Ursula K Le Guin

American Sci-fi and Fantasy novelist Ursula K. Le Guin, Sadly died 22 January 2018. She was born Ursula Kroeber in Berkeley, California, on October 21, 1929. Her father Alfred Louis Kroeber was an anthropologist at the University of California, Berkeley. Le Guin’s mother Theodora Kroeber had a graduate degree in psychology, but turned to writing in her sixties. She developed a successful career as an author: her best known work was Ishi in Two Worlds, a biographical volume about Ishi, an indigenous American who was the last known member of the Yahi tribe. Ursula had three older brothers, Karl, Theodore, and Clifton. The family had a large book collection, and the siblings all became interested in reading while they were young. The Kroeber family knew well-known academics such as Robert Oppenheimer. Le Guin would later use Oppenheimer as the model for her protagonist in The Dispossessed.

The family divided its time between a summer home in the Napa valley, and a house in Berkeley during the academic year. Le Guin’s reading included science fiction and fantasy: she and her siblings frequently read issues of Thrilling Wonder Stories and Astounding Science Fiction. She was fond of myths and legends, particularly Norse mythology, and of Native American legends that her father would narrate. Le Guin developed an early interest in writing; she wrote a short story when she was nine, and submitted her first short story to Astounding Science Fiction when she was eleven and She was also interested in biology and poetry but had difficulties with mathematics. Le Guin attended Berkeley High School. She received her Bachelor of Arts in Renaissance French and Italian literature from Radcliffe College in 1951, and graduated as a member of the Phi Beta Kappa honor society. Le Guin undertook graduate studies at Columbia University, and earned a Master of Arts in French in 1952. Soon after, she began working towards a Ph.D., and won a Fulbright grant to continue her studies in France from 1953 to 1954.

In 1953, she traveled to France aboard the Queen Mary, And met historian Charles Le Guin, whom she married in Paris in December 1953. While her husband finished his doctorate at Emory University in Georgia, and later at the University of Idaho, Le Guin taught French and worked as a secretary until the birth of her daughter Elisabeth in 1957. In 1959 Charles became an instructor in history at Portland State University, and the couple moved to Portland, Oregon. Le Guin received further Fulbright grants to travel to London in 1968 and 1975. The couple had two daughters, Elisabeth and Caroline, by the time they moved, and a son, Theodore, was born in Portland in 1964.

Le Guin began writing in the 1950s, but the time she spent caring for her children constrained her writing schedule. She also became an editor and a teacher at the undergraduate level. She served on the editorial boards of the journals Paradoxa and Science Fiction Studies, in addition to writing literary criticism herself. She also taught courses at Tulane University, Bennington College, and Stanford University, among others.

Le Guin’s first published work was the poem “Folksong from the Montayna Province” in 1959, while her first short story was “An die Musik”, in 1961; both were set in her fictional country of Orsinia. Between 1951 and 1961 she also wrote five novels, all set in Orsinia, which were rejected by publishers on the grounds that they were inaccessible. Some of her poetry from this period was published in 1975 in the volume Wild Angels. Le Guin turned her attention to science fiction after lengthy periods of receiving rejections from publishers, knowing that there was a market for writing that could be readily classified as such. Her first professional publication was the short story “April in Paris” in 1962 in Fantastic Science Fiction, and four other stories followed in the next few years, in Fantastic or Amazing Stories Among them was The Dowry of the Angyar, which introduced the fictional Hainish Universe, and “The Rule of Names” and “The Word of Unbinding”, which introduced the world of Earthsea.

Rocannon’s World, Le Guin’s first published novel was released in 1966. Followed by, Planet of Exile and City of Illusions these became known as the Hainish Trilogy and contained many themes and ideas also present in Le Guin’s later works, including the “archetypal journey”, cultural contact and communication, the search for identity, and reconciling opposing forces. Le Guin’s next two books brought her sudden and widespread critical acclaim. A Wizard of Earthsea, published in 1968, was a fantasy coming of age story set in the fictional archipelago of Earthsea, the book received a positive reception in both the US and Britain

Her next novel, The Left Hand of Darkness, was a Hainish Universe story exploring themes of gender and sexuality on a fictional planet where humans have no fixed sex. it won both the Hugo and the Nebula Awards for best novel, making Le Guin the first woman to win these awards, and a number of other accolade. A Wizard of Earthsea and The Left Hand of Darkness were described by critic Harold Bloom as Le Guin’s masterpieces. She won the Hugo Award again in 1973 for The Word for World is Forest. Between 1966 and 1974, Le Guin also wrote the Hugo Award-winning “The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas” and the Nebula Award-winning “The Day Before the Revolution”, the next two novels in the Earthsea series, The Tombs of Atuan and The Farthest Shore, were published in 1971 and 1972. Her next novel The Dispossessed, was published in 1974 and took place in the Hainish Universe and explored anarchism and utopianism. This won both the Hugo and the Nebula awards for best novel, making her the first person to win both for the same two books.

