International Dalek Remembrance Day takes place annually on 21 December to commemorate 21 December 1963, which was the first time that the Daleks appeared on BBC Science-fiction television series Doctor Who. The Daleks are a fictional extraterrestrial race of villainous mutants who appear on Doctor Who. They were conceived by science-fiction writer Terry Nation and first appeared in the 1963 Doctor Who serial The Daleks, in the shells designed by Raymond Cusick. The Daleks were inspired by the real-life example of the Nazis, Nation portrayed the Daleks as violent, merciless and pitiless cyborg aliens, who demand total conformity to their will. They are intent on the conquest of the universe and the extermination of what they see as inferior races with the cry “Exterminate!”
The Daleks were engineered by the scientist Davros during the final years of a thousand-year war between his people, the Kaleds, and their enemies the Thals. With some Kaleds already badly mutated and damaged by nuclear war, Davros genetically modified the Kaleds and integrated them with a tank-like, robotic shell, removing their every emotion apart from hate. His creations soon came to view themselves as the supreme race in the universe, intent on purging the universe of all non-Dalek life. Collectively they are the greatest enemies of Doctor Who’s protagonist, the Time Lord known as “the Doctor”. Later in the programme’s run, the Daleks acquired time travel technology and engaged the Time Lords in a brutal Time War affecting most of the universe, with battles taking place across all of history.
The Daleks were created by writer Terry Nation and designed by BBC designer Raymond Cusick. They were introduced in December 1963 in the second Doctor Who serial, colloquially known as The Daleks. They became an immediate and huge hit with viewers, featuring in many subsequent serials and two 1960s motion pictures. They have become as synonymous with Doctor Who as the Doctor himself, and their behaviour and catchphrases are now part of British popular culture. “Hiding behind the sofa whenever the Daleks appear” has been cited as an element of British cultural identity and In 1999 a Dalek photographed by Lord Snowdon appeared on a postage stamp celebrating British popular culture In 2010, readers of science fiction magazine SFX voted the Dalek as the all-time greatest monster, beating competition including Japanese movie monster Godzilla and J. R. R. Tolkien’s Gollum, of The Lord of the Rings.
The First Doctor first encounters the Daleks in the second serial of the show, The Daleks (1963−64). In this version of Dalek history, the Dalek homeworld of Skaro is described by the Daleks in the second episode as having once been home to two humanoid races: the Daleks and the Thals. Following a short but terrible nuclear war between the races “over five hundred years ago”, the Thals were horribly mutated and the “Dalek forefathers” retired into the city. According to the Thals in the third episode, the Daleks were originally teachers and philosophers, while the Doctor states in the fourth episode that the Daleks were called Dals back then, and speculates that the Daleks had just as badly been mutated at the time They are more or less confined to their city; their motive power being electricity conducted via metal walkways. After discovering the anti-radiation drugs of the Thals kill them, the now-xenophobic Daleks decide to release radiation from their nuclear reactors into Skaro’s atmosphere, leaving only the Daleks, However, the Thals fight back
They next appeared in The Dalek Invasion of Earth (1964), which shows the Daleks having conquered and occupied the Earth in the mid-22nd century after a meteorite shower and a plague and attempting to destroy the Earth’s magnetic core. However The First Doctor and his companions, Ian Chesterton and Barbara Wright, intervene. The Daleks next appeared in The Chase (1965), where they use a time machine to pursue the TARDIS crew, before landing on the planet Mechanus and battling the robotic Mechanoids. The next Dalek story The Daleks’ Master Plan, takes place inthe year 4000 when the Daleks have an interstellar Dalek Empire and form an alliance with beings from the ‘Outer Galaxies’ in a villainous plot to attack the Solar System. They have help from the treacherous Guardian Mavic Chen, who supplies them with taranium for the Time Destructor. However The Doctor and his companion Sara Kingdom confront them again.
The Daleks turn up again in The Power of the Daleks, When they develop factory ships for conquering the Universe and join forces with a rebel group on the planet Vulcan and begin producing more Daleks to exterminate the colony. However the Doctor turns up. In 1967 the Daleks appeared in the episode The Evil of the Daleks and capture the Second Doctor and his companion Jamie McCrimmon, in order to remove the human factor and spread the Dalek Factor throughout human history however this does not go to plan. The Daleks returned in the Third Doctor serial Day of the Daleks (1972), where they attempt to take over the Earth during the 22nd century and The Doctor discovers a villainous plot by guerillas from the future who attempt to assassinate a conference deligate named Sir Reginald Styles. The Daleks returned in Frontier in Space and try to cause a war between Earth and Draconia with help from the Master. This leads directly into Planet of the Daleks (1973), where the Daleks invade the planet Spiridon. in the next story Death to the Daleks the Daleks try to stop humans getting the cure to a plague from Exxilon but find themselves trapped on the planet with the Third Doctor and humans when the Exxilon City drains the power from their ships.
The Dalek origins were explained in Genesis of the Daleks, where the Fourth Doctor was sent by the Time Lords to the moment of the Daleks’ creation, in order to stop the Dalek race before it could begin or to lessen their dominance in the future. It features The Kaleds (an anagram of Dalek), a race of humanoid extraterrestrials and the forebears of the Daleks, who, with their stylised salutes and authoritarian political structure, were thinly veiled analogues of the Nazis. In this serial, it was the Kaleds who waged war on the Thals. The Daleks originate during the thousand-year-long Kaled-Thal War, fought with nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. The crippled Kaled chief scientist and evil genius Davros deems the mutations from the fallout irreversible, so he comes up with a solution.
