The House with Clocks in its Walls

I would like to watch the fantasy film The House with a Clock in Its Walls. It is directed by Eli Roth, and is based on the 1973 novel of the same name by John Bellairs. It stars Jack Black, Cate Blanchett, Owen Vaccaro, Renée Elise Goldsberry, Sunny Suljic, and Kyle MacLachlan. The film follows ten-year-old Lewis Barnavelt who is sent to live with his uncle Jonathan in a creaky old house After his parents are killed in a car crash. All he has left of his parents is a Magic 8-Ball they had given him. He meets Jonathan’s neighbor and best friend Florence Zimmerman.

During the night, Lewis hears a mysterious ticking sound in the walls so he begins exploring the house and stumbles upon Jonathan smashing a wall with an axe. Jonathan confesses that he is a warlock and Florence is a witch. Lewis also learns it was previously inhabited by a nefarious and rather sinister warlock named Isaac Izard and his equally wicked wife Selena, who had hidden a clock within the walls of the house before they died and Jonathan has been trying to find it and discover its purpose. Despite Jonathan’s discouragement, Lewis begins learning magic.

On his first day at his new school, Lewis meets Tarby Corrigan. Then later that night Lewis’ mother apparently visits him in a dream and suggests that he use a spell from a forbidden book in order to impress Tarby. So On Halloween night Lewis performs a touch of necromancy, however this goes drastically wrong and he accidentally summons the ghost of Isaac, Lewis also learns the location of Selena and Lewis discovers that the hidden clock has a very sinister purpose. So Jonathan, Lewis and Florence attempt to find it and defeat Isaac and Selena before it is too late.

Pop Art Day/ Jackson Pollock

PopArt day takes place annually on 28th January to commemorate the birth of the American Artist Jackson Pollock and inspire artists to create their own Pop Art. Paul Jackson Pollock was born in Cody, Wyoming, in 28 January 1912, His parents. Stella and LeRoy Pollock were Presbyterian; and of Irish and Scots-Irish descent, respectively. LeRoy Pollock was a farmer and later a land surveyor for the government, moving for different jobs. Stella, proud of her family’s heritage as weavers, made and sold dresses as a teenager. In 1912, Stella took her sons to San Diego; Jackson was just 10 months old He subsequently grew up in Arizona and Chico, California. While living in Echo Park, California, he enrolled at Los Angeles’ Manual Arts High School, from which he was expelled. He had already been expelled in 1928 from another high school. During his early life, Pollock explored Native American culture while on surveying trips with his father. In 1930, following his older brother Charles Pollock, he moved to New York City, where they both studied under Thomas Hart Benton at the Art Students League. In the early 1930s, Pollock spent a summer touring the Western United States together with Glen Rounds, a fellow art student, and Benton, their teacher.

Pollock was introduced to the use of liquid paint in 1936 at an experimental workshop in New York City by the Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros. He later used paint pouring as one of several techniques on canvases of the early 1940s, such as Male and Female and Composition with Pouring I. After his move to Springs, he began painting with his canvases laid out on the studio floor and he developed what was later called his “drip” technique. Between 1938 and 1942 Pollock worked for the WPA Federal Art Project. Pollock became an Alcoholic and underwent Jungian psychotherapy with Dr. Joseph Henderson and later with Dr. Violet Staub de Laszlo in 1941–42. Henderson engaged him through his art, encouraging Pollock to make drawings. Jungian concepts and archetypes were expressed in his paintings. It is possible that Pollock might have had bipolar disorder (When I get depressed I find that drawing can have an uplifting effect, i think I would go mad without Autodesk Sketchbook, however I digress). In 1943 Pollock signed a gallery contract with Peggy Guggenheim in July 1943. He received the commission to create the 8-by-20-foot (2.4 by 6.1 m) Mural for the entry to her new townhouse. Pollock painted the work on canvas, rather than the wall, so that it would be portable. Pollock’s most famous paintings were made during the “drip period” between 1947 and 1950. He rocketed to fame following an August 8, 1949 four-page spread in Life magazine.

