Tiff Needell

British racing driver and television presenter Timothy “Tiff” Needell was born 29 October 1951. He is best known as a former co-presenter of Top Gear and current co-presenter of Fifth Gear. Needell first raced at a driving school at Brands Hatch in 1970. He progressed to Formula Ford, his progress assisted by the use of a Lotus 69 FF he won in an Autosport magazine competition. He later sold his Lotus and used the money to buy and race an Elden Mk10. Needell’s Formula Ford period culminated in his acquiring a Crossle 25F with which he won the Kent Messenger FF Championship after competing for only half of the remaining season. This success landed him a partly paid drive in the Formula Ford 2000 Championship in a Hawke chassis provided by McKinstry Racing. Needell was completely dominant in that car and series which provided him with the springboard into Formula 3. The remainder of the 1970s saw Needell as a front runner in the British Formula 3 series and then in the Aurora British Formula One championship. In 1979 he was unable to graduate to the F1 World Championship due to the lack of the correct licence, but he was back in 1980, driving two Grands Prix for Ensign, qualifying for the Belgian Grand Prix at Zolder. However, he had an engine problem and did not finish the race. He subsequently failed to qualify for the Monaco Grand Prix.

In 1988 and 1989 he competed in the British Rallycross Grand Prix in a Metro 6R4 prepared by Will Gollop’s motorsport team. He achieved a good result in 1988 finishing 4th in the B-Final in what was his first rallycross event, however, the 1989 event was cancelled due to heavy fog after the practice sessions. Needell made his first appearance at the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1981 driving a Ibec-Hesketh 308LM alongside Tony Trimmer. They failed to finish and again in 1982 this time paired with Bob Evans and Geoff Lees in an Aston Martin Nimrod NRA/C2. However the following year Needell finished 17th driving a Porsche 956. In 1985 Needell briefly led the 24 hours driving the Aston Martin EMKA C84/1 and would eventually finish 11th. His best result at Le Mans was 3rd in 1990. He then had a couple of years in the British Touring Car Championship with Nissan, before returning to sports cars in 1995, driving a Porsche at Daytona and a Jaguar XJ220 at Le Mans. He then drove the Lister Storm for 3 years, reaching 3rd overall at Daytona in 1997 before gearbox problems dropped them to 19th. In 1998 he finished 2nd in the GT1 championship and won the Silverstone Golden Jubilee Trophy race. Since then, Needell’s racing career has mainly consisted of racing tin-tops (hard-topped cars), with varying levels of success in sports cars, historic racing and touring cars. He achieved particular notoriety after an accident with Nigel Mansell at the 1993 TOCA shoot out race at Donington Park.

Needell is also known in the United Kingdom as a television presenter and motoring journalist, in particular in association with the BBC TV series Top Gear which he started co-hosting in 1987. In 2001, when the BBC cancelled Top Gear (the show was brought back in 2002), Needell and the whole cast defected and signed with Five to produce and host a new motoring show named Fifth Gear. He does however, still contribute to Top Gear magazine. Needell has also co-presented ‘MPH’ at Earls Court in 2003, 2004, 2005 with Jeremy Clarkson and Richard Hammond and in 2006 with Jeremy Clarkson and James May (because Richard Hammond was recovering from his accident). He also appeared very briefly in the 2005 Top Gear Comic Relief special, Stars in Fast Cars. In 2009 he appeared on James May’s Toy Stories featuring the building of a Scalextric around Brooklands, and also visited James’ LEGO house. In 2011, he appeared on Top Gear, driving the Ariel Atom V8 in a race against a BMW S1000RR around the Top Gear Test Track. The segment was done in humour, with James May supposedly driving the Atom V8, only for it to actually be Tiff. He was also one of several people suspected of portraying the elusive masked racing driver The Stig on Top Gear.


BERNIE ECCLESTONE

English Formula One business magnate, “Bernie” Ecclestone was also born 28 October 1930. He is currently president and CEO of Formula One Management and Formula One Administration and through his part-ownership of Alpha Prema, the parent company of the Formula One Group of companies. As such, he is generally considered the primary authority in Formula One racing. He is most commonly addressed in tabloid journalism as “F1 Supremo”. His early involvement in the sport was as a competitor and then as a manager of drivers Stuart Lewis-Evans and Jochen Rindt.

In 1972, he bought the Brabham team, which he ran for fifteen years. As a team owner he became a member of the Formula One Constructors Association. His control of the sport, which grew from his pioneering the sale of television rights in the late 1970s, is chiefly financial, but under the terms of the Concorde Agreement he and his companies also manage the administration, setup and logistics of each Formula One Grand Prix. Ecclestone himself entered two Grand Prix races during the 1958 season, failing to qualify for either of them.Ecclestone is also the ex-majority owner of the British Queens Park Rangers F.C.

