The Martian

I have recently rewatched the exciting science fiction film The Martian again. It is Based on the 2011 novel by Andy Wier and directed by Ridley Scott. It stars Matt Damon and, Jessica Chastain. It takes place during the 2030s, and features the crew of Ares III, a manned mission to Mars, who have established a temporary artificial habitat, called the Hab, on Mars, where they intend to stay for two months before departing back to Earth in their spacecraft The Hermes. However Eighteen days into the Mars mission, a massive and ferocious Martian storm hits the base and the crew find themselves in mortal peril so they decide to abandon the planet or face being permanently stranded on Mars. Unfortunately While evacuating, Charismatic astronaut Mark Watney (Damon) is lost and presumed dead when his biomonitor is damaged. With the lives of her crew at stake, mission commander Melissa Lewis (Jessica Chastain) makes a drastic decision and decides to leave the planet, leaving Watney behind.

However unbeknownst to the rest of the crew Watney survives the storm and makes it back to the Hab. However he is unable to contact NASA and with the odds against him, He Faces a fight for survival on Mars until he can be rescued. Luckily he is a resourceful fellow, and uses his knowledge as a Botanist to construct a makeshift farm and Habitat for himself which will allow him to grow crops that will sustain him until he can be rescued by The next Mission to Mars “Ares IV”. Watney then locates the Pathfinder probe, defunct since 1997, and uses it to regain contact with Earth and also modifies the Mars Rover in order to send and receive text messages from NASA under guidance from NASA director Teddy Sanders. However he faces many other problems in the Hab which threaten to blow him to smitherines at any given moment and he must be constantly vigilant.

Back at Mission Control Flight Director Mitch Henderson and JPL director Bruce Ng find out that Watney is still alive on Mars and face a tough decision whether to tell the other crew members who are en-route back to Earth that Watney is still alive. So Henderson comes up with an audacious plan to send a space probe to Mars and resupply Watney until Ares IV can reach him. Elsewhere The China National Space Administration (CNSA) also offers NASA a a classified booster that can carry a payload to Mars. Meanwhile Rich Purnell, a NASA astrodynamicist, tries to work out a way for the crew to return to Mars and rescue Watney…

Hanukkah

Hanukkah is a Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire. Hanukkah is observed for eight nights and days, starting on the 25th day of Kislev according to the Hebrew calendar, which may occur at any time from late November to late December in the Gregorian calendar. It is also known as the Festival of Lights and the Feast of Dedication.

The festival is observed by lighting the candles of a candelabrum with nine branches, called a Hanukkah menorah (or hanukkiah). One branch is typically placed above or below the others and its candle is used to light the other eight candles. This unique candle is called the shamash (Hebrew: שמש‎, “attendant”). Each night, one additional candle is lit by the shamash until all eight candles are lit together on the final night of the holiday. Other Hanukkah festivities include playing dreidel and eating oil-based foods such as doughnuts and latkes. Since the 1970s, the worldwide Chabad Hasidic movement has initiated public menorah lightings in open public places in many countries.

The story of Hanukkah originated in Judea which was part of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt until 200 BCE When King Antiochus III the Great of Syria defeated King Ptolemy V Epiphanes of Egypt at the Battle of Panium in 200BCE. Judea then became part of the Seleucid Empire of Syria. King Antiochus III the Great wanting to conciliate his new Jewish subjects guaranteed their right to “live according to their ancestral customs” and to continue to practice their religion in the Temple of Jerusalem However, in 175 BCE, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the son of Antiochus III, invaded Judea, at the request of the sons of Tobias. The Tobiads, who led the Hellenizing Jewish faction in Jerusalem, were expelled to Syria around 170 BCE when the high priest Onias and his pro-Egyptian faction wrested control from them. The exiled Tobiads lobbied Antiochus IV Epiphanes to recapture Jerusalem.

