Doctor Who The Seeds of Death

The first part of the Doctor who story the Seeds of Death was broadcast 25 January 1969. It features the Second Doctor (Patrick Troughton) and his travelling companions Jamie McCrimmon (Frazer Hines) and Zoe Heriot (Wendy Padbury), along with the technicians Gia Kelly (Louise Pajo) and Phipps (Christopher Coll). It takes place during the end of the 21st century where a teleportation technology called “T-Mat” has replaced all traditional forms of transport, allowing people and objects to travel instantly anywhere on Earth. Manned space exploration has ceased.

The Doctor, Jamie McCrimmon and Zoe Herriot arrive in a museum on Earth run by Professor Daniel Eldred dedicated to the obsolete technology of rocket. Then, the T-Mat system on the Moon malfunctions and With communications out, and no way to reach the Moon without T-Mat, Commander Radnor and his assistant Gia Kelly, enlist the help of Professor Eldred who has been privately building a rocket in hopes of re-igniting interest in space travel, the Doctor and his companions volunteer to crew the rocket.

They discover to their horror that The relay station on the moon has been invaded by Ice Warriors from Mars who plan to use it as a staging point for an invasion of Earth. Phipps Fewsham and Miss Kelly all find themselves in grave danger as the technicians valiantly attempt to fight the alien invaders. When the Doctor and his companions arrive on the moon they discover the situation and make contact with Phipps, who has evaded the invaders and is hiding in the moonbase. The Doctor encounters the Ice Warriors leader Commander Slaar and learns that the Ice Warriors have a deadly plan: to terraform Earth using the T-mat, by introducing a fungus to which they have adapted but which will make the atmosphere uninhabitable for humans. one seed is sent to Earth Control which kills a technician and alerts Radnor and Eldred of the danger. Seeds are also sent to Other T-Mat terminals across the world. The Ice Warriors also dispatch a small advance force to seize Earth’s weather control systems in London

Back on the moon Miss Kelly, Phipps, Zoe and Jamie unsuccessfully try to stop the Ice Warriors as they plan the next stage of their invasion. Meanwhile most people flee the moonbase. Back at T-Mat control on Earth, the Doctor makes an important discovery concerning the Seed pods and also discovers the Ice Warriors whereabouts So The Doctor and his companions set about stopping him. Meanwhile Fewsham discovers more about the main Ice Warrior invasion force. Then The Doctor returns to the Moon and confronts Slaar in an attempt to stop the Ice Warriors fleet from invading Earth

The Ark in Space

The Doctor Who story “The Ark in Space was first broadcast 25 January 1975. It begins when The TARDIS materialises on an aged space station. While Harry and the Fourth Doctor explore, Sarah mysteriously vanishes and finds herself placed into cryonic suspension. Harry and the Doctor explore and realise the station is a kind of ark. Discovering Sarah, Harry searches for a resuscitation unit but discovers a mummified alien insect instead, which is called a Wirrn. A woman called Vira is revived from suspended animation. Vira revives both Sarah and Noah, Space Station Nerva’s leader. The Doctor tells Vira that Nerva’s inhabitants have overslept by several millennia, and the station have an unwelcome alien insect infestation.

Noah investigates the power room and is unfortunately infected by an alien insect creature lurking in the darkenss. The Doctor realises the alien insect laid eggs inside the missing crewman, and they all met a grisly fate and now the Wirrn plan to lay eggs inside th rest of the people aboard the ark

So Noah orders Vira to revive the remaining crew and evacuate, however the Doctor suggests a different strategy and tries to reactivate the stations power. Unfortunately Noah begins to metamorphose into a Wirrn and the Doctor discovers that the Wirrm have a sinister plan regarding all the other humans aboard Space Station Nerva. So the Doctor tries to thwart the WyrrnS villainous scheme concerning the human crew. A transport ship docked with Spacestation Nerva provides a potential means of escape, however Noah and the Wyrrn Swarm attack the Transport Ship and manage to board it with explosive results…..