Then At the peak of his fame, Pollock abruptly abandoned the drip style. Pollock’s work after 1951 was darker in color, including a collection painted in black on unprimed canvases. These paintings have been referred to as his ‘Black pourings’ and show Pollock attempting to find a balance between abstraction and depictions of the figure. He later returned to using color and continued with figurative elements. Pollock also moved to the Sidney Janis Gallery, a more commercial gallery; the demand for his work from collectors was great. Unfortunately the extra pressure this put on him, plus personal frustration, worsened his alcoholism.

In 1942 Jackson met fellow artist Lee Krasner while they both exhibited at the McMillen Gallery. Krasner was unfamiliar, yet intrigued with Pollock’s work and went to his apartment, unannounced, to meet him following the gallery. In 1945 Pollock and Lee Krasner married and moved out of the city to the Springs area of East Hampton on the south shore of Long Island into a wood-frame house and barn at 830 Springs Fireplace Road which Pollock converted into a studio, where he perfected his big “drip” technique with which he would become permanently identified. Lee Krasner had an immense impact on Pollock’s art due to her extensive knowledge and training in modern art and techniques which influenced Pollack and helped her bring him up to date with what contemporary art should be and Pollock’s style became more organized and cosmopolitan.

Lee Krasner also introduced Pollock to many collectors, critics, and artists, including Herbert Matter. Jackson Pollock also influenced Lee Krasner’s, artwork and Krasner began to reproduce and reinterpret her husband’s chaotic “I Am Nature” paint splatters in her own work. In 1955, Pollock painted Scent and Search, his last two paintings. In 1956 he was making sculptures at Tony Smith’s home: constructions of wire, gauze, and plaster. Shaped by sand-casting, they have heavily textured surfaces similar to what Pollock often created in his paintings.

Sadly by 1956 Pollock and Krasner’s relationship began to crumble owing to Pollock’s continuing alcoholism and infidelity involving Ruth Kligman. Then tragically On August 11, 1956, Pollock died in a single-car crash in his Oldsmobile convertible while driving under the influence of alcohol. At the time Krasner was visiting friends in Europe and she abruptly returned on hearing the news One of the passengers, Edith Metzger, was also killed in the accident, which occurred less than a mile from Pollock’s home. The other passenger, Ruth Kligman, an artist and Pollock’s mistress, survived. Lee Krasner managed his estate For the rest of her life and ensured that Pollock’s reputation remained strong despite changing art world trends. The couple are buried in Green River Cemetery in Springs with a large boulder marking his grave and a smaller one marking hers.

Lego

The Lego Group, patented the design of Lego bricks in 28 January 1958. LEGO ™ was created by Danish businessman Ole Kirk Christiansen, who was born 7 April 1891 in Filskov, Denmark. He trained as a carpenter and started making wooden toys in 1932 to make a living after having lost his job during the depression. Sadly though, shortly after the depression Christiansen’s wife also died, leaving him to raise his four sons by himself. This experience inspired Christiansen to create a range of hard wearing toys. So to make ends meet he decided to construct a small wooden duck toy for his children. When he found that his sons loved the new toy he decided to put the ducks into production using the leftover wood from his old business. He then went on to making miniature versions of the houses and furniture, which also became quite successful.

Unfortunately though In 1942 a fire broke out at the factory destroying Ole’s life’s work and forcing them to rebuild from scratch. So in 1947 he invested in a revolutionary injection-moulding machine Imported from Britain for 30,000 Danish kroner (£3,200). After Building a new factory, Ole set about re-making his lost designs and moved on to manufacturing them in plastic rather than wood, these originally consisted of small plastic bears and rattles. By 1949 he had produced over 200 plastic and wooden toys. Then, two years after buying the injection-moulding machine, he produced the first Lego bricks, called Automatic Binding Bricks, they looked similar to today’s blocks but had a slit in the sides and were completely hollow. Ole Kirk Christiansen came up with the name Lego from the Danish words leg godt, meaning “play well”, and the company grew to become the Lego Group.

Then In 1954, Ole’s son Godtfred, the firm’s junior managing director returned from a UK toy fair with the idea of creating a toy system in which every element could connect together to build things, and by 1958 the firm had patented the colourful bricks with hollow tubes on the underside which could be locked together and the story of the Lego brick began. Sadly though On 11 March 1958, Christiansen died from a heart attack when he was 66 years old, however his third son Godtfred Kirk Christiansen promptly took over the company and developed his idea of interconnecting bricks culminating in The first Lego set, Town Plan No.1, which had everything a child needed to make their own model town centre, this became a huge success.

