well-known festivals include the Annecy International Animated Film Festival in France, the Ottawa International Animated Film Festival in Canada, the Animae Caribe in the Caribbean, the Hiroshima International Animation Festival in Japan, and the Zagreb World Festival of Animated Films in Croatia. The annual Annie Awards are presented by the Hollywood branch of the International Animated Film Association.

In recent years, the event has been observed in more than 50 different countries with more than 1000 events, on every continent, all over the world. IAD was initiated by ASIFA, International Animated Film Association, a member of UNESCO. During International Animation Day cultural institutions are also invited to join in by screening animated films, organizing workshops, exhibiting artwork and stills, providing technical demonstrations, and organizing other events helping to promote the art of animation. Such a celebration is an outstanding opportunity of putting animated films in the limelight, making this art more accessible to the public.

ASIFA also commissions an artist to create an original art poster announcing the event each year. It is then adapted for each country in order to guarantee a worldwide view of the event. Previous editions involved the work of animators such as Iouri Tcherenkov, Paul Driessen, Abi Feijo, Eric Ledune, Noureddin Zarrinkelk, Michel Ocelot, Nina Paley, Raoul Servais, Ihab Shaker and Gianluigi Toccafondo. A wide variety of Animations are exhibited in the workshops, including Full length animation films, historical features, animated shorts, and student films, all using an extraordinary range of techniques – ranging from drawing, painting, animating puppets and objects, using clay, sand, paper, to using computer. Because many animated films are non-verbal, it is also a rich opportunity for cross cultural expression and communication.

Gulliver’s Travels by Jonathan Swift

The novel Gulliver’s Travels by Irish Writer and Clergyman Jonathan Swift was published 28 October 1726. Gulliver’s Travels, is a satire whose full title is Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. In Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships. It is Swift’s best known full-length work, and a classic of English literature. Gulliver’s Travels has been described as a children’s story, proto-science fiction and a forerunner of the modern novel. It was Published seven years after Daniel Defoe’s wildly successful Robinson Crusoe The novel begins with a short preamble in which Lemuel Gulliver gives a brief outline of his life and history before his voyages.

Part I: A voyage to Lilliput

During Gulliver’s first voyage he is washed ashore after being shipwrecked and finds himself a prisoner of a race of tiny people, less than 6 inches (0.50 ft) tall, who are inhabitants of the island country of Lilliput. After giving assurances of his good behaviour, he is given a residence in Lilliput and becomes a favourite of the Lilliput Royal Court. He is also given permission by the King of Lilliput to go around the city on condition that he must not harm their subjects. At first, the Lilliputians are hospitable to Gulliver, but they are also wary of the threat that his size poses to them. The Lilliputians reveal themselves to be a people who put great emphasis on trivial matters. For example, which end of an egg a person cracks becomes the basis of a deep political rift within that nation. They are a people who revel in displays of authority and performances of power. Gulliver assists the Lilliputians to subdue their neighbors the Blefuscudians by stealing their fleet. However, he refuses to reduce the island nation of Blefuscu to a province of Lilliput, displeasing the King and the royal court. Gulliver is charged with treason for, among other crimes, “making water” in the capital though he was putting out a fire and saving countless lives. He is convicted and sentenced to be blinded. With the assistance of a kind friend, “a considerable person at court”, he escapes to Blefuscu. Here, he spots and retrieves an abandoned boat and sails out to be rescued by a passing ship, which safely takes him back home.

Part II: A Voyage to Brobdingnag

Gulliver soon sets out again. When the sailing ship Adventure is blown off course by storms and forced to sail for land in search of fresh water, Gulliver is abandoned by his companions and is left on a peninsula on the western coast of the North American continent. The grass of that land is as tall as a tree. He is then found by a farmer who was about 72 ft. tall. He brings Gulliver home and the farmer’s daughter Glumdalclitch cares for Gulliver. The giant-sized farmer treats him as a curiosity and exhibits him for money. After a while the constant shows make Gulliver sick, and the farmer sells him to the queen of the realm. Glumdalclitch (who accompanied her father while exhibiting Gulliver) is taken into the Queen of Brobdingnag’s service to take care of the tiny man. Since Gulliver is too small to use their huge chairs, beds, knives and forks, the Queen of Brobdingnag commissions a small house to be built for him so that he can be carried around in it; this is referred to as his “travelling box”. However because of his diminutive size Gulliver becomes a target for various forms of wildlife including giant wasps, giant monkeys and a giant Eagle…

Part III: A Voyage to Laputa, Balnibarbi, Luggnagg, Glubbdubdrib and Japan

After escaping Brobdingnag Gulliver’s ship is attacked by pirates and he is marooned close to a desolate rocky island near India. However He is rescued by the flying island of Laputa, a kingdom devoted to the arts of music, mathematics, and astronomy. Gulliver then tours Balnibarbi, the kingdom ruled from Laputa, and also learns of the rebellion which the kingdom of Lindalino led against the flying island of Laputa. Gulliver sees the ruin brought about by the blind pursuit of science without practical results, in a satire on bureaucracy and on the Royal Society and its experiments. At the Grand Academy of Lagado in Balnibarbi, great resources and manpower are employed on researching completely preposterous schemes such as extracting sunbeams from cucumbers, softening marble for use in pillows, learning how to mix paint by smell, and uncovering political conspiracies by examining the excrement of suspicious persons (muckraking).