However Le Guin refused a Nebula Award for her story “The Diary of the Rose” in 1975, in protest at the Science Fiction Writers of America’s revocation of Stanisław Lem’s membership. Le Guin attributed the revocation to Lem’s criticism of American science fiction and willingness to live in the Soviet Union, and said she felt reluctant to receive an award “for a story about political intolerance from a group that had just displayed political intolerance”.

Next Le Guin published the speculative fiction collection The Wind’s Twelve Quarters, the novels The Eye of the Heron, Orsinian Tales, Malafrena and Far Away from Anywhere Else, a realistic novel for adolescents, in 1979 she released a collection of essays entitled The Language of the Night and a volume of poetry entitled Wild Angels. Between 1979, and 1994, Le Guin wrote primarily for a younger audience releasing an adolescent fantasy novel called The Beginning Place, the experimental Always Coming Home together with 11 children’s picture books, between 1979 and 1994. Le Guin also wrote four more poetry collection and another Earthsea novel Tehanu in 1992. In 1983 she delivered a commencement address entitled “A Left-Handed Commencement Address” at Mills College in Oakland, California.

In 1990 Le Guin published – “The Shobies’ Story” containing the story “Coming of Age in Karhide”. She also published Four Ways to Forgiveness, and “Old Music and the Slave Women”, and In 2000 she published The Telling, her final Hainish novel. Several collections and anthologies of Le Guin’s work were also published. A series of her stories from the period 1994–2002 was released in 2002 Including The Birthday of the World and Other Stories, the novella Paradises Lost, the novel Changing Planes and the anthology The Unreal and the Real. In 2008 she published Lavinia, this was based on a character from Virgil’s Aeneid and the Annals of the Western Shore trilogy, consisting of Gifts, Voices and Powers which received the Nebula Award for Best Novel in 2009.

Le Guin’s final publication, was a collection of non-fiction, titled Dreams Must Explain Themselves. Le Guin also resigned from the Authors Guild in protest over its endorsement of Google’s book digitization project. “You decided to deal with the devil”, she wrote in her resignation letter. “There are principles involved, above all the whole concept of copyright; and these you have seen fit to abandon to a corporation, on their terms, without a struggle. In a speech at the 2014 National Book Awards, Le Guin criticized Amazon and the control it exerted over the publishing industry, specifically referencing Amazon’s treatment of the Hachette Book Group during a dispute over ebook publication. Sadly. Le Guin died on January 22, 2018, at her home in Portland, Oregon at the age of 88 having been in poor health She was survived by her husband Charles and her three children. Private memorial services for her were held in Portland and A public memorial service, which included speeches by Margaret Atwood, Molly Gloss, and Walidah Imarisha, was held in Portland in June 2018.

The Fallen by David Baldacci

would like to read The Fallen by David Baldacci, the latest man exciting police thriller featuring FBI Agent and “Memory Man” Amos Decker a unique special agent with the gift of a remarkable memory, and his colleague Alex Jamison. This time they are in Baronville, Pennsylvania, visiting Alex’s sister and her family. It’s a bleak place: a dying former mill and mining town in the Rust Belt with a crumbling economy and rampant opioid addiction. Decker has only been there a few hours when he stumbles on a horrific double murder scene. Then the next killing hits sickeningly close to home. Something sinister is going on in Baronville. The rust belt town has seen four increasingly bizarre murders in the space of two weeks. Cryptic clues left at the scenes–obscure bible verses, odd symbols–have the police stumped.

Then the next killing hits sickeningly close to home. And with the lives of people he cares about suddenly hanging in the balance, Decker begins to realize that the recent string of deaths may be only one small piece of a much larger scheme which could reach far beyond Baronville. So he embarks on a High stakes investigation, however one mistake could cost him everything, and Decker finds that his previously infallible memory may not be so trustworthy after all.