Fluoride Day

Fluoride day takes place annually on 25 January. Fluoride is an inorganic, monatomic anion with the chemical formula F− whose salts are typically white or colorless. Fluoride salts typically have distinctive bitter tastes, and are odorless. Its salts and minerals are important chemical reagents and industrial chemicals, mainly used in the production of hydrogen fluoride for fluorocarbons. Fluoride is classified as a weak base since it only partially associates in solution, but concentrated fluoride is corrosive and can attack the skin. Fluoride is the simplest fluorine anion. In terms of charge and size, the fluoride ion resembles the hydroxide ion. Fluoride ions occur on earth in several minerals, particularly fluorite, but are present only in trace quantities in bodies of water in nature. Fluorides include compounds that contain both ionic fluoride and those where fluoride does not dissociate. The nomenclature does not distinguish these situations. For example, sulfur hexafluoride and carbon tetrafluoride are not sources of fluoride ions under ordinary conditions.

The systematic name fluoride, the valid IUPAC name, is determined according to the additive nomenclature. However, the name fluoride is also used in compositional IUPAC nomenclature which does not take the nature of bonding involved into account. Fluoride is also used non-systematically, to describe compounds which release fluoride upon dissolving. Hydrogen fluoride is itself an example of a non-systematic name of this nature. However, it is also a trivial name, and the preferred IUPAC name for fluorane. Fluorine is estimated to be the 13th most abundant element in the earth’s crust and is widely dispersed in nature, almost entirely in the form of fluorides. Many minerals are known, but of paramount commercial importance is fluorite (CaF2), which is roughly 49% fluoride by mass. The soft, colorful mineral is found worldwide. Fluoride is also naturally present at low concentration in most fresh and saltwater sources and may also be present in rainwater. Seawater fluoride levels are usually in the range of 0.86 to 1.4 mg/L, and average 1.1 mg/L (milligrams per litre). For comparison, chloride concentration in seawater is about 19 g/L. The low concentration of fluoride reflects the insolubility of the alkaline earth fluorides, e.g., CaF2.

Salts containing fluoride are numerous and adopt myriad structures. Typically the fluoride anion is surrounded by four or six cations, as is typical for other halides. Sodium fluoride and sodium chloride adopt the same structure. For compounds containing more than one fluoride per cation, the structures often deviate from those of the chlorides, as illustrated by the main fluoride mineral fluorite (CaF2) where the Ca2+ ions are surrounded by eight F− centers. In CaCl2, each Ca2+ ion is surrounded by six Cl− centers. The difluorides of the transition metals often adopt the rutile structure whereas the dichlorides have cadmium chloride structures. Upon treatment with a standard acid, fluoride salts convert to hydrogen fluoride and metal salts. With strong acids, it can be doubly protonated to give H2F. Oxidation of fluoride gives fluorine. Solutions of inorganic fluorides in water contain F− and bifluoride HF−2. Few inorganic fluorides are soluble in water without undergoing significant hydrolysis. In terms of its reactivity, fluoride differs significantly from chloride and other halides, and is more strongly solvated in protic solvents due to its smaller radius/charge ratio. Its closest chemical relative is hydroxide, since both have similar geometries. When relatively unsolvated, for example in nonprotic solvents, fluoride anions are called “naked”.

Naked fluoride is a very strong Lewis base, and reacts with Lewis acids, forming strong adducts. Naked fluoride salts have been prepared as tetramethylammonium fluoride, tetramethylphosphonium fluoride, and tetrabutylammonium fluoride. Many so-called naked fluoride sources are in fact bifluoride salts. In late 2016 a new type of imidazolium fluoride was synthesized that is termodynamically stable example of a “naked” fluoride source in acetonitrile and its reactivity shows significant potential. At physiological pHs, hydrogen fluoride is usually fully ionised to fluoride. In biochemistry, fluoride and hydrogen fluoride are equivalent. Fluorine, in the form of fluoride, is considered to be a micronutrient for human health, necessary to prevent dental cavities, and to promote healthy bone growth. The tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.) is a known accumulator of fluorine compounds, released upon forming infusions such as the common beverage. The fluorine compounds decompose into products including fluoride ions. Fluoride is the most bioavailable form of fluorine, and as such, tea is potentially a vehicle for fluoride dosing.

