World Meningitis Day

World Meningitis day takes place annually on 24 April. The purpose of World Meningitis Day is to raise awareness and educate people concerning this debilitating illness. The word meningitis itself comes from the Greek μῆνιγξ meninx, “membrane”, and the medical suffix -itis, “inflammation”.

Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. The most common symptoms are fever, headache, and neck stiffness. Other symptoms include confusion or altered consciousness, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light or loud noises. Young children often exhibit only nonspecific symptoms, such as irritability, drowsiness, or poor feeding. If a rash is present, it may indicate a particular cause of meningitis; for instance, meningitis caused by meningococcal bacteria may be accompanied by a characteristic rash.

The inflammation may be caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms, and less commonly by certain drugs. Meningitis can be life-threatening because of the inflammation’s proximity to the brain and spinal cord; therefore, the condition is classified as a medical emergency. A lumbar puncture, in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), can diagnose or exclude meningitis.

Some forms of meningitis are preventable by immunization with the meningococcal, mumps, pneumococcal, and Hib vaccines. Giving antibiotics to people with significant exposure to certain types of meningitis may also be useful. The first treatment in acute meningitis consists of promptly giving antibiotics and sometimes antiviral drugs. Corticosteroids can also be used to prevent complications from excessive inflammation. Meningitis can lead to serious long-term consequences such as deafness, epilepsy, hydrocephalus, or cognitive deficits, especially if not treated quickly.

In 2015, meningitis occurred in about 8.7 million people worldwide. This resulted in 379,000 deaths – down from 464,000 deaths in 1990. With appropriate treatment the risk of death in bacterial meningitis is less than 15%. Outbreaks of bacterial meningitis occur between December and June each year in an area of sub-Saharan Africa known as the meningitis belt.  Smaller outbreaks may also occur in other areas of the world.


Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day

Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day takes place annually on 24 April to commemorate the date of 24 April 1915 when 250 Armenian intellectuals and leaders were arrested in Constantinople, beginning the Armenian Genocide in Turkey; an estimated 1.5 million Armenians are killed; the Turkish government remains adamant that the numbers are greatly exaggerated and most of the deaths caused by disease, but there is convincing evidence, including photographs and written eye-witness accounts by workers for international charities and by missionaries running schools and orphanages in Turkey.


Fashion Revolution Day

Fashion Revolution Day is Held annually on the anniversary of the Rana Plaza disaster in Bangladesh, on 24 April 2014 when the building collapsed, killing 1133 workers and injuring 2500. Fashion Revolution Day is a campaign for change in the fashion industry to better inform consumers who the people are that make their clothes and to advocate for better and safer working conditions


Botany Day

Botany Day takes place annually on 24 April in honour of Japanese botanist. Tomitaro Makino, who was born 24 April 1862 and pioneered Japanese plant taxonomy, the identification and classification of plants. In 1887, he became the publisher of an academic journal of botany, and in 1936, he published his six volume Makino Book of Botany. This book describes 6000 species, including 1000 which Makino had discovered. His 1940 book, Makino’s Illustrated Flora of Japan, is still used as an encyclopedic text today. He name over 2500 plants, including 1500 new varieties. At his death, his collection of 400,000 specimens was donated to Tokyo Metropolitan University.


More International and National events and holidays happening on 24 April

  • Mother, Father Deaf DaY
  • National Pigs-in-a-Blanket Day
  • National Teach Your Children to Save Day
  • New Kids on the Block Day
  • World Day for Laboratory Animals
  • World Pinhole Photography Day

Nigel Harrison (Blondie)

Nigel Harrison, bass player with the band Blondie was born 24 April 1951. Blondie were founded by singer Deborah Harry and guitarist Chris Stein, and were pioneers in the early American New Wave and punk scenes of the mid-1970s. Their first two albums contained strong elements of these genres, and although successful in the United Kingdom and Australia, Blondie was regarded as an underground band in the United States until the release of Parallel Lines in 1978. Over the next three years, the band achieved several hit singles including “Call Me“, “Atomic” and Heart of Glass and became noted for its eclectic mix of musical styles incorporating elements of disco, pop, rap, and reggae, while retaining a basic style as a New Wave band.

Sadly though Blondie broke up after the release of their sixth studio album The Hunter in 1982. However Deborah Harry continued to pursue a solo career with varied results after taking a few years off to care for partner Chris Stein, who was diagnosed with pemphigus, a rare autoimmune disease of the skin. The band reformed in 1997, achieving renewed success and a number one single in the United Kingdom with “Maria” in 1999. During the following years The group toured and performed throughout the world, and were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2006. Blondie have sold 40 million records worldwide and are still active today. Their ninth studio album, Panic of Girls, was released in 2011. They have also played at Glastonbury Festival’s Sunday afternoon slot.