Steve Adler (Guns’n’Roses🌹

American Musician Steven Adler (born Michael Coletti; was born January 22, 1965. He is best known as the former drummer and co-songwriter of the hard rock band Guns N’ Roses, In June 1985, Adler joined Guns N’ Roses, which was newly founded by Axl Rose, Izzy Stradlin, and several members of L.A. Guns. His former Road Crew band mates Slash and Duff McKagan completed the line-up. They played nightclubs—such as the Whisky a Go Go, The Roxy, and The Troubadour throughout 1985 and 1986. Then In July 1987, Guns N’ Roses released its debut album, Appetite for Destruction, Which became the best-selling debut album of all time in the US. In December, during a tour with Alice Cooper, an intoxicated Adler broke his hand when he punched a streetlight after a barroom brawl; Fred Coury of Cinderella was brought in as his substitute for several shows until he recovered. In November 1988, Guns N’ Roses released G N’ R Lies,

Adler was again absent at the American Music Awards in January 1989; Don Henley filled in for him on drums. It emerged that Adler had been in a drug rehabilitation program at the time.The following October, during a show as opening act for the Rolling Stones, Axl Rose threatened to leave the band if certain members of the band didn’t stop using drugs. Adler was among those who promised to clean up, but he continued to struggle with his addiction and was fired in 1990, but reinstated. However his addiction prevented him from performing and he was formally sacked from Guns N’ Roses on July 11, 1990 and played his final show with the band on April 7 at Farm Aid IV and was replaced by Matt Sorum

Following his departure from Guns’n’Roses he reformed his old band Road Crew with a new line-up, consisting of former Vain members singer Davy Vain, guitarist Jamie Scott, and bassist Ashley Mitchell, along with guitarist Shawn Rorie. Then In June 1998, Adler joined the newly reformed hard rock band BulletBoys, along with future Guns N’ Roses guitarist DJ Ashba. The group recorded an album and announced a US summer tour with Faster Pussycat, Bang Tango and Enuff Z’nuff. However Adler was found guilty of two counts of battery stemming from attacks on two other women in separate domestic violence incidents and was sentenced to a 150-day term in prison and three years’ probation, with the condition of undergoing a year of domestic violence counseling and a ban on using illegal drugs. He subsequently appeared on the second and fifth seasons of the reality TV show Celebrity Rehab with Dr. Drew, as well as on the first season of its spin-off Sober House.

Then In June 1998, Adler joined the newly reformed hard rock band BulletBoys, along with future Guns N’ Roses guitarist DJ Ashba. The group recorded an album and announced a US summer tour with Faster Pussycat, Bang Tango and Enuff Z’nuff. However Adler was found guilty of two counts of battery stemming from attacks on two other women in separate domestic violence incidents and was sentenced to a 150-day term in prison and three years’ probation, with the condition of undergoing a year of domestic violence counseling and a ban on using illegal drugs.

In 2003, Adler formed the band Suki Jones, later renamed Adler’s Appetite, with singer Jizzy Pearl, former Slash’s Snakepit guitarist Keri Kelli, Faster Pussycat guitarist Brent Muscat, and former Ratt bassist Robbie Crane, playing songs by Guns N’ Roses, Aerosmith, Led Zeppelin, and Queen. They also performed a show at the Key Club in Hollywood, and were joined by Adler’s former Guns N’ Roses band mates Slash and Izzy Stradlin, for renditions of “Mr. Brownstone”, “Paradise City”, and “Knockin’ on Heaven’s Door”. In January 2005, Adler’s Appetite—minus Brent Muscat, released a self-titled EP, which featured four original songs and the covers “Hollywood” by Thin Lizzy and “Draw the Line” by Aerosmith.