When Antiochus IV Epiphanes recaptured Jerusalem, the Romans looted the Second Temple in Jerusalem and outlawed Judaism . In 167 BCE, Antiochus ordered an altar to Zeus erected in the Temple. He banned brit milah (circumcision) and ordered pigs to be sacrificed at the altar of the temple. Needless to say Antiochus’s actions provoked a large-scale revolt. Mattathias (Mattityahu), a Jewish priest, and his five sons Jochanan, Simeon, Eleazar, Jonathan, and Judah led a rebellion against Antiochus. It started with Mattathias killing first, a Jew who wanted to comply with Antiochus’s order to sacrifice to Zeus, and then a Greek official who was to enforce the government’s behest (1 Mac. 2, 24–25) Judah became known as Yehuda HaMakabi (“Judah the Hammer”). By 166 BCE Mattathias had died, and Judah took his place as leader

By 165 BCE the Jewish revolt against the Seleucid monarchy was successful. The Temple was liberated and rededicated. The festival of Hanukkah was instituted to celebrate this event. Judah ordered the Temple to be cleansed, a new altar to be built in place of the polluted one and new holy vessels to be made. According to the Talmud, unadulterated and undefiled pure olive oil with the seal of the kohen gadol (high priest) was needed for the menorah in the Temple, which was required to burn throughout the night every night. The story goes that one flask was found with only enough oil to burn for one day, yet it burned for eight days, the time needed to prepare a fresh supply of kosher oil for the menorah. An eight-day festival was declared by the Jewish sages to commemorate this miracle.

The books of the First and Second Maccabees, describe the re-dedication of the Temple in Jerusalem and the lighting of the menorah. These books are not part of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) which came from the Palestinian canon; however, they were part of the Alexandrian canon which is also called the Septuagint (sometimes abbreviated LXX). Both books are included in the Old Testament used by the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, since those churches consider the books deuterocanonical. They are not included in the Old Testament books in most Protestant Bibles since most Protestants consider the books apocryphal. Multiple references to Hanukkah are also made in the Mishna (Bikkurim 1:6, Rosh HaShanah 1:3, Taanit 2:10, Megillah 3:4 and 3:6, Moed Katan 3:9, and Bava Kama 6:6), though specific laws are not described. The miracle of the one-day supply of oil miraculously lasting eight days is first described in the Talmud, committed to writing about 600 years after the events described in the books of Maccabees.

The Gemara (Talmud), in tractate Shabbat, page 21b, focuses on Shabbat candles and moves to Hanukkah candles and says that after the forces of Antiochus IV had been driven from the Temple, the Maccabees discovered that almost all of the ritual olive oil had been profaned. They found only a single container that was still sealed by the High Priest, with enough oil to keep the menorah in the Temple lit for a single day. They used this, yet it burned for eight days (the time it took to have new oil pressed and made ready.

The Talmud presents three options for celebrating Hanukkah: Either light one light each night per household, light one light each night for each member of the household or vary the number of lights each night. These lights were to be placed outside one’s door, on the opposite side of the mezuza, or in the window closest to the street except in times of danger. The purpose of this is to publicize the miracle. The blessings for Hanukkah lights are discussed in tractate Succah.

” Judas celebrated the festival of the restoration of the sacrifices of the temple for eight days, and omitted no sort of pleasures thereon; but he feasted them upon very rich and splendid sacrifices; and he honored God, and delighted them by hymns and psalms. Nay, they were so very glad at the revival of their customs, when, after a long time of intermission, they unexpectedly had regained the freedom of their worship, that they made it a law for their posterity, that they should keep a festival, on account of the restoration of their temple worship, for eight days. And from that time to this we celebrate this festival, and call it Lights. I suppose the reason was because this liberty beyond our hopes appeared to us; and that thence was the name given to that festival. Judas also rebuilt the walls round about the city, and reared towers of great height against the incursions of enemies, and set guards therein. He also fortified the city Bethsura, that it might serve as a citadel against any distresses that might come from our enemies.”

The story of Hanukkah is also alluded to in the book of 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees. The eight-day rededication of the temple is described in 1 Maccabees 4:36–4:59, though the name of the festival and the miracle of the lights do not appear here. A story similar in character, and obviously older in date, is the one alluded to in 2 Maccabees 1:18–1:36 according to which the relighting of the altar fire by Nehemiah was due to a miracle which occurred on the 25th of Kislev, and which appears to be given as the reason for the selection of the same date for the rededication of the altar by Judah Maccabee.[citation needed] The above account in 2 Maccabees 1, as well as 2 2 Maccabees 1:9 portrays the feast as a delayed observation of the eight-day Feast of Booths (Sukkot)”; similarly 2 Maccabees 10:36 explains the length of the feast as “in the manner of the Feast of Booths”.