Since then Lego(tm) has grown to become a household name, annually selling many million sets worldwide. Then In 1968 they opened a theme park at their HQ in Billund, Denmark — the first of six worldwide. A year later came Lego Duplo for under-fives and in 1978 “minifigure” people. Since then, all manner of themed Lego sets have hit shelves, from pirates, Outer Space, Lord of the Rings, Ninjago and Harry Potter. It is estimated that eight Lego sets are sold every Second worldwide on Average. The UK even has its own Legoland which opened in Windsor in 1996 and there are now Lego-only stores, Lego computer games including Lego batman. There are also a number of rather entertaining LEGO Movies and Television series including Ninjago, Lego Star Wars, Lego Nexo Knights and Droid Tales. There is even a clothing range. The Lego Movie 2 has also recently been released. This takes place five years after the first with the citizens of Bricksburg facing another huge new threat from LEGO DUPLO® invaders from outer space, who are wrecking everything faster than they can rebuild. So Lucy, Batman and the rest of their friends battle to defeat the enemy and restore peace to the Lego world. This takes them to faraway, unexplored worlds that test their courage and creativity.

More events and National Holidays happening January 28

  • National Kazoo Day
  • Daisy Day
  • Data Privacy Day
  • National Blueberry Pancake Day
  • Pop Art Day
  • Thank a Plugin Developer Day

Billy Bass Nelson

Funkadelic U.S musician William “Billy Bass” Nelson was born January 28, 1951 in Plainfield, New Jersey and as a teenager worked at George Clinton’s barbershop, sweeping the floor and singing and dancing for the customers. Clinton was a member of the doo wop vocal group The Parliaments, who scored a nationwide hit in 1967 with the song “(I Wanna) Testify”. Clinton put together a backing band as musical support for a tour and recruited Nelson, originally as guitarist. Nelson later switched to bass when his good friend Eddie Hazel joined as lead guitarist. The backing band was originally unnamed, but Nelson later coined the name “Funkadelic” to reflect the style (funk) and connect it with the then-burgeoning psychedelic music scene.

By 1970, Funkadelic was a full band consisting of Nelson, Hazel, drummer Tiki Fulwood, guitarist Tawl Ross, and keyboardist Mickey Atkins (later replaced by Bernie Worrell). Since 1967 the band had been billed as the musical backing for The Parliaments. Due to legal problems, in the early 1970s Clinton had temporarily lost the rights to the name “The Parliaments” and instead signed the entire ensemble to Westbound Records under the name Funkadelic. Nelson was a prominent contributor to the first three Funkadelic albums, Funkadelic (1970), Free Your Mind… and Your Ass Will Follow (1970), and Maggot Brain (1971).

Nelson left the group in late 1971 after a financial dispute with George Clinton. Nelson and Hazel next performed with The Temptations. Nelson rejoined Funkadelic briefly in the studio in 1975, playing on the track “Better By the Pound” on the Funkadelic album Let’s Take It To The Stage. Nelson later played with The Commodores, Chairmen of the Board, Fishbone, Jermaine Jackson, Parlet, Lionel Richie, Smokey Robinson, and Lenny Williams.

By the early 1990s, Nelson had reunited with Eddie Hazel, Jerome Brailey, Gregg Fitz and Wilbur Harris and others in a new rendition of Funkadelic, “The New Funkadelic” until Eddie Hazel died in 1992. He also enjoyed a surge of name-checking by such legendary bassists as John Norwood Fisher (of Fishbone) and Flea (of the Red Hot Chili Peppers), while his early Funkadelic work was being sampled often by hip hop artists. Joining with some other P-Funk alumni, in 1994 Nelson released the album Out of the Dark under the name O.G. Funk. In 1994, Nelson rejoined Parliament-Funkadelic.