In 2007, the group played another show at the Key Club, to celebrate the 20th anniversary of Appetite for Destruction, and were joined by former Guns N’ Roses members Izzy Stradlin and Duff McKagan. In 2008, Adler participated in the reality TV show Celebrity Rehab with Dr. Drew and also participated in the spinoff Sober House and became so aggressive towards his cast mates that he was arrested at the Sober House premises and was convicted of being under the influence of a controlled substance and sentenced to community service. The following January, he was arrested again for failure to complete his community service. In 2010, Adler collaborated with his former Guns N’ Roses band mate Slash on the latter’s self-titled debut solo album, He appeared on the track “Baby Can’t Drive”, along with Red Hot Chili Peppers bassist Flea, Alice Cooper, and Nicole Scherzinger. In July, Adler’s Appetite—consisting of Adler, singer Rick Stitch, guitarists Michael Thomas and Alex Grossi, and bassist Chip Z’nuff—released the single “Alive”, in conjunction with the release of Adler’s autobiography My Appetite for Destruction: Sex, and Drugs, and Guns N’ Roses. The band released the singles “Stardog” and “Fading”. During 2011, following another relapse, Adler participated in the fifth season of Celebrity Rehab with Dr. Drew.

He also formed a new band, called Adler, with guitarist Lonny Paul, who had been a member of Adler’s Appetite prior to the breakup, singer-guitarist Jacob Bunton of Lynam and formerly of Mars Electric and former L.A. Guns member Johnny Martin on bass with Adler himself on Drums. The band’s debut album Titled Back from the Dead, also features guest appearances from Slash and John 5. On April 14, 2012, Adler was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the classic lineup of Guns N’ Roses. He headlined the induction ceremony with fellow inductees Slash, Duff McKagan, and Matt Sorum, as well as former member Gilby Clarke and Slash’s collaborator Myles Kennedy.

Steve Perry (Journey)

American  singer and songwriter Stephen Ray “Steve” Perry was born on this day January 22, in 1949. He is best known as the lead vocalist of the rock band Journey from 1977–1987 and 1995–1998. Perry also had a successful solo career throughout the late 1980s and early ’90s. Perry’s voice has garnered acclaim from musical peers and music publications. Queen’s Brian May described Perry as “a truly luminous singer, in my opinion — a voice in a million”; producer and American Idol judge Randy Jackson opined that “Other than Robert Plant, there’s no singer in rock that even came close to Steve Perry”. Perry was ranked #76th in “The 100 Greatest Singers of All-Time” by Rolling Stone, who lauded his “technical skills, pure tone and passionate sincerity.”

JOURNEY GREATEST HITS http://youtu.be/QzGrAoMA4s4

Perry grew up interested in music, as his father, Ray Perry, was a vocalist. When Perry was twelve years old, he heard Sam Cooke’s song “Cupid” on his mother’s car radio and This inspired Perry to become a singer. During Perry’s teen years he spent his time drumming in the marching band as well as in extracurricular bands. He attended College of the Sequoias, for a short time after graduation, where he took first tenor in the choir there. Perry’s mother encouraged his musical growth during this time. Perry fronted the band Alien Project in his mid-twenties, but nearly gave up music when the bassist of that band, Richard Michaels, was killed in an automobile accident. Perry decided not to continue his singing career, but at the urging of his mother, Perry answered a call from Walter “Herbie” Herbert, manager of the struggling San Francisco-based band, Journey.

Herbert had been given a demo of an Alien Project song, “If You Need Me, Call Me,” and was told that the young singer would be a great replacement for Journey’s current frontman, Robert Fleischman. Perry brought a completely new pop sound to the band’s music, despite grumblings from his new bandmates and fans of Journey’s former progressive rock sound. He made his public debut on October 28, 1977 in San Francisco, and received a mixed reception, but as Journey began to garner more radio airplay and media buzz over Infinity, Perry’s arrival was accepted. He went on to provide lead vocals on nine of Journey’s albums: Infinity (1978), Evolution (1979), Departure (1980), Dream, After Dream (1980, a Japanese movie soundtrack), Captured (1980, a live album), Escape (1981, which went to #1 on the Billboard charts), Frontiers (1983), Raised on Radio (1986), and Trial By Fire (1996). The single “Open Arms,” from Escape, was their biggest hit single, residing for six weeks at #2 on the Billboard Hot 100. Perry was the unmistakable voice of Journey throughout his time with the band. and in 2010 he was awarded the title of “greatest rock singer” in WROQ’s 2010 March Bracket Brawl for the greatest rock singer.