Fleetwood Mac

English singer-songwriter and guitarist Peter Green (Fleetwood Mac, Peter Green (Splinter Group, and John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers) was born 29 october 1946. Fleetwood Mac were formed in 1966 in London and were originally named The Bluesbreakers Until Founder Peter Green renamed the group by combining the surnames of two bandmates (Mick Fleetwood and John McVie). Christine Mcvie also joined the band in 1970 while married to John McVie, Green asked drummer Mick Fleetwood to join. The band now consisted of Green, Fleetwood, John McVie and Mayall and made its debut in 1967 at the Windsor Jazz and Blues Festival. Feetwood Mac’s first album, Fleetwood Mac, was a no-frills blues album containing the singles “Black Magic Woman” (later a big hit for Santana) and “Need Your Love So Bad”. The band’s second album, Mr. Wonderful, was released in August 1968 and the next album was “Then Play on”. Sadly Peter Green left and In September 1970, Fleetwood Mac released the album Kiln House for which Christine drew the album cover. This was more rock with hints of country-tinged “Sun Sound” and contained the song “Dragonfly”.Christine McVie, made her first appearance with the band in 1969 and an album of previously unreleased material from the original Fleetwood Mac called The Original Fleetwood Mac was also released,

Then While on tour in 1971, guitarist Jeremy Spencer disappeared and joined a Religious group “The Children of God” so they hired Bob Welch as their new guitarist and released the albums Future Games & Bare Trees, which featured the songs “Sentimental Lady”, &“Spare Me a Little of Your Love” unfortunately While on tour Danny Kirwan became Alcoholic and was sacked and replaced by guitarist Bob Weston, alongside vocalist Dave Walker and Savoy Brown’s road manager, John Courage. In 1973 Mick, John, Christine, Welch, Weston, and Walker recorded Penguin, then after sacking Walker The remaining five recorded Mystery to Me six months later containing the song “Hypnotized” . However The success of the album led to relationship problems, The McVies’ marriage was under a lot of stress, aggravated working together, and alcohol abuse. Weston also had an affair with Fleetwood’s wife, Jenny Boyd Fleetwood, the sister of Pattie Boyd Harrison, predictably these events led to Weston being sacked by Fleetwood & who cancelled the tour.

Then bizarrely the band’s manager, Clifford Davis, claimed that he owned the name Fleetwood Mac and assembled a “fake Mac” with Fans being told that Bob Welch and John McVie had quit the group, and that Mick Fleetwood and Christine McVie would join the band at a later date. Luckily Fleetwood Mac’s road manager, John Courage, hid the real Fleetwood Mac’s equipment, compromising the fake band. Eventually though, the ensuing Lawsuit over who owned the name Fleetwood Mac was settled and Fleetwood Mac decided to manage themselves releasing the album Heroes Are Hard to Find in September 1974 also adding keyboardist Doug Graves. Sadly Bob Welch left so and while Mick Fleetwood was searching for a possible replacement he heard a song titled “Frozen Love” by an American band, Buckingham Nicks and was introduced to the guitarist from the band, Lindsey Buckingham asking him to join. Buckingham agreed, on the condition that his musical partner and girlfriend, Stephanie “Stevie” Nicks, also joined. The new line-up released the highly successful album Fleetwood Mac which included the hit singles “Over My Head” and “Say You Love Me”, “Rhiannon” and “Landslide” .

The success of this album combined with the pressure to release a successful follow up album led to even more stress and marital strife andJohn and Christine McVie’s marriage ended as well as Buckingham and Nicks’ long term romantic relationship and Fleetwood divorced wife, Jenny. These traumas combined with a high consumption of drugs and alcohol led to the release of the classic album Rumours, in which they laid bare the emotional turmoil experienced at that time. Critically acclaimed, it was the recipient of the Grammy Award for Album of the Year for 1977. Hit singles included Buckingham’s “Go Your Own Way”, Nicks’s U.S. No.1 “Dreams”, and Christine McVie’s “Don’t Stop” and “You Make Loving Fun”. Buckingham’s “Second Hand News”, Nicks’ “Gold Dust Woman” and “The Chain”. Following the success of Rumours Buckingham and Fleetwood made the next album more experimental and the result was the ambitious and quirky 20-track double album, Tusk, containing the songs “Tusk”, “Think About Me” and “Sara”. Then during the subsequent world tour the band recorded music for the Fleetwood Mac Live album, which was released in 1980. The next album, 1982′s Mirage, followed 1981 solo albums by Nicks (Bella Donna) and Lindsay Buckingham (Law and Order). Songs on Mirage include “Hold Me”,“Love In Store”,”Gypsy”,”Oh Diane”, “Eyes Of The World” and “Can’t Go Back”. Following Mirage, the band members went on to pursue solo careers. Stevie Nicks released two more solo albums – The Wild Heart and Rock a Little. Lindsey Buckingham issued Go Insane and Christine McVie released an eponymous lay titled album featuring the songs “Got A Hold On Me” and “Love Will Show Us How”).