THE BEST OF BLONDIE http://m.youtube.com/#/watch?v=7ZM6UeOLing

Bill Gould (Faith No More)

Bill Gould, the bass Player, Songwriter and Producer of Faith No More, Harmful Fear and the Nervous System, Jello Biafra and the Guantanamo Bay School of Medicine was born 24 April 1963. Faith No More hail from San Francisco, California, and were regarded as one of the most influential metal/rock bands of the late 80s and early 90s, and credited for inventing alternative metal and as an influence on nu metal.It was formed originally as Faith No Man in 1981 by bassist Billy Gould, keyboardist Wade Worthington, vocalist M Morris, and drummer Mike Bordin.A year later when Worthington was replaced by keyboardist Roddy Bottum, who along with Gould and Bordin, formed Faith No More. After going through a series of singers which included Courtney Love, the band was joined by Chuck Mosley in 1983. The same year, Jim Martin was recruited to replace guitarist Mark Bowen. Faith No More underwent several line-up changes before releasing their first album, We Care a Lot, in 1985. Within a year the band signed up with Slash Records, and in 1987 their second album Introduce Yourself was released. Membership remained stable until vocalist Mosley was replaced by Mike Patton in 1988. In 1989, the band released their highly successful album, The Real Thing, which featured the songs“Epic, Falling To Pieces, From Out of Nowhere and Small Victory.

The band’s next album, 1992′s Angel Dust, was also highly successful and spawned the hit Midlife Crisis, , which became their sole #1 hit on the Modern Rock Tracks chart in their career. Angel Dust is widely considered to be one of the most influential albums of the 90′s. Faith No More however declined in popularity in the subsequent years. Longtime guitarist Jim Martin left the group in 1994 and was replaced by Mr. Bungle guitarist Trey Spruance. After the release of their next album, 1995′s King for a Day… Fool for a Lifetime, Spruance was replaced briefly by Dean Menta, who would eventually be replaced by their current guitarist Jon Hudson. After releasing one more album, Album of the Year, in 1997, Faith No More broke up in April 1998, and all members began work on side projects.

On February 24, 2009, Faith No More announced that they would be reforming for a European tour with the same lineup at the time of their breakup.In June 2009, they performed together for the first time in eleven years at the Brixton Academy in London, United Kingdom, as part of their The Second Coming Tour. Throughout 2010, the band continued to perform at multiple live venues. In September 2010, the band announced that the reunion tour would come to an end in December and plans for a new album had been scrapped. Faith No More returned again in November 14th 2011 at the SWU Music and Arts Festival, in the Brazilian city of Paulínia, as well on three other dates. Trey Spruance joined the band onstage for the very first time to perform the King for a Day, Fool for a Lifetime album in its entirety in Santiago, Chile in November 2011. Faith No More also released Their latest album Sol Invictus and double CD Deluxe editions of the albums “the Real Thing” and “Angel Dust” in 2015.

Daniel Defoe

Most famous for his novel Robinson Crusoe, the English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer, and spy Daniel Defoe sadly died 24 April 1731. Daniel Foe (his original name) was probably born in Fore Street in the parish of St. Giles Cripplegate, London. Defoe later added the aristocratic-sounding “De” to his name, and on occasion claimed descent from the family of De Beau Faux. His birthdate and birthplace are uncertain, and sources offer dates from 1659–1662. His father James Foe was a prosperous tallow chandler and a member of the Worshipful Company of Butchers. In Defoe’s early life, he experienced some of the most unusual occurrences in English history: in 1665, 70,000 were killed by the Great Plague of London, and next year, the Great Fire of London left only Defoe’s house plus two other houses standing in his neighbourhood. In 1667, when he was probably about seven, a Dutch fleet sailed up the Medway via the River Thames and attacked the town of Chatham in the raid on the Medway. His mother Annie had died by the time he was about ten. Defoe was educated at the Rev. James Fisher’s boarding school in Pixham Lane in Dorking, Surrey. His parents were Presbyterian dissenters, and around the age of 14 he attended a dissenting academy at Newington Green in London run by Charles Morton, and he is believed to have attended the Newington Green Unitarian Church when the English government persecuted those who chose to worship outside the Church of England.