In March 1997, Michael “Clip” Payne debuted the 420 Funk Mob at two sold-out shows at New York City’s Tramps. The band featured fellow P-Funk members Michael Hampton, Lige Curry, Gabe Gonzalez, Ronald “Stozo” Edwards, and Greg Fitz. Nelson was the 420 Funk Mob’s first “Special Guest”. He was also inducted into the Rock and Roll hall of fame in 1997 with fifteen other members of Parliament-Funkadelic.

He continued to make appearances with the 420 Funk Mob on and off through 2006 until he left the Parliament-Funkadelic camp. He appears on the 420 Funk Mob’s Live on the Off Days CD and in their promotional video “What Time Is It?” from 2005. In 2011, he rejoined Parliament-Funkadelic after the death of the band’s lead singer, Garry Snider, playing guitar and bass until 2012. In 2014 he formed The Funkadelic Experience and as of 2015 continues to tour Europe and the United States.

Data Privacy Day

Data Privacy Day takes place annually on January 28. The purpose of Data Privacy Day (Data Protection Day in Europe) is to raise awareness and promote privacy and data protection best practices. It is currently ‘celebrated’ in the United States, Canada, and 27 European countries. In Europe it is referred to as Data Protection Day. Data Privacy/Protection is the relationship between the collection and dissemination of data, technology, the public expectation of privacy, legal and political issues surrounding them. Privacy concerns exist wherever personally identifiable information or other sensitive information is collected, stored, used, and finally destroyed or deleted – in digital form or otherwise. Improper or non-existent disclosure control can be the root cause for privacy issues. Data privacy issues may arise in response to information from a wide range of sources, such as:

Healthcare records
Criminal justice investigations and proceedings
Financial institutions and transactions
Biological traits, such as genetic material
Residence and geographic records
Privacy breach
Location-based service and geolocation
Web surfing behavior or user preferences using persistent cookies
Academic research

Internet security has become a growing concern. These concerns include whether email can be stored or read by third parties without consent, or whether third parties can continue to track the websites that someone has visited. Another concern is if the websites that are visited can collect, store, and possibly share personally identifiable information about users. The advent of various search engines and the use of data mining created a capability for data about individuals to be collected and combined from a wide variety of sources very easily. The FTC has provided a set of guidelines that represent widely accepted concepts concerning fair information practices in an electronic marketplace called the Fair Information Practice Principles.

In order not to give away too much personal information, emails should be encrypted. Browsing of web pages as well as other online activities should be done trace-less via “anonymizers”, in case those are not trusted, by open-source distributed anonymizers, so called mix nets, such as I2P or Tor – The Onion Router Are available.

Email isn’t the only internet content with privacy concerns. In an age where increasing amounts of information are going online, social networking sites pose additional privacy challenges. People may be tagged in photos or have valuable information exposed about themselves either by choice or unexpectedly by others. Caution should be exercised with what information is being posted, as social networks vary in what they allow users to make private and what remains publicly accessible. Without strong security settings in place and careful attention to what remains public, a person can be profiled by searching for and collecting disparate pieces of information, worst case leading to cases of cyberstalking or reputational damage.

The challenge of data privacy is to use data while protecting an individual’s privacy preferences and their personally identifiable information. The fields of computer security, data security, and information security design and use software, hardware, and human resources to address this issue. Since the laws and regulations related to Privacy and Data Protection are constantly changing, it is important to keep abreast of any changes in the law and to continually reassess compliance with data privacy and security regulations. Within academia, Institutional Review Boards function to assure that adequate measures are taken to ensure both the privacy and confidentiality of human subjects in research.

Data Privacy Day’s educational initiative was originally focused on raising awareness among businesses as well as users about the importance of protecting the privacy of their personal information online, particularly in the context of social networking. The educational focus has expanded over the past four years to include families, consumers and businesses. In addition to its educational initiative, Data Privacy Day promotes events and activities that stimulate the development of technology tools that promote individual control over personally identifiable information; encourage compliance with privacy laws and regulations; and create dialogues among stakeholders interested in advancing data protection and privacy. The international celebration offers many opportunities for collaboration among governments, industry, academia, nonprofits, privacy professionals and educators.

The Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data was opened by the Council of Europe in 1981. This convention is currently in the process of being updated in order to reflect new legal challenges caused by technological development. The Convention on Cybercrime is also protecting the integrity of data systems and thus of privacy in cyberspace. Privacy including data protection is also protected by Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights. The day was initiated by the Council of Europe in 2007 as the European Data Protection Day and on January 26, 2009, the United States House of Representatives passed a House Resolution declaring January 28 National Data Privacy Day. On January 28, 2009, the Senate officially recognised January 28, 2009 as National Data Privacy Day. In response to the increasing levels of data breaches and the global importance of privacy and data security, the Online Trust Alliance (OTA) and the National Cyber Security Alliance adopted Data Privacy Day as Data Privacy & Protection Day, emphasizing the need to look at the long-term impact to consumers of data collection, use and protection practices and they also organise other Data Protection Day Activities

Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen

Jane Austen’s classic novel Pride and Prejudice was first published in the United Kingdom 28 January 1813. It concerns young Elizabeth Bennet as she deals with issues of manners, upbringing, morality, education, and marriage in the society of the landed gentry of early 19th-century England. Elizabeth is the second of five daughters of a country gentleman living near the fictional town of Meryton in Hertfordshire, near London. Though the story is set at the turn of the 19th century, it retains a fascination for modern readers, continuing near the top of lists of “most loved books” such as The Big Read. It has become one of the most popular novels in English literature and receives considerable attention from literary scholars.

Modern interest in the book has resulted in a number of dramatic adaptations and an abundance of novels and stories imitating Austen’s memorable characters or themes. To date, the book has sold some 20 million copies worldwide. The novel centres on Elizabeth Bennet, the second of the five daughters of a country gentleman. Mr Bennet is a bookish man, and somewhat neglectful of his responsibilities. Mrs Bennet is a woman lacking in social graces and primarily concerned with finding suitable husbands for her five daughters. Jane Bennet, the eldest daughter, is distinguished by the kindness of her attitudes and her beauty; Elizabeth Bennet, the second daughter, shares her father’s keen wit and occasionally sarcastic outlook; Mary is not pretty, but is studious, devout and musical albeit lacking in taste; Kitty, the fourth sister follows where her younger sister leads, while Lydia is flirtatious and unrestrained.

The novel opens with news in the Bennet family that Mr Bingley, a wealthy, charismatic and sociable young bachelor, is moving into Netherfield Park in the neighbourhood. Mr Bingley is soon well received, while his friend Mr Darcy makes a less favourable impression by appearing proud and condescending at a ball that they attend (he detests dancing and is not much for light conversation). Mr Bingley singles out Jane for particular attention, and it soon becomes apparent that they have formed an attachment to each other, though Jane does not alter her conduct for him, confessing her great happiness only to Lizzie. By contrast, Darcy slights Elizabeth, who overhears and jokes about it despite feeling a budding resentment. On paying a visit to Mr Bingley’s sister, Caroline, Jane is caught in a heavy downpour, catches cold, and is forced to stay at Netherfield for several days. Elizabeth arrives to nurse her sister and is thrown into frequent company with Mr Darcy, who begins to act less coldly towards her.

Mr Collins, a clergyman, and heir to the Bennet estate, pays a visit to the Bennets. It soon becomes apparent that Mr Collins has come to Longbourn to choose a wife from among the Bennet sisters (his cousins) and Elizabeth is singled out. Elizabeth forms an acquaintance with Mr Wickham, a militia officer who dislikes Mr Darcy, despite having been a godson and favourite of Mr Darcy’s father. This and Elizabeth’s attraction to Mr Wickham, increase her dislike of Mr Darcy.At a ball ,mr Darcy becomes aware that Mr Bingley and Jane may marry. The following morning, Mr Collins proposes marriage to Elizabeth, who refuses him, much to her mother’s distress. Mr Collins becomes engaged to Elizabeth’s close friend Charlotte Lucas, meanwhile Mr Bingley abruptly leaves Netherfield and returns to London, devastating Jane, and Elizabeth becomes convinced that Mr Darcy and Caroline Bingley have colluded to separate him from Jane.Jane is persuaded that Mr Bingley is not in love with her, but goes on an extended visit to her aunt and uncle Gardiner in London in the hope of maintaining her relationship with Caroline if not with Charles Bingley.