Sadly though success took it’s toll and Mick Fleetwood filed for bankruptcy, Nicks was admitted to the Betty Ford Clinic for addiction problems, and John McVie had suffered an addiction-related seizure all due to their excessive lifestyles and It was rumoured that Fleetwood Mac had finally broken up. However Fleetwood Mac recorded Tango in the Night, in 1987 which became their best-selling release since Rumours and contained the songs “Little Lies”, “Everywhere”,”Seven Wonders”, “Big Love”. “Family Man”, “Isn’t It Midnight”. Lindsey Buckingham left and Following his departure, Fleetwood Mac added two new guitarists to the band, Billy Burnette and Rick Vito. Vito, was a Peter Green admirer, and had played with many artists including Bonnie Raitt and had also worked with John McVie on two Mayall albums. Capitalising on the success of Tango in the Night, the band continued with a Greatest Hits album in 1988, which featured singles from the 1975–88 era, and included two new compositions: “No Questions Asked” , and “As Long as You Follow” .

Then Following the Greatest Hits collection, Fleetwood Mac recorded the album Behind the Mask, which included “Save Me” and The subsequent “Behind the Mask” tour saw the band play sold out shows, Then in 1991, both Stevie Nicks and Rick Vito left Fleetwood Mac and in 1992, Fleetwood himself arranged a 4-disc box set spanning highlights from the band’s 25 year history, titled 25 Years – The Chain. The box set, which included four new songs Paper Doll, Heart of Stone, Love Shines and Make me a Mask. Mick Fleetwood also released a deluxe hardcover companion book to coincide with the release of the box set, titled My 25 Years in Fleetwood Mac, which features many rare photographs and notes (written by Fleetwood himself) detailing the band’s 25 year history. Mick Fleetwood, John McVie, and Christine McVie recorded another album as Fleetwood Mac, with Billy Burnette The band, minus Christine McVie, and toured in 1994 performing classic Fleetwood Mac songs from the initial 1967–1974 era, then in 1995, Fleetwood Mac released Time and disbanded.

Shortly after disbanding Fleetwood Mac, Mick Fleetwood began working with Lindsey Buckingham again. John McVie was soon added to the sessions, and later Christine McVie. Stevie Nicks also enlisted Lindsey Buckingham to produce a song for the Twister film soundtrack. This eventually led to a full Rumours line-up reunion when the band officially reformed in March 1997. The regrouped Mac performed a live concert which was released as the 1997 live album The Dance. They also released the 20th anniversary of their Rumours album and In 1998, Fleetwood Mac (Mick Fleetwood, John McVie, Christine McVie, Stevie Nicks, Lindsey Buckingham, Peter Green, Jeremy Spencer and Danny Kirwan) were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and also received the “Outstanding Contribution to Music” award at the BRIT Awards.In 1998, Christine McVie left the band permanently, Her departure left Buckingham and Nicks to sing all the lead vocals for the band’s 2003 album,Say You Will, containing the songs Peacekeeper” and “Say you Will”.”Fleetwood Mac toured in 2009. The tour was a ‘greatest hits’ show entitled Unleashed, and Stevie Nicks also wrote a song for the Hurricane Katrina relief album. The Very Best of Fleetwood Mac was re-released and an episode of Glee entitled “Rumours” featured six songs from Rumours and sparking renewed interest in the album. Stevie Nicks’ also released a new solo album In Your Dreams. Fleetwood Mac reunited for 2013 minus two of the original members: Bob Weston and Bob Welch, both of whom are sadly no longer with us, and embarked on an extensive World Tour.