Lord Byron FRS

English poet George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, later George Gordon Noel, 6th Baron Byron, FRS was born 22 January 1788. When Byron’s great-uncle, the “wicked” Lord Byron, died on 21 May 1798, the 10-year-old boy became the 6th Baron Byron of Rochdale and inherited the ancestral home, Newstead Abbey, in Nottinghamshire and leased it to Lord Grey de Ruthyn, among others, during Byron’s adolescence. Described as “a woman without judgment or self-command”, Catherine either spoiled and indulged her son or aggravated him with her capricious stubbornness. Her drinking disgusted him, and he often mocked her for being short and corpulent”. Upon the death of Byron’s mother-in-law Judith Noel, the Hon. Lady Milbanke, in 1822, he changed his surname to “Noel” in order to inherit half of her estate And obtained a Royal Warrant. Byron received his early formal education at Aberdeen Grammar School, and in August 1799 entered the school of Dr. William Glennie, in Dulwich.

Unfortunately His mother interfered with his studies, often withdrawing him from school, with the result that he lacked discipline and his classical studies were neglected. From 1801 until 1805 he attended Harrow. Byron fell in love with Mary Chaworth, whom he met while at school, and refused to return to Harrow in September 1803. Byron finally returned in January 1804, and became friends with John FitzGibbon, 2nd Earl of Clare — four years Byron’s junior. He later wrote nostalgic poems about his Harrow friendships, Childish Recollections(1806). He later attended Trinity College, Cambridge. where he met and formed a close friendship with the younger John Edleston, John Cam Hobhouse and Francis Hodgson, a Fellow at King’s College.

While not at school or college, Byron lived with his mother in Southwell, Nottinghamshire and became friends with Elizabeth Pigot and her brother, John, with whom he staged two plays for the entertainment of the community. His first volumes of poetry. Fugitive Pieces was printed by Ridge of Newark, which contained poems written when Byron was only 14. However, it was promptly recalled and burned on the advice of his friend, the Reverend Thomas Beecher, on account of its more amorous verses, particularly the poem To Mary. His next collection of Poems Hours of Idleness, was followed by his first major satire, English Bards and Scotch Reviewers (1809). Which upset many of his critics who challenged Byron to a duel; however over time, in subsequent editions it became a mark of prestige to be the target of Byron’s pen. After returning from his travels, he published the poem Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, in 1812. He followed up with the poem’s last two cantos, “Oriental Tales”: The Giaour, The Bride of Abydos, The Corsair and Lara.

Byron racked up numerous debts as a young man, and had a “reckless disregard for money” And from 1809 to 1811, Byron went on the Grand Tour, then customary for a young nobleman. The Napoleonic Wars forced him to avoid most of Europe, and he instead turned to the Mediterranean. He had read about the Ottoman and Persian lands as a child, was attracted to Islam (especially Sufi mysticism). He travelled from England over Portugal, Spain and the Mediterranean to Albania and spent time at the court of Ali Pasha of Ioannina, and in Athens with his friend John Cam Hobhouse. When visiting Portugal Byron particularly enjoyed his stay in Sintra that is described in Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage as “glorious Eden”. From Lisbon he travelled overland to Seville, Jerez de la Frontera, Cadiz, Gibraltar and from there by sea on to Malta and Greece.While in Athens, Byron met 14-year-old Nicolò Giraud and taught him Italian Before sending him to school at a monastery in Malta. Whilst in Athens Byron wroteMaid of Athens. Byron made his way to Smyrna, where he and Hobhouse cadged a ride to Constantinople on HMSSalsette. Then went to Malta and returned to England from Malta in June 1813 aboard HMS Volage

Byron again left England, Travelling through Belgium up the Rhine River, Settling at the Villa Diodati by Lake Geneva, Switzerland, with his personal physician, the young, brilliant, and handsome John William Polidori. There Byron befriended the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, and Shelley’s future wife Mary Godwin. He was also joined by Mary’s stepsister,Claire Clairmont. Kept indoors at the Villa Diodati by the “incessant rain over three days in June, the five turned to reading fantastical stories, including Fantasmagoriana, and then devising their own tales. Mary Shelley produced what would become Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus, and Polidori was inspired by a fragmentary story of Byron’s, Fragment of a Novel, to produce The Vampyre, the progenitor of the romantic vampire genre. Byron’s story fragment was published as a postscript to Mazeppa; he also wrote the third canto of Childe Harold. Whilst in Venice Byron fell in love with Marianna Segati, and 22-year-old Margarita Cogni; both married women.Cogni could not read or write, and she left her husband to move into Byron’s Venice house.Their fighting often caused Byron to spend the night in his gondola; when he asked her to leave the house, she threw herself into the Venetian canal.Ultimately, Byron resolved to escape the disapproval of British society of his living arrangements by living abroad, and did not return for the last eight years of his life.