In the spring, Elizabeth visits Charlotte and Mr Collins in Kent. Elizabeth and her hosts are frequently invited to Rosings Park, home of Lady Catherine de Bourgh, Darcy’s aunt; coincidentally, Darcy also arrives to visit. Elizabeth meets Darcy’s cousin, Colonel Fitzwilliam, who vouches for Darcy’s loyalty, using as an example how Darcy had recently stepped in on behalf of a friend, who had formed an attachment to a woman against whom “there were some very strong objections.” Elizabeth rightly assumes that the said friend is none other than Mr Bingley, and her dislike of Darcy deepens. Thus she is of no mood to accept when Darcy arrives and, quite unexpectedly, confesses love for her and begs her hand in marriage. His proposal is flattering, he is a very distinguished man, but it is delivered in a manner ill suited to recommend it. He talks of love but also of revulsion at her inferior position and family. Despite assertions to the contrary, he assumes she will accept him.

Elizabeth rebukes him, and a heated discussion follows; she charges him with destroying her sister’s and Bingley’s happiness, with treating Mr Wickham disgracefully, and with having conducted himself towards her in an arrogant, ungentleman-like manner. Mr Darcy, shocked, ultimately responds with a letter giving a good account of his actions: Wickham had exchanged his legacies for a cash payment, only to return after frittering away the money to reclaim the forfeited inheritance; he then attempted to elope with Darcy’s young sister Georgiana, and thereby secure her fortune for himself. Regarding Jane and Bingley, Darcy claims he had observed no reciprocal interest in Jane for Bingley, and had assumed her not to be in love with him. In addition to this, he cites the “want of propriety” in the behaviour of Mr and Mrs Bennet and her three younger daughters. Elizabeth, who had previously despaired over this very behavior, is forced to admit the truth of Mr Darcy’s observations, and begins to wonder whether she has misjudged him.

Some months later, Elizabeth and her aunt and uncle Gardiner visit Pemberley, Darcy’s estate, believing he will be absent for the day. He returns unexpectedly, and though surprised, he is gracious and welcoming. He treats the Gardiners with great civility, surprising Elizabeth who assumes he will “decamp immediately” on learning who they are. Darcy introduces Elizabeth to his sister, and Elizabeth begins to acknowledge her attraction to him. Their re-acquaintance is cut short, however, by the news that Lydia has eloped with Mr Wickham. Elizabeth and the Gardiners return to Longbourn (the Bennet family home), where Elizabeth grieves that her renewed acquaintance with Mr Darcy will end as a result of her sister’s disgrace.

Lydia and Wickham are soon found, and persuaded to marry And Jane, Elizabeth and Mr Bennet realise that their Uncle Gardiner must have bribed Wickham to marry Lydia and are ashamed of their indebtedness. Mr and Mrs Wickham visit Longbourn, where Lydia lets slip that Mr Darcy was in attendance at their wedding but that this was to have been a secret. Elizabethdiscovers that Mr Darcy was responsible for finding the couple and negotiating their marriage, at great personal and monetary expense. Elizabeth is shocked and flattered. Meanwhile Bingley’s returs and proposes to Jane, who immediately accepts. Lady Catherine de Bourgh pays an unexpected visit to Longbourn. She has heard a rumour that Elizabeth will marry Mr Darcy and attempts to persuade Elizabeth to agree not to Because Lady Catherine wants Mr Darcy to marry her daughter (his cousin) Anne De Bourgh instead and thinks Elizabeth is beneath him. Elizabeth refuses her demands. Disgusted, Lady Catherine leaves, promising that the marriage can never take place….