Another source is the Megillat Antiochus. This work (also known as “Megillat Benei Ḥashmonai”, “Megillat Hanukkah”, or “Megillat Yevanit”) is extant in both the Aramaic and Hebrew languages; the Hebrew version is a literal translation from the Aramaic original. Recent scholarship dates it to somewhere between the 2nd and 5th Centuries, probably in the 2nd century, with the Hebrew dating to the 7th century. It was published for the first time in Mantua in 1557. Saadia Gaon, who translated it into Arabic in the 9th century, ascribed it to the elders of the School of Shammai and the School of Hillel. The Hebrew text with an English translation can be found in the Siddur of Philip Birnbaum.

The Scroll of Antiochus concludes with the following words:

“…After this, the sons of Israel went up to the Temple and rebuilt its gates and purified the Temple from the dead bodies and from the defilement. And they sought after pure olive oil to light the lamps therewith, but could not find any, except one bowl that was sealed with the signet ring of the High Priest from the days of Samuel the prophet and they knew that it was pure. There was in it enough oil to light the lamps therewith for one day, but the God of heaven whose name dwells there put therein his blessing and they were able to light from it eight days. Therefore, the sons of Ḥashmonai made this covenant and took upon themselves a solemn vow, they and the sons of Israel, all of them, to publish amongst the sons of Israel, to the end that they might observe these eight days of joy and honour, as the days of the feasts written in the book of the Law; even to light in them so as to make known to those who come after them that their God wrought for them salvation from heaven. In them, it is not permitted to mourn, neither to decree a fast on those days, and anyone who has a vow to perform, let him perform it.”

Safety Razor Day

Safety Razor Day takes place annually on 2 December to celebrate the aniversary of 2 December 1901 when King Gillette patented the KC Gillette Razor, first version of the safety razor featuring permanent handle and disposable double-edge razor blades. A safety razor is a shaving implement with a protective device positioned between the edge of the blade and the skin. The initial purpose of these protective devices was to reduce the level of skill needed for injury-free shaving, thereby reducing the reliance on professional barbers. The term was first used in a patent issued in 1880, for a razor in the basic contemporary configuration with a handle attached at right angles to a head in which a removable blade is placed (although this form predated the patent). Plastic disposable razors and razors with replaceable blade attachments are in common use today. Razors commonly include one to five cutting edges.

The first step towards a safer-to-use razor was the guard razor – also called a straight safety razor – which added a protective guard to a regular straight razor. The first such razor was most likely invented by a French cutler Jean-Jacques Perret circa 1762. The invention was inspired by the joiner’s plane and was essentially a straight razor with its blade surrounded by a wooden sleeve. The earliest razor guards had comb-like teeth and could only be attached to one side of a razor; a reversible guard was one of the first improvements made to guard razors.

The basic form of a razor, “the cutting blade of which is at right angles with the handle, and resembles somewhat the form of a common hoe”, was first described in a patent application in 1847 by William S. Henson. This also covered a “comb tooth guard or protector” which could be attached both to the hoe form and to a conventional straight razor. The first attested use of the term “safety razor” is in a patent application for “new and useful improvements in Safety-Razors”, filed in May 1880 by Frederic and Otto Kampfe of Brooklyn, New York, and issued the following month. This differed from the Henson design in distancing the blade from the handle by interposing, “a hollow metallic blade-holder having a preferably removable handle and a flat plate in front, to which the blade is attached by clips and a pivoted catch, said plate having bars or teeth at its lower edge, and the lower plate having an opening, for the purpose set forth”, which is, to “insure a smooth bearing for the plate upon the skin, while the teeth or bars will yield sufficiently to allow the razor to sever the hair without danger of cutting the skin.”[4] The Kampfe Brothers produced razors under their own name following the 1880 patent and improved the design in a series of subsequent patents. These models were manufactured under the “Star Safety Razor” brand.