Denny Laine (Moody Blues)

Denny Laine, English singer-songwriter and guitarist (Moody Blues, Ginger Baker’s Air Force, and Wings) Was born 29 october 1944. The Moody Blues formed on 4 May 1964, in Erdington, Birmingham, England containing Ray Thomas, John Lodge, Graeme Edge and Michael Pinder The name was a a subtle reference to the Duke Ellington song, “Mood Indigo. They released a single, “Steal Your Heart Away” in 1964 and appeared on the cult UK series “Ready Steady Go!” singing the uptempo “Lose Your Money (But Don’t Lose your Mind)”. Their second single, “Go Now” became a hit in the United Kingdom. Their debut album The Magnificent Moodies contained the hit singles “Go Now” and “Bye Bye Bird” together with one side of classic R&B covers. including a cover of “I Don’t Want To Go On Without You”,”From The Bottom of My Heart (I Love You)”, “Everyday”,”This is My House (But Nobody Calls)” and and “Boulevard de la Madeleine”.

The group released the singles “Fly Me High” and “Really Haven’t Got the Time” followed by “Love And Beauty” & “Leave This Man Alone”.The Moody Blues were then offered a deal to make a rock and roll version of Antonín Dvořák’s New World Symphony, and although executives were initially skeptical about the hybrid style of the resulting concept album. Days of Future Past became one of the most successful pop/rock releases of the period, earning a gold record award. It takes place over the course of a single day & drew inspiration from the pioneering use of the classical instrumentation by The Beatles. It includes the songs “Nights in White Satin” & “The Sun Set” “Another Morning”, “Twilight Time”,”Peak Hour” and “Evening (Time To Get Away)”. The 1968 follow-up LP, In Search of the Lost Chord included the songs “Legend of a Mind”,”House of Four Doors”,”Voices in the Sky”, “Ride My See-Saw” and “The Best Way To Travel”.

The 1969 album On the Threshold of a Dream contained the songs “In The Beginning”,”Lovely To See You”,”Never Comes The Day”,”Dear Diary” and “Lazy Day”,”So Deep Within You”,”The Dream”&”Have You Heard”.The band’s music continued to become more complex and symphonic,resulting in 1969′s To Our Children’s Children’s Children which was inspired by the first moon landing.and contained the songs “Higher And Higher” “Floating” and “Eternity Road” “Gypsy”,”Out And In” the two part “Eyes of A Child” and “Candle of Life””Sun is Still Shining”. and “Watching and Waiting”.The Moodies had a somewhat psychedelic style and progressive rock sound, the group next album was A Question of Balance (1970) & contained the songs “Question” and “Melancholy Man”. For their next two albums, Every Good Boy Deserves Favour (1971) and “Seventh Sojourn”the band returned to their signature orchestral sound.These contained the songs “Procession”, “Story in Your Eyes” “Our Guessing Game”,”You Can Never Go Home”, “One More Time To Live”, “My Song” and “Nice To Be Here”. The Album “After You Came” (1971) featured “Isn’t Life Strange ?” “I’m Just A Singer (in A Rock ‘n’ Roll Band)”,”Sojourn”,”Lost in A Lost World” “When You’re A Free Man”, “For My Lady”, and “New Horizons”. In late 1972, a re-issue of the five-year-old Nights in White Satin became the Moody Blues’ biggest US hit.

The Moodies were also among the pioneers of the idea that a successful rock band could promote itself through their own label, so following the Beatles’ creation of Apple Records, they created Threshold Records. However it proved unsuccessful although They did lay the groundwork for other major acts to set up similar personal labels and distribution deals including The Rolling Stones’ own label and Led Zeppelin’s Swan Song Record label.In the spring of 1974, after completing a vast world tour finishing with a tour of Asia, the group took an extended break and released a compilation album This Is The Moody Blues. Justin Hayward and John Lodge then released the album, Blue Jays, and a single, “Blue Guitar”. Mike Pinder released a album The Promise.” Edge produced two albums with guitarist Adrian Gurvitz, Kick Off Your Muddy Boots and Paradise Ballroom; Hayward composed the albums Songwriter, followed by Night Flight, Moving Mountains, Classic Blue, The View From The Hill and Live In San Juan Capistrano; Lodge released Natural Avenue; Pinder produced The Promise; and Thomas produced From Mighty Oaks and Hopes, Wishes and Dreams.

In 1977, the group reunited and despite many problems The album Octave was released in 1978 contining “Steppin’ in a Slide Zone” & “Driftwood”. Around this time Justin Hayward enjoyed a solo hit with the song “Forever Autumn” from Jeff Wayne’s Musical Version of The War of the Worlds. The next album ,Long Distance Voyager,was released in 1981 and yielded two hits, “The Voice” &”Gemini Dream”. and the band embraced a more modern, less symphonic approach, while still retaining a lush keyboard-led sound. The next album The Present yeilded the singles “Blue World” and”Sitting at the Wheel”. In 1986 they released the album The Other Side of Life, containing “Your Wildest Dreams”which garnered a Billboard Video of the Year award,as well as the songs “House of Four Doors”, “Candle of Life” and “One More Time To Live” “Here Comes The Weekend”, “Rock and Roll Over You”, “Love is On The Run (From Me)”, “The Actor”, “Dawning is the Day”, “You Can Never Go Home”& “The Land of Make Believe”.