Defoe became a general merchant, dealing at different times in hosiery, general woollen goods, and wine. His ambitions were great and he was able to buy a country estate and a ship (as well as civets to make perfume), though he was rarely out of debt. In 1684, Defoe married Mary Tuffley, the daughter of a London merchant, receiving a dowry of £3,700. With his debts and political difficulties, the marriage may have been troubled, but it lasted 50 years and produced eight children. In 1685, Defoe joined the ill-fated Monmouth Rebellion but gained a pardon, by which he escaped the Bloody Assizes of Judge George Jeffreys. Queen Mary and her husband William III were jointly crowned in 1688, and Defoe became one of William’s close allies and a secret agent. Some of the new policies led to conflict with France, thus damaging prosperous trade relationships for Defoe, who had established himself as a merchant. In 1692, Defoe was arrested for debts of £700, though his total debts may have amounted to £17,000. His laments were loud and he always defended unfortunate debtors. However some of his financial dealings may have been “slightly irregular”. Following his release, he probably travelled in Europe and Scotland, and it may have been at this time that he traded wine to Cadiz, Porto, and Lisbon. By 1695, he was back in England, now formally using the name “Defoe” and serving as a “commissioner of the glass duty”, responsible for collecting taxes on bottles. In 1696, he ran a tile and brick factory in what is now Tilbury in Essex and lived in the parish of Chadwell St Mary.

Defoe’s first publication was An Essay upon Projects, a series of proposals for social and economic improvement, published in 1697. From 1697 to 1698, he defended the right of King William III to a standing army during disarmament, after the Treaty of Ryswick (1697) had ended the Nine Years’ War (1688–97). His most successful poem, The True-Born Englishman (1701), defended the king against the perceived xenophobia of his enemies, satirising the English claim to racial purity. In 1701, Defoe presented the Legion’s Memorial to the Speaker of the House of Commons, later his employer Robert Harley, flanked by a guard of sixteen gentlemen of quality. It demanded the release of the Kentish petitioners, who had asked Parliament to support the king in an imminent war against France. However The death of William III in 1702 once again created a political upheaval, as the king was replaced by Queen Anne who immediately began her offensive against Nonconformists. Defoe became a target, for his pamphleteering and political activities and he was arrest and placement in a pillory on 31 July 1703, principally on account of his December 1702 pamphlet entitled The Shortest-Way with the Dissenters; Or, Proposals for the Establishment of the Church, purporting to argue for their extermination, in which he ruthlessly satirised both the High church Tories and those Dissenters who hypocritically practised so-called “occasional conformity”, such as his Stoke Newington neighbour Sir Thomas Abney. Defoe was arrested and charged with seditious libel. He was found guilty after a trial at the Old Bailey in front of the notoriously sadistic judge Salathiel Lovell Who sentenced him to a punitive fine, to public humiliation in a pillory, and to an indeterminate length of imprisonment which would only end upon the discharge of the punitive fine. According to legend, the publication of his poem Hymn to the Pillory caused his audience at the pillory to throw flowers instead of the customary harmful and noxious objects and to drink to his health.

After his three days in the pillory, Defoe went into Newgate Prison. Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, brokered his release in exchange for Defoe’s co-operation as an intelligence agent for the Tories. In exchange for such co-operation with the rival political side, Harley paid some of Defoe’s outstanding debts. Within a week of his release from prison, Defoe witnessed the Great Storm of 1703, which raged through the night of 26/27 November. It caused severe damage to London and Bristol, uprooted millions of trees, and killed more than 8,000 people, mostly at sea. The event became the subject of Defoe’s The Storm (1704), which includes a collection of witness accounts of the tempest. In 1704 he set up his periodical A Review of the Affairs of France which supported the Harley Ministry, chronicling the events of the War of the Spanish Succession (1702–1714). The Review ran three times a week without break until 1713. Defoe was involved in the Gregg Affair an unscrupulous clerk William Gregg committed treason After seeing vital state papers left lying in the open. After 1708, Defoe continued writing the Review to support Godolphin, then again to support Harley and the Tories in the Tory ministry of 1710–1714. The Tories fell from power with the death of Queen Anne, but Defoe continued doing intelligence work for the Whig government, writing “Tory” pamphlets that undermined the Tory point of view.

Not all of Defoe’s pamphlet writing was political. One pamphlet was originally published anonymously, entitled “A True Relation of the Apparition of One Mrs. Veal the Next Day after her Death to One Mrs. Bargrave at Canterbury the 8th of September, 1705.” It deals with interaction between the spiritual realm and the physical realm and was most likely written in support of Charles Drelincourt’s The Christian Defense against the Fears of Death (1651). It describes Mrs. Bargrave’s encounter with her old friend Mrs. Veal after she had died. As many as 545 titles have been credited to Defoe, ranging from satirical poems, political and religious pamphlets, and volumes. (Furbank and Owens argue for the much smaller number of 276 published items in Critical Bibliography (1998).