A third pivotal innovation was a safety razor using a disposable double-edge blade that King Camp Gillette submitted a patent application for in 1901 and was granted in 1904. The success of Gillette’s invention was largely a result of his having been awarded a contract to supply the American troops in World War I with double-edge safety razors as part of their standard field kits (delivering a total of 3.5 million razors and 32 million blades for them). The returning soldiers were permitted to keep that part of their equipment and therefore easily retained their new shaving habits. The subsequent consumer demand for replacement blades put the shaving industry on course toward its present form with Gillette as a dominant force. Prior to the introduction of the disposable blade, users of safety razors still needed to strop and hone the edges of their blades. These are not trivial skills (honing frequently being left to a professional) and remained a barrier to the ubiquitous adopting of the be your own barber ideal.

The first safety razors used a single-edge blade that was essentially a 4 cm long segment of a straight razor. A flat blade that could be used alternately with this “wedge” was first illustrated in a patent issued in 1878, serving as a close prototype for the single-edge blade in its present form. New single-edge razors were developed and used side-by-side with double-edge razors for decades. The largest manufacturers were the American Safety Razor Company with its “Ever-Ready” series, and the Gem Cutlery Company with its “Gem” models. Although these brands of single-edge razors are no longer in production, they are readily available in antique trade, and compatible modern designs are being made.[8] Blades for them are still being manufactured both for shaving and technical purposes.

A second popular single-edge design is the “Injector” razor developed and placed on the market by Schick Razors in the 1920s. This uses narrow blades stored in an injector device with which they are inserted directly into the razor, so that the user never needs to handle the blade. The injector blade was the first to depart from the rectangular dimensions shared by the wedge, standard single-edge, and double-edge blades. The injector, itself, was also the first device intended to reduce the risk of injury from handling blades. The Gillette blade dispenser released in 1947 had the same purpose. The narrow injector blade, as well as the form of the injector razor, also strongly influenced the corresponding details of the subsequently developed cartridge razors. Both injector blades and injector safety razors are still available on the market, from antique stock as well as modern manufacture. The injector blades have also inspired a variety of specialised blades for professional barber use, some of which have been re-adopted for shaving by modern designs.

Until the 1960s, razor blades were made of carbon steel. These were extremely prone to rusting and forced users to change blades frequently. In 1965, the British company Wilkinson Sword began to sell blades made of stainless steel, which did not corrode nearly so quickly and could be used far longer. Wilkinson quickly captured U.S., British and European markets. As a result, American Safety Razor, Gillette and Schick were driven to produce stainless steel blades to compete. Today, almost all razor blades are stainless steel although carbon steel blades remain in limited production for lower income markets. Because Gillette held a patent on stainless blades but had not acted on it, the company was accused of exploiting customers by forcing them to buy the rust-prone blade.

The risk of injury from handling razor blades was further reduced in 1970 when Wilkinson released its “Bonded Shaving System”, which embedded a single blade in a disposable polymer plastic cartridge. A flurry of competing models soon followed with everything from one to six blades, with many cartridge blade razors also having disposable handles. Cartridge blade razors are sometimes considered to be a generic category of their own and not a variety of safety razor. The similarities between single-edge cartridge blade razors and the classic injector razor do, however, provide equal justification for treating both categories contiguously.

In 1974 Bic introduced the disposable razor. Instead of being a razor with a disposable blade, the entire razor was manufactured to be disposable. Gillette’s response was the Good News disposable razor which was launched on the US market in 1976 before the Bic disposable was made available on that market. Shortly thereafter, Gillette modified the Good News construction to add an aloe strip above the razor, resulting in the Good News Plus. The purported benefit of the aloe strip is to ease any discomfort felt on the face while shaving.

In direct response to Wilkinson’s Bonded cartridge, during the following year Gillette introduced the twin-blade Trac II. They claimed that research showed the tandem action of the two blades to give a closer shave than a single blade, because of a “hysteresis” effect. In addition to the cutting action of the first blade, it is also supposed to pull the hair out of the follicle into which it does not fully retract before the second blade cuts it further. The extent to which this is of practical consequence has, however, been questioned.