The Moody Blues also performed live at the Birmingham Heart Beat Charity Concert 1986 which raised money for the Birmingham Children’s Hospitals, and also provided backup with the Electric Light Orchestra for George Harrison.The Moodies released Sur La Mer in 1988 containing the single, “I Know You’re Out There Somewhere”. In 1991 they released the album Keys of the Kingdom containing the songs “Say It With Love”, “Never Blame The Rainbows For The Rain”,”Bless the Wings (That Bring You Back)”,”Magic” “Shadows On the Wall” “Lean On Me (Tonight)”and “Say What You Mean.”They also played at the Montreux Jazz Festival and remained. a steady concert draw, They also made a series of recordings of their Night at Red Rocks concert.The next album Strange Times, was released in 1999 with the songs”English Sunset”,” Nothing Changes” and”This is The Moment”.

The Moody Blues have also appeared in one episode of “The Simpsons” called “Viva Ned Flanders”. In 2000, the band released “Hall of Fame”, a new live concert from Royal Albert Hall. In 2001, an IMAX film was released, entitled Journey into Amazing Caves. In 2006, the first five of the band’s ‘Core Seven’ albums ( Days of Future Passed to Seventh Sojourn) were re-released featuring bonus songs and previously unreleased tracks. Remastered versions of Octave, Long Distance Voyager and The Present soon followed. The Moodies also released a compilation of sessions recorded at BBC Studios, rarities & various TV appearances, entitled Live at the BBC: 1967-1970. The Moody Blues have sold more than 70 million albums worldwide and have been awarded 14 platinum and gold discs. As of 2012 they remain active and continue to tour.

International Internet Day

International Internet Day takes place annually on 29 October. The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide and build a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.

During the 1970’s Science fiction novellist Arthur C. Clarke had predicted that satellites would someday “bring the accumulated knowledge of the world to your fingertips” using a console that would combine the functionality of the photocopier, telephone, television and a small computer, allowing data tyransfer and video conferencing around the globe

The origins of the Internet date back to the 1960’s when research was commissioned by the federal government of the United States to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. Initial concepts of wide area networking originated in several computer science laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, and France. The US Department of Defense awarded contracts as early as the 1960s, including for the development of the ARPANET project, directed by Robert Taylor and managed by Lawrence Roberts. The first message was sent over the ARPANET on 29 October 1969 from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock’s laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to the second network node at Stanford Research Institute (SRI).

Donald Davies first demonstrated packet switching in 1967 at the National Physics Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, which became a testbed for UK research for almost two decades. Packet switching networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, Tymnet, Merit Network, CYCLADES, and Telenet, were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of communications protocols. The ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internet working, in which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. The Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) was developed by Robert E. Kahn and Vint Cerf in the 1970s and became the standard networking protocol on the ARPANET, incorporating concepts from the French CYCLADES project directed by Louis Pouzin. In the early 1980s the NSF funded the establishment for national supercomputing centers at several universities, and provided interconnectivity in 1986 with the NSFNET project, which also created network access to the supercomputer sites in the United States from research and education organizations.

The ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s until Commercial Internet service providers (ISPs) began to emerge in the very late 1980s whereupon The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990. Limited private connections to parts of the Internet by officially commercial entities emerged in several American cities by late 1989 and 1990, Initially the National Science Foundation Network acted as a new backbone in the 1980s, providing private funding for other commercial extensions, this led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks. The NSFNET was decommissioned in 1995, removing the last restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic and the linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s and marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generating a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional, personal, and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet had been widely used by academia since the 1980s, the commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into virtually every aspect of modern life.