Approximately, 50% of absorbed fluoride is excreted renally with a twenty-four-hour period. The remainder can be retained in the oral cavity, and lower digestive tract. Fasting dramatically increases the rate of fluoride absorption to near 100%, from a 60% to 80% when taken with food. A 2013 study, discovered that consumption of one litre of tea a day, can potentially supply the daily recommended intake of 4 mg per day. Some lower quality brands can supply up to a 120% of this amount. Fasting can increase this to 150%. The study indicates that tea drinking communities are at an increased risk of dental and skeletal fluorosis, in the case where water fluoridation is in effect. Fluoride ion in low doses in the mouth reduces tooth decay. For this reason, it is used in toothpaste and water fluoridation. However At much higher doses and frequent exposure, fluoride causes health complications and can be toxic.

Fluoride salts and hydrofluoric acid also have industrial value. Compounds with C-F bonds fall into the realm of organofluorine chemistry. The main uses of fluoride, in terms of volume, are in the production of cryolite, Na3AlF6. It is used in aluminium smelting. Formerly, it was mined, but now it is derived from hydrogen fluoride. Fluorite is used on a large scale to separate slag in steel-making. Mined fluorite (CaF2) is a commodity chemical used in steel-making. Hydrofluoric acid and its anhydrous form, hydrogen fluoride, is also used in the production of fluorocarbons. Hydrofluoric acid has a variety of specialized applications, including its ability to dissolve glass.

More Events and National Days occurring 25 January

National Opposite Day
A Room of One’s Own Day
Fluoride Day
Macintosh Computer Day
National Irish Coffee Day

John Hurt CBE

English actor and voice actor Sir John Vincent Hurt, CBE sadly died 25 January 2017. He was born 22 January 1940 in Chesterfield, Derbyshire. In 1937, his family moved and his Father became Perpetual Curate of Holy Trinity Church. When Hurt was five, his father became the vicar of St Stephen’s Church in Woodville, south Derbyshire, until 1952. When he was eight, Hurt was sent to the Anglican St Michael’s Preparatory School in Otford, Kent, where he developed his passion for acting and decided he wanted to become an actor. His first role was that of a girl in a school production of The Bluebird (L’Oiseau Bleu) by Maurice Maeterlinck. In 1952 Hurt’s father moved to Old Clee Church in Grimsby, Lincolnshire, and Hurt became a boarder at Lincoln School in Lincoln. He often went with his mother to Cleethorpes Repertory Theatre, but his parents disliked his acting ambitions and encouraged him to become an art teacher instead. His headmaster, Mr Franklin, also derided his ambitions. Aged 17, Hurt enrolled in Grimsby Art School (now the East Coast School of Art & Design), where he studied art. In 1959, he won a scholarship allowing him to study for an Art Teacher’s Diploma (ATD) at Saint Martin’s School of Art in London and In 1960, he won a scholarship to RADA, where he trained for two years.

Hurt’s first film was The Wild and the Willing, but his first major role was as Richard Rich in A Man for All Seasons. He also played Timothy Evans, who was hanged for murders committed by his landlord John Christie, in 10 Rillington Place earning him his first BAFTA nomination for Best Supporting Actor. His portrayal of Quentin Crisp in the TV play The Naked Civil Servant earned him the British Academy Television Award for Best Actor. Hurt also portrayed Roman emperor Caligula in the BBC drama serial, I, Claudius. In 1978 Hurt appeared in Midnight Express and won a Golden Globe and a BAFTA and was also nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor He also voiced Aragorn in Ralph Bakshi’s animated film adaptation of Lord of the Rings. Hurt then voiced Hazel, the heroic rabbit leader of his warren in the film adaptation of Watership Down and later voiced the villainous, General Woundwort, in the animated television adaptation. In 1980 he portrayed John Merrick in The Elephant Man for which he won another BAFTA and was nominated for a Golden Globe and an Academy Award for Best Actor. In 1979 he memorably portrayed Kane in the film Alien.

He also portrayed art school radical Scrawdyke in Little Malcolm and had a starring role in Sam Peckinpah’s film The Osterman Weekend. He also starred opposite Laurence Olivier’s King in King Lear and appeared as Raskolnikov in a BBC television adaptation of Crime and Punishment. Hurt also portrayed Winston Smith in the film adaptation of George Orwell’s novel Nineteen Eighty-Four and starred in Disney’s The Black Cauldron voicing the Horned King. Hurt provided the voiceover for the AIDS: Iceberg / Tombstone, public information film warning of the dangers of AIDS and also portrayed the on-screen narrator, in Jim Henson’s television series The StoryTeller. Hurt had a supporting role as “Bird” O’Donnell in Jim Sheridan’s film The Field , getting another BAFTA nomination and In 1997 He portrayed reclusive tycoon S.R. Hadden in the film Contact. Hurt also provided narration on the Art of Noise’s concept album The Seduction of Claude Debussy and narrated a four-part TV series The Universe (1999).