W. B. Yeats

The Irish writer & Nobel laureate William Butler Yeats sadly passed away 28 January 1939. He was Born 13th June in 1865 at Sandymount in County Dublin, Ireland. the family then relocated to the Pollexfen home at Merville, Sligo to stay with her extended family, and Yeats considered the area his childhood and spiritual home. Its landscape became his “country of the heart”. The Butler Yeats family were highly artistic; his brother Jack became an esteemed painter, his sisters Elizabeth and Susan Mary became involved in the Arts and Crafts Movement And Yeats grew up as a member of the former Protestant Ascendancy. In 1867, the family moved to England . At first the Yeats children were educated at home. Where Their mother told them Irish folktales. John provided an erratic education in geography and chemistry, and took William on natural history explorations of the nearby Slough countryside. On 26 January 1877, Yeats entered the Godolphin school, which he attended for four years, and was fascinated by biology and zoology. On 1880 the family returned to Dublin, living in the suburbs of Harold’s Cross and later Howth. In October 1881, Yeats resumed his education at Dublin’s Erasmus Smith High School. William also spent a great deal of time at his Father’s studio, and met many of the city’s artists and writers. he also started writing poetry, and, in 1885, the Dublin University Review published Yeats’s first poems, as well as an essay entitled “The Poetry of Sir Samuel Ferguson”.

Between 1884 and 1886, William attended the Metropolitan School of Art (The National College of Art and Design) where He wrote a poem which was heavily influenced by Percy Bysshe Shelley. Yeats’s works drew heavily on Shelley, Edmund Spenser, pre-Raphaelite verse, William Blake, Irish mythology and folklore. In 1891, Yeats published “John Sherman” and “Dhoya”. The family returned to London in 1887. In March 1890 Yeats joined the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and co-founded the Rhymers’ Club, with Ernest Rhys, a group of London-based poets who met regularly in a Fleet Street tavern to recite their verse. Yeats later renamed them “the Tragic Generation” in his autobiography, and published two anthologies of the Rhymers’ work, in 1892 and 1894. He collaborated with Edwin Ellis on the first complete edition of William Blake’s works, and rediscovered a forgotten poem, “Vala, or, the Four Zoas”.

Yeats also became interested in Emanuale Swedenborg and mysticism, spiritualism, occultism and astrology and became a member of the paranormal research organisation “The Ghost Club”. His mystical interests were also inspired by a study of Hinduism, under the Theosophist Mohini Chatterjee, and the occult. He wrote a fantasy poem which was serialized in the Dublin University Review. His first solo publication was the pamphlet Mosada: A Dramatic Poem (1886), followed by The Wanderings of Oisin and Other Poems (1889). “The Wanderings of Oisin” is based on the lyrics of the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology and was inspired by Sir Samuel Ferguson and the Pre-Raphaelite poets. His other early works, include Poems (1895), The Secret Rose (1897), and The Wind Among the Reeds (1899). In 1885, Yeats was involved in the formation of the Dublin Hermetic Order. And the Dublin Theosophical lodge also opened in conjunction with Brahmin Mohini Chatterjee, who travelled from the Theosophical Society in London to lecture. After attending his first séance Yeats became heavily involved with the Theosophical Society and with hermeticism, particularly with the eclectic Rosicrucianism of the Golden Dawn. He was admitted into the Golden Dawn in March 1890 and took the magical motto Daemon est Deus inversus—translated as Devil is God inverted or A demon is a god reflected. He was involved when Aleister Crowley was sent to repossess Golden Dawn paraphernalia during the “Battle of Blythe Road”. After the Golden Dawn ceased and splintered into various offshoots, Yeats remained with the Stella Matutina until 1921.

In 1889, Yeats met 23 year old heiress Maud Gonne, Gonne admired “The Island of Statues” and she had a lasting effect on Yeats thereafter. In 1891, he visited Gonne in Ireland and proposed marriage, but she rejected him, Yeats proposed to Gonne three more times: in 1899, 1900 and 1901. She refused each proposal, and in 1903, to his horror, married the Irish nationalist Major John MacBride. Yeats then continually derided and demeaned John MacBride both in his letters and his poetry. Then Much to Yeats’ delight Gonne’s marriage to MacBride, was a disaster, then Gonne began to visit Yeats in London. After the birth of her son, Seán MacBride, in 1904, Gonne and MacBride seperated however Yeats’s relationship with Gonne remained unconsummated until 1908? In 1896, Yeats met Lady Gregory through their mutual friend Edward Martyn and became involved with a new generation of younger and emerging Irish authors, including Lady Gregory, Edward Martyn, J. M. Synge, Seán O’Casey, and Padraic Colum, and Yeats was one of those responsible for the establishment of the “Irish Literary Revival” movement. Then In 1899, Yeats, Lady Gregory, Edward Martyn and George Moore established the Irish Literary Theatre for the purpose of performing Irish and Celtic plays. Working with two Irish brothers with theatrical experience, William and Frank Fay, Yeats’s unpaid yet independently wealthy secretary Annie Horniman, and the leading West End actress Florence Farr, the group established the Irish National Theatre Society. on 27 December 1904 they opened the Abbey Theatre, performing Yeats’s play Cathleen Ní Houlihan and Lady Gregory’s Spreading the News .