In the 1980s, research at CERN, a European research organisation nearGeneva straddling the border between France and Switzerland, by British computer scientist and Engineer Tim Berners-Lee and Belgian computer scientist Robert Cailliau proposed using hypertext “to link and access information of various kinds as a web of nodes in which the user can browse at will”,

Berners Lee and Robert Cailliau wrote a proposal in March 1989 for a more effective CERN communication system but Berners-Lee eventually realised the concept could be implemented throughout the world Using concepts from his earlier hypertext systems such as ENQUIRE.  They published a more formal proposal (on 12 November 1990) to build a “Hypertext project” called “WorldWideWeb” (one word, also “W3″) as a “web” of “hypertext documents” to be viewed by “browsers” using a client–server architecture. This proposal estimated that a read-only web would be developed within three months and that it would take six months to achieve “the creation of new links and new material by readers, so that,authorship becomes universal” as well as “the automatic notification of a reader when new material of interest to him/her has become available.” While the read-only goal was met, accessible authorship of web content took longer to mature, with the wiki concept, blogs, Web 2.0 and RSS/Atom.

The proposal was modeled after the SGML reader Dynatext by Electronic Book Technology, a spin-off from the Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship at Brown University. The Dynatext system, licensed by CERN, was a key player in the extension of SGML ISO 8879:1986 to Hypermedia within HyTime, but it was considered too expensive and had an inappropriate licensing policy for use in the general high energy physics community, namely a fee for each document and each document alteration. The CERN datacenter in 2010 housing some WWW serversA NeXT Computer was used by Berners-Lee as the world’s first web server and also to write the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, in 1990. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: the first web browser (which was a web editor as well); the first web server; and the first web pages, which described the project itself.The first web page may be lost, but Paul Jones of UNC-Chapel Hill in North Carolina revealed in May 2013 that he has a copy of a page sent to him by Berners-Lee which is the oldest known web page. Jones stored it on a floppy disk and on his NeXT computer.

On 6 August 1991, Berners-Lee posted a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the alt.hypertext newsgroup. This date also marked the debut of the Web as a publicly available service on the Internet, although new users only access it after August 23. For this reason this is considered the internaut’s day. Many newsmedia have reported that the first photo on the web was uploaded by Berners-Lee in 1992, an image of the CERN house band Les Horribles Cernettes taken by Silvano de Gennaro; Gennaro has disclaimed this story, writing that media were “totally distorting our words for the sake of cheap sensationalism.” The first server outside Europe was set up at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in Palo Alto, California, to host the SPIRES-HEP database. Accounts differ substantially as to the date of this event. The World Wide Web Consortium says December 1992, whereas SLAC itself claims 1991. This is supported by a W3C document titled A Little History of the World Wide Web. The crucial underlying concept of hypertext originated with older projects from the 1960s, such as the Hypertext Editing System (HES) at Brown University, Ted Nelson’s Project Xanadu, and Douglas Engelbart’s oN-Line System (NLS). Both Nelson and Engelbart were in turn inspired by Vannevar Bush’s microfilm-based “memex”, which was described in the 1945 essay “As We May Think”.

Berners-Lee’s combined hypertext with the Internet. In his book Weaving The Web, he explains that he had repeatedly suggested that a marriage between the two technologies was possible to members of both technical communities, but when no one took up his invitation, he finally assumed the project himself. In the process, he developed three essential technologies:a system of globally unique identifiers for resources on the Web and elsewhere, the universal document identifier (UDI), later known as uniform resource locator (URL) and uniform resource identifier (URI);the publishing language HyperText Markup Language (HTML);the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The World Wide Web had a number of differences from other hypertext systems available at the time. The web required only unidirectional links rather than bidirectional ones, making it possible for someone to link to another resource without action by the owner of that resource. It also significantly reduced the difficulty of implementing web servers and browsers (in comparison to earlier systems), but in turn presented the chronic problem of link rot. Unlike predecessors such as HyperCard, the World Wide Web was non-proprietary, making it possible to develop servers and clients independently and to add extensions without licensing restrictions. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone, with no fees due. Coming two months after the announcement that the server implementation of the Gopher protocol was no longer free to use, this produced a rapid shift away from Gopher and towards the Web.

An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW for Unix and the X Windowing System..Scholars generally agree that a turning point for the World Wide Web began with the introduction of the Mosaic web browser in 1993, a graphical browser developed by a team at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (NCSA-UIUC), led by Marc Andreessen. Funding for Mosaic came from the U.S. High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative and the High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991, one of several computing developments initiated by U.S. Senator Al Gore. Prior to the release of Mosaic, graphics were not commonly mixed with text in web pages and the web’s popularity was less than older protocols in use over the Internet, such as Gopher and Wide Area Information Servers(WAIS). Mosaic’s graphical user interface allowed the Web to become, by far, the most popular Internet protocol.