In 2001 Hurt portrayed Olivander, the Wand Maker In Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone and returned for Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1 and Part 2. he also played the role of Adam Sutler, leader of the Norsefire fascist dictatorship in the film V for Vendetta and appeared as Harold Oxley in Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. He voiced the Great Dragon Kilgharrah, in the TV series Merlin, who aids the young warlock Merlin as he protects the future king Arthur. In 2009, Hurt reprised the role of Quentin Crisp in An Englishman in New York and also returned to Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four, playing the on-screen Big Brother for a stage adaptation. Hurt won the award for Outstanding British Contribution to Cinema At the 65th British Academy Film Awards. In 2013, Hurt appeared in Doctor Who as a ‘forgotten’ incarnation of the Doctor, known as the War Doctor. In 2015, Hurt provided the voice of the main antagonist Sailor John in the Thomas & Friends film Sodor’s Legend of the Lost Treasure along with Eddie Redmayne and Jamie Campbell Bower. His last movies are That Good Night, in which he plays a terminally ill writer, and Darkest Hour, portraying Neville Chamberlain, opposite Gary Oldman. John Hurt  leaves behind some great films.

Tobe Hooper

Best known for his work in the horror film genre,the American film director, screenwriter, and producer William Tobe Hooper was born January 25, 1943 in Austin, Texas, the son of Lois Belle (née Crosby) and Norman William Ray Hooper, who owned a theater in San Angelo. He first became interested in filmmaking when he used his father’s 8 mm camera at age 9. Hooper took Radio-Television-Film classes at the University of Texas at Austin and studied drama in Dallas under Baruch Lumet. Hooper spent the 1960s as a college professor and documentary cameraman. His first short film The Heisters (1965) almost made it into the short subject category for an Academy Award, but was not finished in time.

He directed The low budget American horror film The Texas Chain Saw Massacre in 1974. It features Sally Hardesty (Marilyn Burns) and her paraplegic brother, Franklin (Paul A. Partain), who travel with three friends, Jerry (Allen Danziger), Kirk (William Vail), and Pam (Teri McMinn), to visit the grave of the Hardestys’ grandfather to investigate reports of vandalism and grave robbing. Afterwards, they decide to visit the old Hardesty family homestead. Along the way, they pick up a hitchhiker (Edwin Neal) who talks about his family who worked at the old slaughterhouse. He then starts causing trouble so The group eject him and drive on. They stop at a gas station to refuel, but the proprietor (Jim Siedow) tells them that the pumps are empty.

When they arrive at the homestead, Franklin tells Kirk and Pam about a local swimming-hole and the couple head off to find it. They find the swimming-hole dried up but hear a generator running in the distance. They stumble upon a nearby house. So Kirk knocks on the door When he receives no answer he enters through the unlocked door, but soon wishes he hadn’t When he meets Leatherface (Gunnar Hansen) and meets a gruesome fate at the hands of Leatherface. Pam enters soon after, looking for Kirk but she also regrets it when she too encounters Leatherface and tries unsuccessfully to escape. After a while Jerry becomes increasingly concerned so heads out to look for Pam and Kirk but he also suffers a grisly fate when he encounters Leatherface. With darkness falling, Sally and Franklin also set out to find their friends however Leatherface confronts Franklin with gruesome results. Luckily Sally initially manages to escape Leatherface and flees to the gas station for help however The proprietor ties her up, gags her and drives her back to the house. The hitchhiker also arrives, and Sally finds herself attending a rather Macabre meal attended by Leatherface, The hitchhiker, Grandpa (John Dugan), and his family who all turn out to be cannibals and Sally faces a a grisly fate at the hands of Leatherface, Grandpa and his family unless she can escape…

Due to the film’s violent content, Hooper struggled so he limited the quantity of onscreen gore in hopes of securing a PG rating, but the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rated it R. Upon its October 1974 release, The Texas Chain Saw Massacre was banned outright in several countries, and numerous theaters later stopped showing the film in response to complaints about its violence. Tobe Hooper later directed The Texas Chainsaw Massacre 2 in 1986. The character of Leatherface and minor plot details were inspired by the crimes of real-life murderer Ed Gein and It is credited with originating several elements common in the slasher genre, including the use of power tools as murder weapons and the characterization of the killer as a large, hulking, faceless figure.