In 1816, Byron visited San Lazzaro degli Armeni in Venice, and studied Armenian culture with the help of the abbots belonging to the Mechitarist Order. With the help of Father H. Avgerian, he learned the Armenian language And attended many seminars about language and history. He wrote English Grammar and Armenian(Kerakanutyun angğiakan yev hayeren) in 1817, and Armenian Grammar and English(Kerakanutyun hayeren yev angğiakan) in 1819, including quotations fromclassical and modern Armenian. Byron also participated in the compilation of the English Armenian dictionary (Barraran angghieren yev hayeren, 1821) and wrote the preface in which he explained the relationship of the Armenians with and the oppression of the Turkish “pashas” and the Persian satraps, and their struggle of liberation. His two main translations are the Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians, two chapters of Movses Khorenatsi’s History of Armenia and sections of Nerses of Lambron’s Orations. He studied the legend of Armenian patriarch Haik and his ideological courage has inspired many Armenian poets, the likes of Ghevond Alishan, Smbat Shahaziz, Hovhannes Tumanyan, Ruben Vorberian and others. In 1817, he journeyed to Rome. On returning to Venice, he wrote the fourth canto of Childe Harold and published Manfred, Cain and The Deformed Transformed. The first five cantos of Don Juan were written between 1818 and 1820, during which he eloped with Countess Guiccioli, and later married her. Between 1819 and 1821 Lord Byron lived in Ravenna where he continued the Don Juan and wrote the Ravenna Diary, My Dictionary and Recollections. From 1821 to 1822, he finished Cantos 6–12 of Don Juan at Pisa, and published a newspaper called “The Liberal” with Leigh Hunt and Percy Bysshe Shelley.

Byron started giving dinner parties; his guests included the Shelleys, Edward Ellerker Williams, Thomas Medwin, John Taaffe and Edward John Trelawney; and “never”, as Shelley said, “did he display himself to more advantage than on these occasions; being at once polite and cordial, full of social hilarity and the most perfect good humour; never diverging into ungraceful merriment, and yet keeping up the spirit of liveliness throughout the evening.”Shelley and Williams rented a house on the coast and had a schooner built. Byron decided to have his own yacht, and engaged Trelawny’s friend, Captain Daniel Roberts, to design and construct the boat. Named the Bolivar, it was later sold to Charles John Gardiner, 1st Earl of Blessington, and Marguerite, Countess of Blessington, when Byron left for Greece in 1823. Byron attended the funeral of Shelley, which was orchestrated by Trelawny after Williams and Shelley drowned in a boating accident on 8 July 1822. His last Italian home was Genoa, where he was still accompanied by the Countess Guiccioli, however, in 1823, while growing bored with his life there, he accepted overtures for his support from representatives of the movement for Greek independence from theOttoman Empire.With the assistance of his banker and Captain Daniel Roberts, Byron chartered the Brig Hercules to take him to Greece. On 16 July, Byron left Genoa arriving atKefalonia on 4 August.

Byron chartered the Hercules And Between 1815 and 1823 the vessel was in service between England and Canada. Suddenly in 1823, the ship’s Captain decided to sail to Genoa and offer the Hercules for charter. After taking Byron to Greece, the ship returned to England, never again to venture into the Mediterranean. “The Hercules ran aground on 21 September 1852, aground near Hartlepool, only 25 miles south of Sunderland, where in 1815, her keel was laid.”Byron spent £4000 of his own money to refit the Greek fleet, then sailed for Missolonghi in western Greece, arriving on 29 December, to join Alexandros Mavrokordatos, a Greek politician with military power.When the famous Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen heard about Byron’s heroics in Greece, he voluntarily resculpted his earlier bust of Byron in Greek marble. Mavrokordatos and Byron planned to attack the Turkish-held fortress of Lepanto, at the mouth of the Gulf of Corinth. Byron employed a fire-master to prepare artillery and took part of the rebel army under his own command, despite his lack of military experience, but before the expedition could sail, on 15 February 1824, he fell ill, and the usual remedy of bloodletting weakened him further.He made a partial recovery, but in early April he caught a violent cold which therapeutic bleeding, insisted on by his doctors, aggravated. It is suspected this treatment, carried out with unsterilised medical instrumentation, may have caused him to develop sepsis. He developed a violent fever, and died on 19 April 1824.