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was founded by Tim Berners-Lee after he left the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in October 1994. It was founded at theMassachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science (MIT/LCS) with support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), which had pioneered the Internet; a year later, a second site was founded at INRIA (a French national computer research lab) with support from the European Commission DG InfSo; and in 1996, a third continental site was created in Japan at Keio University. By the end of 1994, while the total number of websites was still minute compared to present standards, quite a number of notable websites were already active, many of which are the precursors or inspiration for today’s most popular services.Connected by the existing Internet, other websites were created around the world, adding international standards for domain names and HTML. Since then, Berners-Lee has played an active role in guiding the development of web standards (such as the markup languages in which web pages are composed), and has advocated his vision of a Semantic Web. The World Wide Web enabled the spread of information over the Internet through an easy-to-use and flexible format. It thus played an important role in popularizing use of the Internet. Although the two terms are sometimes conflated in popular use, World Wide Web is not synonymous with Internet. The web is a collection of documents and both client and server software using Internet protocols such as TCP/IP and HTTP.Tim Berners-Lee was knighted in 2004 by Queen Elizabeth II for his contribution to the World Wide Web.

The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own policies. Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address (IP address) space and the Domain Name System (DNS), are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). Most traditional communications media, including telephony, radio, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or even bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, and video streaming websites. Newspaper, book, and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their “brick and mortar” presence to serve a larger market or even sell goods and services entirely online. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.

The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. Since the mid-1990s, the Internet has had a revolutionary impact on culture, commerce, and technology, including the rise of near-instant communication by electronic mail, instant messaging, voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephone calls, two-way interactive video calls, and the World Wide Web with its discussion forums, blogs, social networking, and online shopping sites. The research and education community continues to develop and use advanced networks such as JANET in the United Kingdom and Internet2 in the United States. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1-Gbit/s, 10-Gbit/s, or more. The Internet’s takeover of the global communication landscape was almost instant in historical terms: it only communicated 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunications networks in the year 1993, already 51% by 2000, and more than 97% of the telecommunicated information by 2007. Today the Internet continues to grow, driven by ever greater amounts of online information, commerce, entertainment, and social networking. However, the future of the global internet may be shaped by regional differences in the world. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today’s list of New Seven Wonders.

National Hermit Day

National Hermit Day is observed annually on October 29. This is a day to ignore annoying distractions, turn everything electronic off including your phone and Step away from the hustle and bustle of your everyday life and retreat alone to somewhere quiet to focus and spend alone with your thoughts and meditate on nature, and ponder over the meaning of life, the universe, and everything, and use this quiet time to recharge, and re-energize for the next challenge. (According to the late great Douglas Adams it’s 42)

There are many other ways to celebrate National Hermit day including Reading a Book or Magazine, Streaming a Show Online (although this contradicts the above advice), going for a run, walk in the countryside or practice yoga, online shopping, doing a puzzle, drawing or starting a craft project, writing, cleaning or decluttering or even sleeping.

World Psoriasis Day

World Psoriasis day takes place annually on 29 October. The purpose of World Psoriasis Day is to educate the public and provide support and medical information concerning this condition. Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.These skin patches are typically red, dry, itchy, and scaly. On people with darker skin the patches may be purple in colour. Psoriasis varies in severity from small, localized patches to complete body coverage. Injury to the skin can trigger psoriatic skin changes at that spot, which is known as the Koebner phenomenon.

There are five main types of psoriasis: plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular, and erythrodermic. Plaque psoriasis, also known as psoriasis vulgaris, makes up about 90 percent of cases. It typically presents as red patches with white scales on top. Areas of the body most commonly affected are the back of the forearms, shins, navel area, and scalp. Guttate psoriasis has drop-shaped lesions. Pustular psoriasis presents as small non-infectious pus-filled blisters. Inverse psoriasis forms red patches in skin folds. Erythrodermic psoriasis occurs when the rash becomes very widespread, and can develop from any of the other types. Fingernails and toenails are affected in most people with psoriasis at some point in time.This may include pits in the nails or changes in nail color.

Psoriasis is generally thought to be a genetic disease that is triggered by environmental factors. In twin studies, identical twins are three times more likely to be affected compared to non-identical twins. This suggests that genetic factors predispose to psoriasis. Symptoms often worsen during winter and with certain medications, such as beta blockers or NSAIDs. Infections and psychological stress can also play a role. Psoriasis is not contagious. The underlying mechanism involves the immune system reacting to skin cells. Diagnosis is typically based on the signs and symptoms.

There is no cure for psoriasis; however, various treatments can help control the symptoms. These treatments include steroid creams, vitamin D3 cream, ultraviolet light and immune system suppressing medications, such as methotrexate. About 75 percent of cases can be managed with creams alone. The disease affects two to four percent of the population. Men and women are affected with equal frequency. The disease may begin at any age, but typically starts in adulthood. Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of psoriatic arthritis, lymphomas, cardiovascular disease, Crohn’s disease and depression. Psoriatic arthritis affects up to 30 percent of individuals with psoriasis.