In 1982, Hooper also directed the enjoyable supernatural horror film Poltergeist. This was based on a story by Steven Spielberg who wrote and produced the film but was making E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial at the time and could not direct another movie. Poltergeist features the Freeling family who live a quiet life in Cuesta Verde, Orange County, California where Steven Freeling works as a successful real estate developer while Diane Freeling looks after their children Dana, Robbie, and Carol Anne. However one night Carol Anne begins acting strangely and suddenly the Earth tremors and Carol Anne announces “They’re here”. Bizarre events then start occurring: glasses break, silverware bends and furniture moves of its own accord. The phenomena seem benign at first, but quickly becomes terrifying. That night, a gnarled backyard tree grabs Robbie through the bedroom window. While Steven rescues Robbie, Carol Anne is Taken by sinister supernatural forces.

So A group of parapsychologists from UC Irvine — Dr. Lesh, Ryan, and Marty — come to the Freeling house to investigate and discover that the Freelings are experiencing a poltergeist intrusion involving more than just one ghost. Steven then discovers that Cuesta Verde is built on an ancient Native American cemetery, but rather than relocating the whole cemetary The developers just removed the headstones and left the bodies behind. So Lesh and Ryan call in Tangina Barrons, a spiritual medium to try and sort this paranormal nightmare and she states that Carol Anne has been taken by a demon known as the “Beast”. Tangina then discovers that there is an portal to another dimension through the children’s bedroom closet, while the exit is through the living room ceiling. So the group attempts to rescue Carol Anne,

Unsurprisingly the Freelings decide to move and Steven hands in his notice. Sadly though before they can leave Diane, Robbie, and Carol Anne are once again attacked by the Beast. Robbie is attacked by an inanimate clown figure while Diane is seized by an unseen malevolent force which drags her into the swimming pool and attempts to drown her. Elsewhere coffins, skeletons and rotting corpses begin erupting out from the ground in their yard and throughout the neighborhood as more spirits begin coming through the Portal and all hell breaks loose in Cuesta Verde.

Hooper’s first novel, Midnight Movie, was published on Three Rivers Press in 2011 and the supernatural thriller film Djinn premiered at the 2013 Abu Dhabi Film Festival. Tobe Hooper sadly died on August 26, 2017 in Sherman Oaks, Los Angeles, at the age of 74. Many Filmmakers have been influenced by Hooper including Hideo Nakata, Wes Craven, Rob Zombie,Alexandre Aja, Jack Thomas Smith and Director Ridley Scott who stated that Alien was influenced by The Texas Chain Saw Massacre.

St Dwynwen’s day ❤️

Dydd Santes Dwynwen ( St Dwynwen’s Day) is considered to be the Welsh equivalent to Valentine’s Day and is celebrated on 25th of January every year. It celebrates Dwynwen, the Welsh saint of lovers.

Much of Welsh history is based on stories and songs which were traditionally passed on by word of mouth. As such, the original tale has become mixed with elements of folktales and Celtic stories, and so there are a number variations on the tale. In the 5th Century Dwynwen fell in love with Maelon Daffodril. Maelon returned her feelings but they could not be together for her father forbade the marriage and her father had already promised her to someone else. Dwynwen, distraught by her love for Maelon, prays to fall out of love with him. After falling asleep, or possibly while still awake in a woods she had run to in her distress, Dwynwen was visited by an angel, who appeared carrying a sweet potion designed to erase all memory of Maelon and turn him into a block of ice. God then gave three wishes to Dwynwen.