Had Byron lived and gone on to defeat the Ottomans, he might have been declared King of Greece. Greeks mourned Lord Byron deeply, and he became a hero.The national poet of Greece, Dionysios Solomos, wrote a poem about the unexpected loss, named To the Death of Lord Byron. He is buried at the Church of St. Mary Magdalene in Hucknall, Nottinghamshire. At her request, Ada Lovelace, the child he never knew, was buried next to him. There is a duplicate of a marble slab given by the King of Greece, which is laid directly above Byron’s grave. Trinity College, Cambridge, have a statue of Byron in its library. In 1969, 145 years after Byron’s death, a memorial to him was finally placed in Westminster Abbey And On a very central area of Athens, Greece, outside the National Garden, is a statue depicting Greece in the form of a woman crowning Byron. The statue was made by the French Henri-Michel Chapu and Alexandre Falguière. Upon his death, the barony passed to Byron’s cousin George Anson Byron, a career naval officer.

Sam Cooke

The late, great American gospel, R&B, soul, and pop singer, songwriter, and entrepreneur Sam Cooke was born January 22 1931 in Clarksdale Mississsippi United States. The family moved to Chicago in 1933. Cooke attended Doolittle Elementary and Wendell Phillips Academy High School in Chicago, the same school that Nat “King” Cole had attended a few years earlier. Sam Cooke began his career with his siblings in a group called the Singing Children when he was six years old. He first became known as lead singer with the Highway QC’s when he was a teenager, having joined the group at the age of 14. During this time, Cooke befriended fellow gospel singer and neighbor Lou Rawls, who sang in a rival gospel group.

In 1950, Cooke replaced gospel tenor R. H. Harris as lead singer of the gospel group the Soul Stirrers, founded by Harris, who had signed with Specialty Records on behalf of the group. Their first recording under Cooke’s leadership was the song “Jesus Gave Me Water” in 1951. They also recorded the gospel songs “Peace in the Valley”, “How Far Am I from Canaan?”, “Jesus Paid the Debt” and “One More River”, among many others, some of which he wrote. Cooke was often credited for bringing gospel music to the attention of a younger crowd of listeners, mainly girls who would rush to the stage when the Soul Stirrers hit the stage just to get a glimpse of Cooke.

His first pop/soul single was “Lovable” (1956), a remake of the gospel song “Wonderful”. It was released under the alias “Dale Cook” in order not to alienate his gospel fan base; there was a considerable stigma against gospel singers performing secular music. Art Rupe, head of Specialty Records, the label of the Soul Stirrers, gave his blessing for Cooke to record secular music under his real name, but he was unhappy about the type of music Cooke and producer Bumps Blackwell were making. Rupe expected Cooke’s secular music to be similar to that of another Specialty Records artist, Little Richard. When Rupe walked in on a recording session and heard Cooke covering Gershwin, he was quite upset. After an argument between Rupe and Blackwell, Cooke and Blackwell left the label. In 1957, Cooke appeared on ABC’s The Guy Mitchell Show. His first hit, “You Send Me,” released as the B-side of “Summertime,”

In 1961, Cooke started his own record label, SAR Records, with J. W. Alexander and his manager, Roy Crain. The label soon included the Simms Twins, the Valentinos (who were Bobby Womack and his brothers), Bobby Womack and Johnnie Taylor. Cooke then created a publishing imprint and management firm named Kags before leaving Keen to sign with RCA Victor. Singles released by Cooke included “Chain Gang”, “Sad Mood”,”Cupid”,”Bring it on Home to Me” (with Lou Rawls on backing vocals), “Another Saturday Night”, and “Twistin’ the Night Away”. In 1963 Cooke signed a five-year contract for Allen Klein to manage Kags Music and SAR Records and made him his manager. Klein negotiated a five-year deal (three years plus two option years) with RCA in which a holding company, Tracey, Ltd, named after Cooke’s daughter, owned by Klein and managed by J. W. Alexander, would produce and own Cooke’s recordings. RCA would get exclusive distribution rights in exchange for 6 percent royalty payments and payments for the recording sessions. Like most R&B artists of his time, Cooke focused on singles. Cooke was a prolific song writer and wrote most of the songs he recorderded which included 29 top 40 hits on the pop charts and more on the R&B charts. He also had a hand in overseeing some of the song arrangements. In spite of releasing mostly singles, he released a well-received blues-inflected LP in 1963, Night Beat, and his most critically acclaimed studio album, Ain’t That Good News, which featured five singles, in 1964.