Gulliver is then taken to Maldonada, the main port of Balnibarbi, to await a trader who can take him on to Japan. While waiting for a passage, Gulliver visits the island of Glubbdubdrib which is southwest of Balnibarbi. On Glubbdubdrib, he visits a magician’s dwelling and discusses history with the ghosts of historical figures, including Julius Caesar, Brutus, Homer, Aristotle, René Descartes, and Pierre Gassendi. On the island of Luggnagg, he encounters the struldbrugs, people who are immortal. They do not have the gift of eternal youth, but suffer the infirmities of old age and are considered legally dead at the age of eighty.

Part IV: A Voyage to the Land of the Houyhnhnms

Gulliver returns to sea as the captain of a merchantman, but becomes bored with his employment as a surgeon. Unfortunately His crew turn against him and abandon him in a landing boat. Upon reaching land Gulliver encounters a race of hideous, deformed and savage humanoid creatures to which he conceives a violent antipathy. Shortly afterwards, he meets the Houyhnhnms, a race of talking horses. They are the rulers while the deformed creatures called Yahoos are human beings in their base form. Gulliver becomes a member of a horse’s household and comes to both admire and emulate the Houyhnhnms and their way of life, rejecting his fellow humans as merely Yahoos endowed with some semblance of reason which they only use to exacerbate and add to the vices Nature gave them. Unfortunately an Assembly of the Houyhnhnms rules that Gulliver, is himself a Yahoo with some semblance of reason, and is therefore a danger to their civilization…

Hank Marvin

Best known as the lead guitarist for the Shadows and the Drifters, the English multi-instrumentalist, vocalist and songwriter. Hank Marvin (Brian Rankin) was born 28 October 1941 in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. As a child, he played banjo and piano. After hearing Buddy Holly, he decided to learn the guitar. He chose his stage name while launching his career. It is an amalgamation of his childhood nickname, Hank, which he used to differentiate himself from friends also named Brian, and Marvin Rainwater, the country and rockabilly singer.

Marvin attended Rutherford Grammar School where he befriended Bruce Welch. When he was sixteen he met Johnny Foster, Cliff Richard’s manager, at The 2i’s Coffee Bar in Soho, London. Foster was looking for a guitarist for Cliff Richard’s UK tour and was considering Tony Sheridan. Instead he offered Marvin the position. Marvin joined the Drifters, as Cliff Richard’s group was then known, provided there was a place for Welch. Marvin met Richard for the first time at a nearby Soho tailor’s shop. The Drifters had their first rehearsal with Richard at his home in Cheshunt, Hertfordshire. Marvin wrote many songs including “Driftin’”, “Geronimo”, “Spider Juice” (his daughter’s name for orange juice), “I Want You to Want Me” and “The Day I Met Marie”. He co-wrote Richard’s 1960 hit; ‘Gee Whizz It’s You’ with Ian Samwell. With Welch, Brian Bennett, and John Rostill, he wrote hits for Cliff Richard, including; “On the Beach”, “I Could Easily Fall in Love with You”, “Time Drags By”, and “In the Country”.

Following the disbanding of the shadows Marvin released His first critically lauded, self-titled solo album of instrumentals, which featured guitar set to orchestrated backing. During 1968 The single “Sacha” topped the singles chart in New South Wales, Australia. The Shadows then reunited, first for a Far East tour and ‘live’ album in 1969, then a studio album in 1970 (Shades of Rock) and again in the early 70s. He has experimented with styles and material, doing instrumental albums, some with mostly vocals (e.g. Words and Music, All Alone With Friends), one with only acoustic guitars and one with a guitar orchestra (The Hank Marvin Guitar Syndicate.

In 1969 and 1970, he teamed with Richard for: two ‘Cliff & Hank’ hit singles, his own song; ‘Throw Down a Line’ (also recorded by Marvin, Welch & Farrar), and ‘The Joy of Living’, while Richard also had a hit with his ecology song, ‘Silvery Rain’. Marvin and Welch also formed Marvin, Welch & Farrar, a vocal-harmony trio which became ‘Marvin & Farrar’ for a vocal album in 1973 and then reverted to the Shadows in late 1973, for the instrumental Rockin’ with Curly Leads album. The Shadows came second for the United Kingdom in the 1975 Eurovision song contest. In 1977, Marvin played lead guitar on Roger Daltrey’s third solo album, One of the Boys, on the tracks Parade and Leon. He co-wrote Olivia Newton-John’s 1977 hit ‘Sam’ with John Farrar and Don Black, and produced albums for the British showman Des O’Connor. In 1988, Marvin collaborated with French keyboardist and composer Jean Michel Jarre on the track “London Kid”, on Jarre’s Revolutions album and was a guest in the Jarre’s Destination Docklands concert at London’s Royal Victoria Dock.

Marvin appeared with Leslie Nielsen in an advert for Red Rock Cider, which parodied Nielsen’s Police Squad! films. It takes place in a bar where Nielsen shouts, “Hey, you over there, in the shadows!”, after which Marvin steps forward and Nielsen asks Marvin to “accompany” him and they both start singing. In 1992, Duane Eddy guested on Marvin’s album Into the Light on the track “Pipeline”. Marvin and the Shadows reformed for a 2004 Final Tour, and the 2005 European tour. Marvin dueted twice with French guitarist Jean-Pierre Danel – on his 2007 and 2010 albums. Marvin also participated on one of his DVDs and wrote the foreword for Danel’s book about the Fender Stratocaster. Marvin was awarded an Officers of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 2004 Queen’s birthday Honours List along with Florence Welch and Tony Bennett, for services to music, However he declined for “personal reasons”.