First she wished that Maelon be thawed, second that God meet the hopes and dreams of true lovers and third that she should never marry. All three were fulfilled, and as a mark of her thanks, Dwynwen devoted herself to God’s service for the rest of her life. Dwynwen became a nun, fulfilling her wish to never marry. She left for the island of Anglesey and built a Church, which became known as Llanddwyn, literally meaning “Church of Dwynwen”. The remains can still be seen today on the island of Llanddwyn, off the coast of Anglesey. The smaller island also contains Dwynwen’s well, where, allegedly, a sacred fish swims, whose movements predict the future fortunes and relationships of various couples. Another tradition claims that if the water boils while visitors are present, then love and good luck will surely follow.

The popularity and celebration of St Dwynwen’s day has increased considerably in recent years, with special events, such as concerts and parties, often held and greetings cards printed. Although still not as popular as St Valentine’s Day in February, St Dwynwen is certainly becoming better-known among today’s population of Wales. St Dwynwen’s Day gained popularity in 2003 when the Welsh Language Board (Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg) teamed up with UK supermarket Tesco to distribute 50,000 free cards in 43 of its Welsh stores. One card was inserted with a special heart, the finder of which would be entitled to a prize. The board also suggested numerous ways to celebrate the feast besides sending cards, for example, organize a love-themed gig, set up a singles night, prepare a romantic meal and perhaps compose a love poem to read at the local pub. The Welsh often celebrate with concerts and parties, and exchange Dydd Santes Dwynwen greetings cards.

Burns Night

Burns night is celebrated annually on 25 January to mark the birth of Scottish poet and lyricist Robert Burns who was also known as Rabbie Burns or the Bard of Ayrshire and is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland. He was born 25 January 1759 two miles (3 km) south of Ayr, in Alloway in a house built by his father (now the Burns Cottage Museum). In Easter 1766, when Robert was seven years old he moved to the 70-acre Mount Oliphant farm, southeast of Alloway where he grew up in poverty and hardship. He had little regular schooling and got much of his education from his father, who taught his children reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, and history He was also taught by John Murdoch (1747–1824), who opened an “adventure school” in Alloway in 1763 and taught Latin, French, and mathematics from 1765 to 1768.

After a few years of home education, Burns was sent to Dalrymple Parish School during the summer of 1772 before returning at harvest time to full-time farm labouring until 1773, when he was sent to lodge with Murdoch for three weeks to study grammar, French, and Latin. At 15, Burns became the principal labourer at Mount Oliphant. During the harvest of 1774, he was assisted by Nelly Kilpatrick (1759–1820), who inspired his first attempt at poetry, “O, Once I Lov’d A Bonnie Lass”. In the summer of 1775, he was sent to finish his education with a tutor at Kirkoswald, where he met Peggy Thompson (b.1762), to whom he wrote two songs, “Now Westlin’ Winds” and “I Dream’d I Lay”.

In 1777, he moved to a farm at Lochlea, near Tarbolton, where they stayed until William Burnes’ death in 1784. Whilst living in Tarbolton Robert joined a country dancing school in 1779 and, with Gilbert, formed the Tarbolton Bachelors’ Club in 1780 and In 1781 Robert Burns was initiated into masonic Lodge St David, Tarbolton. In December 1781, Burns moved to Irvine to learn to become a flax-dresser, but during the workers’ celebrations for New Year 1781/1782 the Flax mill caught fire. In 1780 Robert and Gilbert moved to the farm at Mossgiel, near Mauchline, in March. In 1784 Burns met The Belles of Mauchline, one of whom was Jean Armour, the daughter of a stonemason from Mauchline. Robert Burns also had manyLove affairs His first child, Elizabeth Paton Burns, was born to his mother’s servant, Elizabeth Paton. Jean Armour, also became pregnant with twins in March 1786 while Burns was with Paton. Although Armour’s father initially forbade it, they were eventually married in 1788. Armour bore him nine children, only three of whom survived infancy.