In 1998 Gillette introduced the first triple-blade cartridge razor, the Mach3, and upgraded the Sensor cartridge to the Sensor3 by adding a third blade. Schick/Wilkinson responded to the Mach3 with the Quattro, the first four-blade cartridge razor. These innovations are marketed with the message that they help consumers achieve the best shave as easily as possible. Another impetus for the sale of multiple-blade cartridges is that they have high profit margins. With manufacturers frequently updating their shaving systems, consumers can become locked into buying their proprietary cartridges, for as long as the manufacturer continues to make them. Subsequent to introducing the higher-priced Mach3 in 1998, Gillette’s blade sales realized a 50% increase, and profits increased in an otherwise mature market.

The marketing of increasing numbers of blades in a cartridge has been parodied since the 1970s. The debut episode of Saturday Night Live in 1975 included a parody advertisement for the Triple Trac Razor, shortly after the first two-blade cartridge for men’s razors was advertised. Mad magazine announced the “Trac 76”, arranged as a chain of cartridges with a handle on each end.[17] In the early 1990s, the (Australian) Late Show skitted a “Gillette 3000” with 16 blades and 75 lubricating strips as arrived at by working in conjunction with the help of NASA scientists – “The first blade distracts the hair…”. The January 16, 1999 episode of Mad TV ran a parody commercial advertising the “Spishak Mach 20” with blades that variously “cut(s) away that pesky second layer of skin” and “gently smooth(s) out the jawbone” culminating in a blade that “destroys the part of the brain responsible for hair growth.” In 2004, a satirical article in The Onion entitled “Fuck Everything, We’re Doing Five Blades” predicted the release of five-blade cartridges, two years before their commercial introduction. South Korean manufacturer Dorco released their own six-blade cartridge in 2012 and later released a seven-blade cartridge. Gillette has also produced powered variants of the Mach3 (M3Power, M3Power Nitro) and Fusion (Fusion Power and Fusion Power Phantom) razors. These razors accept a single AAA battery which is used to produce vibration in the razor; this action was purported to raise hair up and away from the skin prior to being cut. These claims were ruled in an American court as “unsubstantiated and inaccurate”.

International Day for the Abolition of Slavery

The International Day for the Abolition of Slavery occurs annually on December 2, organized by the United Nations General Assembly. The Day was first celebrated in 1986. The Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others was approved by the United Nations General Assembly on December 2, 1949. Besides, by resolution 57/195 of 18 December 2002, the Assembly proclaimed 2004 the International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition.

The United Nations (UN) are committed to fighting slavery and using International Day for the Abolition of Slavery to raise awareness on the subject. Living in a modern society, it’s disturbing to think that slavery is still happening in other parts of our world. So what are the reasons to abolish slavery? No one should be treated unfairly to suit the advantages of others but slavery and capitalism go hand in hand. Forced labour, awful forms of child labour, and human trafficking often take place in poorer parts of the world. It seems a million miles away from where we are, but one million kids a year are pushed into acting as slaves, many for sexual exploitation.

Tho raise awareness concerning the International Day for the Abolition of SLavery, The United Nations plus The online and print media promote the day through news, debates and forums. Flyers and newsletters are put up in public places like universities, where students will learn about the negative impact of slavery on people and society. online forums can also be used to promote the occasion. Writing short stories, articles, Plays or even poetry on human trafficking can also help people understand the seriousness of thd issue.

The horrors of slavery are well illustrated by the plight of three, women Who allegedly lived in the fearful, dark shadows and were, according to police, the victims of terrible psychological and physical abuse; effectively kept as slaves and held against their will as members of an extremist, political cult led by Aravindan Balakrishnan – a disciple of Chairman Mao, the late Chinese communist leader, and known as Comrade Bala to his devotees – Who ran a community so secret that nobody realised that three women, apparently free to come and go at will, were apparently shackled in all that time to their mercurial leader by “invisible handcuffs”. Josephine Herivel, now aged 57, was one of those women. She was a brilliant young violinist, whose eminent father had been instrumental in breaking the Nazi’s Enigma wartime code at Bletchley Park.But Miss Herivel became cut off from her family in the mid-1970s some time after arriving in London from her native Belfast, where her father was a lecturer at Queen’s University. By the time he died, two years ago, she had been left out of the family will while his obituaries made mention of just two daughters, not three.