In 1902, he helped set up the Dun Emer Press to publish work by writers associated with the Revival. This became the Cuala Press in 1904, and inspired by the Arts and Crafts Movement. In 1909, Yeats met the American poet Ezra Pound. From 1909 until 1916, the two men wintered in the Stone Cottage at Ashdown Forest, with Pound nominally acting as Yeats’s secretary. However The relationship got off to a rocky start after Pound rearranged Yeats own poetry without permission and published it. Pound was also influenced by Japanese Noh plays which he had obtained from Ernest Fenollosa’s widow. Thea provided Yeats with a model for the aristocratic dramas he intended to write, including At the Hawk’s Well, in 1916. The emergence of a nationalist revolutionary movement from the ranks of the mostly Roman Catholic lower-middle and working class Also made Yeats reassess some of his attitudes. Yeats was an Irish Nationalist at heart, looking for the kind of traditional lifestyle displayed through poems such as ‘The Fisherman’. However, as his life progressed, he sheltered much of his revolutionary spirit and tried to distance himself from the intense political landscape and the Easter Rising until 1922, when he was appointed Senator for the Irish Free State.

In 1916, 51 years old Yeats was determined to marry. Meanwhile John MacBride had been executed by British forces for his role in the 1916 Easter Rising, and Yeats thought that his widow might remarry so he proposed to Maud Gonne again and she duly refused. So He set his sights on her 21 year old daughter.” Iseult Gonne , Maud’s second child with Lucien Millevoye, but was again rejected so Yeats proposed to 25-year-old Georgie Hyde-Lees, whom he had met through Olivia Shakespear and the two were married in 1916 having two children, Anne and Michael. They also experimented with automatic writing, and George contacted a variety of spirits and guides they called “Instructors” while in a trance. The spirits communicated a complex and esoteric system of philosophy and history, which the couple developed into an exposition using geometrical shapes: phases, cones, and gyres. The results were subsequently published in “A vision”. In December 1923, Yeats was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, “for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation”. This led to a significant increase in the sales of his books,

In 1922 Yeats’ was appointed to the first Irish Senate in 1922, and was re-appointed for a second term in 1925. During a incendiary debate on divorce, which Yeats viewed as a confrontation between Roman Catholics and Protestants. He delivered a series of speeches that attacked the “quixotically impressive” ambitions of the government and clergy, likening their campaign tactics to those of “medieval Spain.” The resulting debate has been described as one of Yeats’s “supreme public moments”, and began his ideological move away from pluralism towards religious confrontation.

He retired from the Senate in 1928 due to ill health and began questioning whether democracy could cope with deep economic difficulty, particularly after the Wall Street Crash and Great Depression. After the First World War, he became sceptical about the efficacy of democratic government, and anticipated political reconstruction in Europe through totalitarian rule. His later association with Ezra Pound drew him towards Benito Mussolini. In 1934 At the age of 69 he was ‘rejuvenated’ by a Steinach operation and the last five years of his life Yeats found a new vigour and had a number of relationships with younger women including the poet and actress Margot Ruddock, and the novelist, journalist and sexual radical Ethel Mannin and despite age and ill-health, he remained a prolific writer. And In 1936, he became editor of the Oxford Book of Modern Verse, 1892–1935. Sadly though Yeats died at the Hôtel Idéal Séjour, in Menton, France, on 28 January 1939. And was buried at Roquebrune-Cap-Martin. However In September 1948, Yeats’ body was moved to Drumcliff, County Sligo, on the Irish Naval Service corvette LÉ Macha. The person in charge of this operation for the Irish Government was Sean MacBride, son of Maud Gonne MacBride, and then Minister of External Affairs.