Sadly Burns Farm was always in financial difficulties, So in 1786 he took up a friend’s offer of work as a Bookmaker on a slave plantation in Jamaica which prompted him to write The Slave’s Lament” six years later. At about the same time, Burns fell in love with Mary Campbell whom he met in Tarbolton. He dedicated the poems “The Highland Lassie O”, “Highland Mary”, and “To Mary in Heaven” and the song “Will ye go to the Indies, my Mary, And leave auld Scotia’s shore?” Unfortunately In 1786, Mary’s brother fell ill with typhus, which Mary caught. She died of typhus on 20 or 21 October 1786 and was buried there. Burns’ friend Gavin Hamilton suggested that Burnsshould “publish his poems in order to raise the money for passage to Jamaica and Scotch Poems was published by a printer in Kilmarnock in 1786. John Wilson also published the volume of works by Robert Burns, Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish dialect. (the Kilmarnock Volume) which included the poems “The Twa Dogs”, “Address to the Deil”, “Halloween”, “The Cotter’s Saturday Night”, “To a Mouse”, “Epitaph for James Smith”, and “To a Mountain Daisy”. Jean Armour gave birth to twins soon after

Soon after this his friend Dr. Thomas Blacklock suggested Robert write an enlarged second edition of the Kilmarnock Volume. So On 27 November 1786 Burns set off for Edinburgh and the first Edinburgh edition of Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish dialect was published on 1787. Burns then sold his copyright for 100 guineas and Alexander Nasmyth was commissioned to paint the oval bust-length portrait now in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, which was engraved to provide a frontispiece for the book. In Edinburgh, he was received as an equal by the poets Dugald Stewart, Robertson, Blair and Walter Scott —and was a guest at aristocratic gatherings, where he bore himself with unaffected dignity. He also published a new edition of his poems and also became friends with Lord Glencairn, and Frances Anna Dunlop who sponsored him. In Edinburgh He embarked on a relationship with the separated Agnes “Nancy” McLehose then had an affair with Jenny Clow, Nancy’s domestic servant, who bore him a son, Robert Burns Clow, and also had an affair with a servant girl, Margaret “May” Cameron.

In 1787, he met James Johnson, a struggling music engraver and music seller with a love of old Scots songs and a determination to preserve them. Burns shared this interest and became an enthusiastic contributor to The Scots Musical Museum. The first volume was published in 1787 and included three songs by Burns. He contributed 40 songs to volume two, and he ended up responsible for about a third of the 600 songs in the whole collection. In 1789 he returned from Edimburgh and resumed his relationship with Jean Armour and took a lease on Ellisland Farm, Dumfriesshire. He also trained as a gauger or exciseman and was appointed to duties in Customs and Excise in 1789 and in 1790 he wrote the poem “Tam O’ Shanter” and in 1792 he became a member of the Royal Company of Archers before moving to Dumfries. He was then requested to write lyrics for The Melodies of Scotland, and responded by contributing over 100 songs. He also made major contributions to George Thomson’s A Select Collection of Original Scottish Airs for the Voice as well as to James Johnson’s Scots Musical Museum. Thomson also commissioned arrangements of “Scottish, Welsh and Irish Airs” by such eminent composers of the day as Franz Haydn and Ludwig van Beethoven, with new lyrics.Burns also worked to collect and preserve Scottish folk songs, sometimes revising, expanding, and adapting them. One of the better known of these collections is The Merry Muses of Caledonia (the title is not Burns’s), a collection of bawdy lyrics that were popular in the music halls of Scotland as late as the 20th century. Many of Burns’s most famous poems are songs with the music based upon older traditional songs. For example, “Auld Lang Syne” is set to the traditional tune “Can Ye Labour Lea”, “A Red, Red Rose” is set to the tune of “Major Graham” and “The Battle of Sherramuir” is set to the “Cameronian Rant”

Despite being hugely popular he had alienated many of his best friends by expressing sympathy with the French Revolution and unpopular advocates of reform at home. His political views also came to the notice of his employers and in an attempt to prove his loyalty to the Crown, Burns joined the Royal Dumfries Volunteers in 1795. Unfortunately his health began to deteriorate due to a possible rheumatic heart condition and On the morning of 21 July 1796, Burns died in Dumfries, at the age of 37. The funeral took place on Monday 25 July 1796, the day that his son Maxwell was born. He was at first buried in the far corner of St. Michael’s Churchyard in Dumfries; a simple “slab of freestone” was erected as his gravestone by Jean Armour, which some felt insulting to his memory. His body was moved to the Burns Mausoleum, in September 1817 and The body of his widow Jean Armour was buried with his in 1834. Burns was posthumously given the freedom of the town of Dumfries, and was also made an Honorary Burgess of Dumfries.