Another Woman Aishah Wahab, 69, also had a glittering career ahead. She had come to London from her native Malaysia as long ago as 1967 after winning a scholarship to study in London. She, too, apparently fell under Comrade Bala’s spell and rapidly lost touch with her family.The third woman apparently rescued by police and anti-slavery charity workers is Rosie Davies. She is 30, half the age of the other two. It is not clear who her father is but she spent her life under the spell of the Maoist cult. Her mother, Sian Davies, had been educated first at Cheltenham Ladies College before obtaining a law degree. Sian was a postgraduate student at the LSE when she, too, first encountered Comrade Bala.When Rosie was just 14, her mother died in mysterious circumstances, as the result of a fall from a second floor bathroom window on Christmas Eve 1996. She was living at one of the commune’s houses, owned by the local council, in Herne Hill, south London.For seven months, Sian Davies lay in a coma at a London hospital. Yet when her family inquired as to her whereabouts, they were told Sian had gone travelling in to India but that she sent her love. When she died of her injuries, the authorities never bothered to inquire about her daughter, Rosie, left behind. Comrade Bala appears to be the charismatic force that kept the commune together, long after the revolutionary fervour of the 1960s and 1970s had died away. Finally When he was aged 73, he was arrested and subsequently bailed on suspicion of being involved in forced labour and slavery.

More events and holidays taking place on December 2

  • Business of Popping Corn Day
  • National Fritters Day
  • National Mutt Day
  • Play Basketball Day
  • Safety Razor Day

Nelly Furtado

Portuguese-Canadian singer and songwriter Nelly Furtado was born on December 2, 1978, in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Her Portuguese parents, António José Furtado and Maria Manuela Furtado, were born on São Miguel Island in the Azores and had immigrated to Canada in the late 1960s. Nelly was named after Soviet gymnast Nellie Kim.Her siblings are Michael Anthony and Lisa Anne. They were raised Roman Catholic. She began performing and singing in Portuguese in 1982. Furtado’s first public performance was when she sang a duet with her mother at a church on Portugal Day. She began playing musical instruments at the age of nine, learning the trombone, ukulele and, in later years, the guitar and keyboards. At the age of 12, she began writing songs, and as a teenager, she performed in a Portuguese marching band. Furtado has acknowledged her family as the source of her strong work ethic; she spent eight summers working as a chambermaid with her mother, along with her brother and sister, who was a housekeeper in Victoria. She has stated that coming from a working class background has shaped her identity in a positive way.

During a visit with her sister Lisa Anne in Toronto, Furtado met Tallis Newkirk, member of the hip hop group Plains of Fascination. She contributed vocals to their 1996 album, Join the Ranks, on the track “Waitin’ 4 the Streets”. After graduating from Mount Douglas Secondary School in 1996, she moved to Toronto to reside with her sister Lisa Anne. The following year, she formed Nelstar, a trip hop duo with Newkirk. Ultimately, Furtado felt the trip hop style of the duo was “too segregated”, and believed it did not represent her personality or allow her to showcase her vocal ability. She left the group and planned to move back home.

In 1997, she performed at the Honey Jam talent show and her performance attracted the attention of The Philosopher Kings singer Gerald Eaton, who then approached her to write with him. He and fellow Kings member Brian West helped Furtado produce a demo. She left Toronto, but returned again to record more material with Eaton and West. The material recorded during these sessions led to her 1999 record deal with DreamWorks Records, signed by A&R executive Beth Halper, partner of Garbage drummer and record producer Butch Vig. Furtado’s first single, “Party’s Just Begun (Again)”, was released in 1999 on the Brokedown Palace: Music from the Original Motion Picture Soundtrack.

Furtado also collaborated with Eaton and West, who co-produced her debut album, Whoa, Nelly!, which was released in October 2000 and contained the songs “I’m Like a Bird”, “Turn Off the Light”, and “…On the Radio (Remember the Days)”. It received four Grammy nominations in 2002, and her debut single won her a Grammy Award for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance. Portions of The song “Scared of You” are sung in Portuguese, while “Onde Estás” is entirely in Portuguese, reflecting Furtado’s Portuguese heritage. Furtado also appeared on the song “Thin Line”, on underground hip hop group Jurassic 5’s album Power in Numbers, Furtado also provided her vocals to the Paul Oakenfold song “The Harder They Come” from the album Bunkka. She also had a collaboration with Colombian artist Juanes in the song “Fotografía” (“Photograph”).