Cooke is considered to be one of the pioneers and founders of soul music and is sometimes referred to as the King of Soul for his distinctive vocal abilities and influence on the modern world of music. His contribution in pioneering soul music led to the rise of Aretha Franklin, Bobby Womack, Al Green, Curtis Mayfield, Stevie Wonder, Marvin Gaye, and popularized the likes of Otis Redding and James Brown. Cooke had 30 U.S. top 40 hits between 1957 and 1964, and a further three after his death. Major hits like “You Send Me”, “A Change Is Gonna Come”, “Cupid”, “Chain Gang”, “Wonderful World”, and “Twistin’ the Night Away” are some of his most popular songs. Cooke was also among the first modern black performers and composers to attend to the business side of his musical career. He founded both a record label and a publishing company as an extension of his careers as a singer and composer. He also took an active part in the American Civil Rights Movement.

Unfortunately Sam Cooke was fatally shot on 11 December 1964 by the manager of the Hacienda Motel in Los Angeles, California, at the age of 33. At the time, the courts ruled that Cooke was drunk and distressed, and that the manager had killed Cooke in what was later ruled a justifiable homicide. The first funeral service for Cooke was held on December 18, 1964, at A. R. Leak Funeral Home in Chicago; 200,000 fans lined up for more than four city blocks to view his body. Afterward, his body was flown back to Los Angeles for a second service, at the Mount Sinai Baptist Church on December 19, which included a much-heralded performance of “The Angels Keep Watching Over Me” by Ray Charles, who stood in for grief-stricken Bessie Griffin. Cooke was interred in the Garden of Honor, Lot 5728, Space 1, at Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California.

Two singles and an album were released in the month after his death. One of the singles, “Shake”, reached the top ten of both the pop and R&B charts. The B-side, “A Change Is Gonna Come”, is considered a classic protest song from the era of the Civil Rights Movement .It was a top 40 pop hit and a top 10 R&B hit. The album, also titled Shake, reached the number one spot for R&B albums. After Cooke’s death, his widow, Barbara, married Bobby Womack. Cooke’s daughter, Linda, later married Womack’s brother, Cecil.

Bertha Franklin said she received numerous death threats after shooting Cooke. She left her position at the Hacienda Motel and did not publicly disclose where she had moved. After being cleared by the coroner’s jury, she sued Cooke’s estate, citing physical injuries and mental anguish suffered as a result of Cooke’s attack. Barbara Womack countersued Franklin on behalf of the estate, seeking $7,000 in damages to cover Cooke’s funeral expenses. Elisa Boyer provided testimony in support of Franklin in the case. In 1967, a jury ruled in favor of Franklin on both counts, awarding her $30,000 in damages.

Since his tragic death cooke has received many posthumous honours; In 1986, Cooke was inducted as a charter member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. In 1986, funk supergroup Cameo performed a concert in Los Angeles to commemorate what would have been Cooke’s 55th birthday. The performance consisted of Sam Cooke hits and Cameo originals with lyrical changes to honor the singer. The performance closed with a mash-up of Cooke’s “Twistin’ the Night Away” and Cameo’s “Word Up” and the band leading the audience in singing Happy Birthday to Cooke. In 1987, Cooke was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame and in 1994, Cooke received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contributions to the music industry, located on 7051 Hollywood Boulevard. In 1999, Cooke was honored with the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, and in 2004, Rolling Stone ranked him 16th on its list of the “100 Greatest Artists of All Time” and In 2008, Cooke was named the fourth “Greatest Singer of All Time” by Rolling Stone. In 2011 A portion of East 36th Street near Cottage Grove Avenue in Chicago, was renamed “Sam Cooke Way” near a corner where he hung out and sang as a teenager. In 2013 Cooke was inducted into the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame in Cleveland, Ohio, at Cleveland State University. The founder of the Rhythm & Blues Music Hall of Fame Museum, LaMont Robinson, said he was the greatest singer ever to sing. The Rhythm & Blues Music Hall of Fame Museum will be built in Cooke’s hometown of Clarksdale, MS.