Sadly by 1692 His ambitious business ventures saw him bankrupt again with a wife and seven children to support. In 1703, he published a satirical pamphlet against the High Tories and in favour of religious tolerance entitled The Shortest-Way with the Dissenters; Or, Proposals for the Establishment of the Church and was once again prosecuted for seditious libel and was sentenced to be pilloried, fined 200 marks, and detained at the Queen’s pleasure. He wrote to William Paterson, the London Scot and founder of the Bank of England and part instigator of the Darien scheme, who was in the confidence of Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, leading minister and spymaster in the English Government. Harley accepted Defoe’s services and released him in 1703. He immediately published The Review, which appeared weekly, then three times a week, which became the main mouthpiece of the English Government promoting the Act of Union 1707. In 1709, Defoe authored a rather lengthy book entitled The History of the Union of Great Britain, which attempts to explain the facts leading up to the Act of Union 1707, dating to 6 December 1604 when King James was presented with a proposal for unification. Defoe began his campaign in The Review and other pamphlets aimed at English opinion, claiming that it would end the threat from the north, gaining for the Treasury an “inexhaustible treasury of men”, a valuable new market increasing the power of England.

In 1706, Harley despatched Defoe to Edinburgh as a secret agent to assist the Treaty of Union. Defoe was a Presbyterian who had suffered in England for his convictions, and as such he was accepted as an adviser to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland and committees of the Parliament of Scotland. For Scotland, he used different arguments, even the opposite of those which he used in England, usually ignoring the English doctrine of the Sovereignty of Parliament. In 1709 Defoe published a massive history of the Union and also used his Scottish experience to write his Tour thro’ the whole Island of Great Britain, published in 1726. Defoe’s description of Glasgow (Glaschu) as a “Dear Green Place” has often been misquoted as a Gaelic translation for the town’s name. The Gaelic Glas could mean grey or green, while chu means dog or hollow. Glaschu probably means “Green Hollow”. The “Dear Green Place”, like much of Scotland, was a hotbed of unrest against the Union and The “Dear Green Place” and “City of God” both required government troops to put down the rioters tearing up copies of the Treaty at almost every mercat cross in Scotland.

In 1715 He wrote apologia Appeal to Honour and Justice, a defence of his part in Harley’s Tory ministry and in 1717 he wrote The Family Instructor, a conduct manual on religious duty; Minutes of the Negotiations of Monsr. Mesnager , in which he impersonates Nicolas Mesnager, the French plenipotentiary who negotiated the Treaty of Utrecht. In 1718 he wrote A Continuation of the Letters Writ by a Turkish Spy, a satire of European politics and religion, ostensibly written by a Muslim in Paris. In 1719 Defoe published Robinson Crusoe, which relates the story of a man’s shipwreck on a desert island for thirty years and his subsequent adventures. It is based in part on the story of the Scottish castaway Alexander Selkirk, who spent four years stranded in the Juan Fernández Islands. Defoe’s family also met someone called Crusoe in Bedford, from whence the information in these books was gathered and Defoe went to school in Stoke Newington, London, with a friend named Caruso.

Defoe’s next novel was Captain Singleton (1720), an adventure story whose first half covers a traversal of Africa and whose second half taps into the contemporary fascination with piracy. In 1720 Defoe wrote Memoirs of a Cavalier, which is set during the Thirty Years’ War and the English Civil War. Defoe next novel A Journal of the Plague Year was published in 1722 and accounts the Great Plague of London in 1665. Defoe’s next novel Colonel Jack was written in 1722 and follows an orphaned boy from a life of poverty and crime to colonial prosperity, military and marital imbroglios, and religious conversion, driven by a problematic notion of becoming a “gentleman.” Defoe Also wrote Moll Flanders,in 1722, Defoe another first-person picaresque novel of the fall and eventual redemption of a lone woman in 17th-century England. The titular heroine appears as a whore, bigamist, and thief, lives in The Mint, commits adultery and incest, and yet manages to retain the reader’s sympathy before finding redemption. Defoe’s final novel, Roxana: The Fortunate Mistress (1724), narrates the moral and spiritual decline of a high society courtesan.