Furtado was also featured in “Breath” from Swollen Members’ Monsters in the Closet release; the video for “Breath”, directed by Spawn creator Todd McFarlane, won the 2003 Western Canadian Music Awards Outstanding Video and MuchVIBE Best Rap Video. In 2002, Furtado was the recipient of an International Achievement Award at the SOCAN Awards in Toronto for her song “I’m Like a Bird. Furtado’s work was also critically acclaimed for her innovative mixture of various genres and sounds. And was described as “a delightful and refreshing antidote to the army of ‘pop princesses’ and rap-metal bands that had taken over popular music at the turn of the millennium”.

In 2003 Furtado released her second album Folklore containing the single “Powerless (Say What You Want)”, “Childhood Dreams”, was dedicated to her daughter, Nevis. The album includes the single “Força” (meaning “strength”/ “power” or “you can do it!” in Portuguese), the official anthem of the 2004 European Football Championship. Plus the songs Powerless (Say What You Want)” and the ballad “Try”. Powerless (Say What You Want)” was later remixed into a Spanish version called “Abre Tu Corazón”, featuring Juanes, who had previously worked with Furtado on his track “Fotografía”.

Furtado released her third album Loose in 2006. This became her best selling album with 12 million copies sold worldwide The album spawned four successful number one singles; “Promiscuous”, “Maneater”, “Say It Right” and “All Good Things (Come to an End)”. Juanes also collaborated on “Te Busqué” (“I Searched for You”), a single from Furtado’s 2006 album Loose. In 2003, Furtado won an International Achievement Award at the SOCAN Awards in Toronto for her song “Turn Off the Light”. She released her first Spanish language album Mi Plan in 2009 which won her a Latin Grammy Award for Best Female Pop Vocal Album. In 2012 Furtado released her fifth album The Spirit Indestructible. In 2017, Furtado released her sixth album titled The Ride.

Rick Savage (Def Leppard)

Rick Savage, the bass player with heavy metal rock band Def Leppard was Born 2nd December 1960. Formed in 1977 in Sheffield as part of the New Wave of British Heavy Metal movement. Def Leppard ’s strongest commercial success came between the early 1980s and the early 1990s. Their 1981 album High ‘n’ Dry was produced by Robert John “Mutt” Lange, who helped them begin to define their style, and the album’s stand out track “Bringin’ On the Heartbreak” became one of the first metal videos played on MTV in 1982. The band’s next studio album Pyromania in 1983, with the singles Photograph and Rock of Ages, turned Def Leppard into a household name. In 2004, the album ranked number 384 on Rolling Stone’s 500 Greatest Albums of All Time.

Def Leppard’s fourth album Hysteria, released in 1987, topped the U.S and UK album charts. As of 2009 it has 12x platinum sales in the United States, and has gone on to sell over 20 million copies worldwide. The album contained loads of great songs, including the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 number one “Love Bites”, alongside Pour Some Sugar on Me , “Hysteria”, Armageddon It , “Animal” Rocket“, Gods of War and Women. Their next studio album Adrenalize reached number one on the U.S. Billboard 200 and UK Album Chart in 1992, and contained several hits including, “Let’s Get Rocked” and “Have You Ever Needed Someone So Bad”. Their 1993 album Retro Active contained the acoustic hit song “Two Steps Behind”, while their greatest hits album Vault released in 1995 featured track “When Love & Hate Collide. In 2015 Def Leppard released the live album, Mirrorball and they toured in 2015 alongside Tesla and STYX. Def Leppards latest self titled album “Def Leppard” was, released In 2015 and is Def Leppard’s first studio album since the album Songs from the Sparkle Lounge which was released in 2008. The album Def Leppard Contains the tracks Let’s Go” ,”Dangerous”,”Man Enough”,”We Belong”, “Invincible”, “Sea of Love”, “Energized”, “All Time High”, “Battle of My Own”,”Broke ‘N’ Brokenhearted”, “Forever Young”, “Last Dance”, “Wings of an Angel”, “Blind Faith” and was released together with a limited edition fan pack containing a magazine, prints, a keyring in addition to the CD Itself.