World Stroke Day

World Stroke Day is observed annually on October 29 . The purpose of World Stroke day is to raise awareness of the prevention and treatment of the condition, and to underscore the serious nature and high rates of stroke, and ensure better care and support for survivors. On this day, Health Groups around the world organise events emphasizing education, testing, and initiatives to improve the damaging effects of stroke worldwide.

The annual event was started in 2006 by the World Stroke Organisation  www.world-stroke.org. a non-profit medical association that works to raise awareness of prevention and treatment of stroke. The organization was founded in 2006 from the merging of two organizations previously in existence, the International Stroke Society (ISS) and the World Stroke Federation (WSF).Its membership consists of both professional individuals and organizations that share the WSO’s goals. The mission of the World Stroke Organization is to “provide access to stroke care and to promote research and teaching in this area that will improve the care of stroke victims throughout the world.” The association also works to “increase visibility and credibility of its activities among stroke clinicians, researchers, other health professionals, international professional and lay organizations, and the general public.” The WSO declared stroke a public health emergency in 2010. The WSO now has an ongoing campaign that serves as a year-round interface for advocacy, policy, and outreach to support strides and continue progress made on World Stroke Day. The World Stroke Campaign’s goodwill ambassadors include Indian actress Rani Mukerji, former Miss Egypt Dalia El Behery and cyclist Alberto Contador.

A Stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding. They result in part of the brain not functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, or loss of vision to one side. Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred.If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini-stroke. A hemorrhagic stroke may also be associated with a severe headache.The symptoms of a stroke can be permanent. Long-term complications may include pneumonia or loss of bladder control.

The main risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure.Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation. An ischemic stroke is typically caused by blockage of a blood vessel, though there are also less common causes. A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by either bleeding directly into the brain or into the space between the brain’s membranes. Bleeding may occur due to a ruptured brain aneurysm. Diagnosis is typically with medical imaging such as a CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan along with a physical exam. Other tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood tests are done to determine risk factors and rule out other possible causes. Low blood sugar may cause similar symptoms.

Prevention includes decreasing risk factors, as well as possibly aspirin, statins, surgery to open up the arteries to the brain in those with problematic narrowing, and warfarin in those with atrial fibrillation. A stroke or TIA often requires emergency care. An ischemic stroke, if detected within three to four and half hours, may be treatable with a medication that can break down the clot.Aspirin should be used. Some hemorrhagic strokes can be treated with surgery. Treatment to try to recover lost function is called stroke rehabilitation and ideally takes place in a stroke unit; however, these are not available in much of the world.

In 2013 approximately 6.9 million people had an ischemic stroke and 3.4 million people had a hemorrhagic stroke. In 2015 there were about 42.4 million people who had previously had a stroke and were still alive. Between 1990 and 2010 the number of strokes which occurred each year decreased by approximately 10% in the developed world and increased by 10% in the developing world. In 2015, stroke was the second most frequent cause of death after coronary artery disease, accounting for 6.3 million deaths (11% of the total).About 3.0 million deaths resulted from ischemic stroke while 3.3 million deaths resulted from hemorrhagic stroke.About half of people who have had a stroke live less than one year. Overall, two thirds of strokes occurred in those over 65 years old.

Strokes continue to be a widespread problem worldwide, afflicting over 15 million people each year. Of those 15 million, almost six million die and a further five million are left permanently disabled. A new person suffers a stroke every six seconds. The idea to create a day of awareness began in the 1990s with the European Stroke Initiative. Due to financial limitations, however, the effort was limited only to Europe. The European Stroke Organization continued the project, and celebrates its awareness day on May 10. The WSO World Stroke Day began in 2004 at the World Stroke Congress in Vancouver, Canada. Under the direction of Dr. Vladimir Hachinski, a working group was formed, which was incorporated into a World Stroke Proclamation in October 2006. Around the same time, the International Stroke Society and the World Stroke Federation merged to form the World Stroke Organization, which took over the management of World Stroke Day.

In 2009, WSO leadership turned the day into a year-round campaign to sustain efforts at prevention and awareness raising. In 2010, the WSO launched the “1 in 6” campaign that became the overarching theme for the future campaigns. “Because I care…” was chosen in 2012 as the World Stroke Day slogan and carried on to this year’s campaign. It attempts to address prevailing misinformation about the disease.