In the next story Destiny of the Daleks (1979), it is revealed that Davros had survived the Daleks’ attack. Meanwhile the Daleks had abandoned the ruins of Skaro and established a vast interstellar empire, eventually encountering a hostile race of androids called the Movellans. So The Daleks send an expedition to the ruins of Skaro to consult Davros and find a way to defeat the Movellans, However, the Fourth Doctor intervenes. In the next story Resurrection of the Daleks, the Daleks having lost the war, rescue Davros from the human prison station where he had been frozen for ninety years. However Davros double-crosses the Daleks, This causes a schism among the Daleks, with one faction following Davros’ leadership and another rejecting their creator to instead follow the Supreme Dalek. Davros Next appeared in Remembrance of the Daleks as the Dalek Emperor, leading his gold and white Imperial Daleks for control over Skaro against the Renegade Daleks, led by a black Supreme Dalek. They also try to obtain the Hand of Omega, a Gallifreyan stellar engineering device, hidden on Earth.
A new Doctor Who series was announced for 2005 and the Daleks have appeared in every series since (as of series 10). In the first series of the revival, the Daleks serve as the main antagonists. In “Dalek” (2005), it was revealed that the Daleks were involved with the Time Lords in a Time War, in which both sides were believed to have been practically wiped out. The Ninth Doctor encounters a surviving Dalek who somehow fell through time to 20th century Earth. By 2012, it had passed into the hands of American billionaire Henry van Statten, who dubs it a “Metaltron” and keeps it in a secret underground museum called the Vault along with other alien artefacts. The Dalek is damaged, remaining silent and helpless until the Ninth Doctor arrives at the Vault. Absorbing DNA from the Doctor’s companion Rose Tyler, it regenerates itself and goes on a killing spree.
This was followed by The two-part 2005 series finale, comprising “Bad Wolf” and “The Parting of the Ways” which revealed that this Dalek was, in fact, not the sole survivor of its race. The Emperor Dalek’s ship had also survived, falling through time much as the lone Dalek did. Hidden, it began to rebuild, infiltrating Earth society over the course of centuries and using human genetic material to create a new Dalek race. Having done this, the Dalek Emperor came to see itself as a god, and built its new society around the Daleks.
In the Emperor of the Daleks the Daleks start Subtly manipulating the Fourth Great and Bountiful Human Empire of the year 200,000 by means of news programmes transmitted from Satellite 5 in Earth orbit, the Daleks installed the monstrous Jagrafess as mankind’s keeper The Ninth Doctor confronts the Jagrafess in “The Long Game”, but was unaware that the Daleks were behind it. The Daleks then change Satellite Five into the Game Station where humans take part in twisted reality television games with the losers being taken by The Daleks for sinister experiments. The station’s Controller transports the Ninth Doctor and his companions into the station, where the Doctor discovers the Dalek presence. The race, now numbering close to half a million, are poised to invade Earth with a fleet of 200 ships unless The Doctor and Rose can stop them.
In the 2006 series finale, “Army of Ghosts” and “Doomsday”, it is revealed that The Cult of Skaro (Sec, Caan, Thay and Jast) escaped the Time War aboard a Daleks’ Void ship which finally emerges on 21st century Earth, where it is examined by the Torchwood Institute and they have brought the “Genesis Ark,” a prison which contains millions of Daleks. Unfortunately The path of the void ship leaves a breach in spacetime which also allows the parallel Earth Cybermen to cross over into the Doctor’s universe. The Ark is opened, releasing millions of Daleks and all hell breaks loose when they confront the Cybermen.
The Daleks then end up in New York in 1930 during the episode “Daleks in Manhattan” (2007), where after a failed attempt to restart their species via cloning, Sec hatches a plan of evolving the species into a new superior race. So The other Cult members (Dalek Thay, Dalek Caan, and Dalek Jast) Go round capturing humans, with the more intelligent humans becoming part of the Final Experiment, while the less intelligent are transformed into pig slaves, humanoid creatures with pig-like faces, to serve the Daleks. The Final Experiment involves Dalek Sec making the ultimate sacrifice, and combining with a human named Diagoras to become a new species of Hybrid Dalek, a Human Dalek. In the second part of the story, “Evolution of the Daleks” (2007), Hybrid Dalek Sec reveals that his transformation is only the first part of the Final Experiment. The next stage involves the introduction of his hybrid DNA into thousands of captured and mind-wiped humans. However, his plan goes slightly pear shaped When he is betrayed and Dalek army is corrupted by the Time Lord DNA.
The Daleks returned In “The Stolen Earth” (2008), where both Davros and a red Supreme Dalek are seen as rulers of the New Dalek Empire. It is revealed that Caan saved Davros from destruction at the Gates of Elysium during the Time War. Davros used cells from his own body to create a new race of Daleks which begin stealing planets from across time and space, creating an artificial solar system. The Follow-up episode “Journey’s End” (2008) shows Davros reveal a dastardly plan to destroy reality itself. “The Crucible” is revealed to be a gigantic space station that houses the entire empire and is used for experimentations with Davros’ invention, the reality bomb. The Supreme Dalek Davros’ and Dalek Caan reveal an evil plan to detonate the Reality Bomb and ensure that the Daleks are the sole living race in the universe. However this does not go to plan.
Luckily in “Victory of the Daleks” (2010), it is revealed that a Dalek ship actually survived its previous encounter with the Doctor, and fell back through time to 1941. Where The surviving Daleks are being used by Prime Minister Winston Churchill as war weapons during the second World War. The Daleks also discover a Progenitor, a small capsule containing pure Dalek DNA, had also fallen back through time. So The Daleks retrieve it, planning to create a new race of Daleks. The five New Paradigm Daleks that appear then exterminate their predecessors with no resistance, as they were deemed inferior and then go on a killing spree. Each Dalek is a different colour and each represents a specific place in Dalek Hierarchy — Drone, Scientist, Strategist, Eternal and Supreme. The Daleks then threaten to destroy Earth…