Since 1992, the band have consisted of Rick Savage (bass, backing vocals), Joe Elliott (lead vocals), Rick Allen (drums, backing vocals), Phil Collen (guitar, backing vocals), and Vivian Campbell (guitar, backing vocals). Therefore, this is the band’s longest-standing lineup. As one of the world’s best-selling music artists, Def Leppard have sold more than 100 million albums worldwide,and have two albums with RIAAdiamond certification, Pyromania and Hysteria. They are one of only five rock bands with two original studio albums selling over 10 million copies in the U.S.The band were ranked No. 31 in VH1′s “100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock”and ranked No. 70 in “100 Greatest Artists Of All Time”

Nate Mandel (Foo Fighters)

Nate Mendel, the Bass Player with Sunny Day Real Estate and Foo Fighters was born 2nd December 1968. The Foo Fighters were formed Following Kurt Cobain’s untimely death in April 1994, after Dave Grohl made a Demo tape which created considerable major label interest. Nirvana’s A&R rep Gary Gersh & president of Capitol Records signed Grohl with the label. Grohl did not want the effort to be considered the start of a solo career so he recruited other band members: former Germs and touring Nirvana guitarist Pat Smear, and two members of the band Sunny Day Real Estate, William Goldsmith (drums) and Nate Mendel (bass). Rather than re-record the album, Grohl’s demo was given a professional mix by Rob Schnapf and Tom Rothrock and was released in July 1995 as Foo Fighters’ debut album.

In the midst of the initial sessions for Foo Fighters’ second album, tension emerged between Grohl and Goldsmith. After which Goldsmith officially announced his departure from the band. The band’s second album, The Colour and the Shape,was released in 1997 and cemented Foo Fighters as a staple of rock radio. The album spawned several hits, including “Everlong“, “My Hero“, and “Monkey Wrench“. Just prior to the album’s release, former Alanis Morissette drummer Taylor Hawkins joined the band on drums, he was joined by Grohl’s former Scream bandmate Franz Stahl. However Stahl departed the band prior to recording of Foo Fighters’ third album and was replaced by touring guitarist Chris Shiflett, who later became a full-fledged member during the recording of One by One

In 2000, the band recruited Queen guitarist Brian May to add some guitar flourish to a cover of Pink Floyd’s “Have a Cigar”. The friendship between the two bands resulted in Grohl and Taylor Hawkins being asked to induct Queen into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2001. Grohl and Hawkins joined May and Queen drummer Roger Taylor to perform “Tie Your Mother Down”, with Grohl standing in on vocals for Freddie Mercury. (May later contributed guitar work for the song “Tired of You” on the ensuing Foo Fighters album, as well as on an unreleased Foo Fighters song called “Knucklehead”. In 2oo1 Foo Fighters returned to the studio to work on their fourth album “One by One”. After which, Grohl joined Queens of the Stone Age and helped them to record their 2002 album Songs for the Deaf. On November 23, 2002, singer Dave Grohl achieved a historical milestone by replacing himself on the top of the Billboard Modern Rock chart, when “You Know You’re Right” by Nirvana was replaced by “All My Life” by Foo Fighters. When “All My Life” ended its run, after a one week respite, “No One Knows” by Queens of the Stone Age took the number one spot.

On June 14, 2005 Foo Fighters released their fifth album In Your Honor Featuring collaborations with John Paul Jones of Led Zeppelin, Josh Homme of Queens of the Stone Age and Norah Jones. the album was a departure from previous efforts, and included one rock and one acoustic disc. Foo Fighters’s sixth studio album Echoes, Silence, Patience & Grace was released on September 25, 2007. and spawned three singles “The Pretender”, “Long Road to Ruin” and “Let It Die”. In 2009 Foo Fighters released their Greatest Hits collection, consisting of 16 tracks including a previously unreleased acoustic version of “Everlong” and two new tracks “Wheels” and “Word Forward” which were produced by Nevermind’s producer Butch Vig. The Foo Fighters’ next released the album Wasting Light, which was released Spring 2011, and included the single “Walk”. The Foo Fighters next album Sonic Highways was released in Autumn 2014 and features songs inspired by some of the cities the Foo Fighters have visited while on tour. They also released an EP in December 2015 Entitled St. Cecilia to mark the end of their world Tour. The Foo Fighters latest album Concrete and Gold was released in 2017.