Defoe also wrote conduct manuals, including Religious Courtship (1722), The Complete English Tradesman (1726) in which He discusses the role of the tradesman in England in comparison to tradesmen internationally, arguing that the British system of trade is far superior. He also wrote The New Family Instructor (1727) and published a number of books decrying the breakdown of the social order, such as The Great Law of Subordination Considered (1724) and Everybody’s Business is Nobody’s Business (1725) and works on the supernatural, like The Political History of the Devil (1726), A System of Magick (1727) and An Essay on the History and Reality of Apparitions (1727). His works on foreign travel and trade include A General History of Discoveries and Improvements (1727) and Atlas Maritimus and Commercialis (1728). Between 1724 and 1727 he wrote A tour thro’ the whole island of Great Britain (1724–27), which provided a panoramic survey of British trade on the eve of the Industrial Revolution.

During his life Defoe was a prolific and versatile writer, producing more than five hundred books, pamphlets, and journals on various topics, including politics, crime, religion, marriage, psychology, and the supernatural. He was also a pioneer of economic journalism. His novels Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders have also both been adapted for film and television.

Gideon Sundback

Most commonly associated with his work in the development of the zipper, Gideon Sundback was born April 24 in 1880. He was a Swedish-American electrical engineer who was born on Sonarp farm in Ödestugu Parish, in Jönköping County, Småland, Sweden.After his studies in Sweden, Sundback moved to Germany, where he studied at the polytechnic school in Bingen am Rhein. In 1903, Sundback took his engineer exam. In 1905, he emigrated to the United States. In 1905, Gideon Sundback started to work at Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1906, Sundback was hired to work for the Universal Fastener Company in Hoboken, New Jersey. Subsequently, Sundback was promoted to the position of head designer at Universal Fastener

Sundback made several advances in the development of the zipper between 1906 and 1914, while working for companies that later evolved into Talon, Inc. He built upon the previous work of other engineers such as Elias Howe, Max Wolff, and Whitcomb Judson. He was responsible for improving the “Judson C-curity Fastener”. At that time the company’s product was still based on hooks and eyes. Sundback developed an improved version of the C-curity, called the “Plako”, but it too had a strong tendency to pull apart, and wasn’t any more successful than the previous versions. Sundback finally solved the pulling-apart problem in 1913, with his invention of the first version not based on the hook-and-eye principle, the “Hookless Fastener No. 1″. He increased the number of fastening elements from four per inch to ten or eleven. His invention had two facing rows of teeth that pulled into a single piece by the slider, and increased the opening for the teeth guided by the slide.

In 1914, Sundback developed a version based on interlocking teeth, the “Hookless No. 2″, which was the modern metal zipper in all its essentials. In this fastener each tooth is punched to have a dimple on its bottom and a nib or conical projection on its top. The nib atop one tooth engages in the matching dimple in the bottom of the tooth that follows it on the other side as the two strips of teeth are brought together through the two Y channels of the slider. The teeth are crimped tightly to a strong fabric cord that is the selvage edge of the cloth tape that attaches the zipper to the garment, with the teeth on one side offset by half a tooth’s height from those on the other side’s tape. They are held so tightly to the cord and tape that once meshed there is not enough play to let them pull apart. A tooth cannot rise up off the nib below it enough to break free, and its nib on top cannot drop out of the dimple in the tooth above it. U.S. Patent 1,219,881 for the “Separable Fastener” was issued in 1917.

The name zipper was created in 1923 by B.F. Goodrich, who used the device on their new boots. Initially, boots and tobacco pouches were the primary use for zippers; it took another twenty years before they caught on in the fashion industry. About the time of World War II the zipper achieved wide acceptance for the flies of trousers and the plackets of skirts and dresses.

Whitcomb L. Judson was a lover of gadgets and machines and the idea for his “clasp locker” came from when a friend had a stiff back from trying to fasten his shoes. Judson’s clasp locker was used mostly on mailbags, tobacco pouches and shoes. However, his design, like most first inventions needed to be fine-tuned. A more practical version came on the scene in 1913 when a Swedish-born engineer, Gideon Sundback revised Judson’s idea and made his with metal teeth instead of a hook and eye design. In 1917, Sundback patented his “separable fastener.” The name changed again when the B. F. Goodrich Co. used it in rubber boots, galoshes, and called it the “zipper” because the boots could be fastened with one hand. The 1940s brought about research in Europe of the coil zipper design. The first design was of interlocking brass coils. However, since they could be permanently bent out of shape, making the zipper stop functioning, it was rather bad for business and wasn’t too practical. The new design was improved after the discovery of stronger, more flexible synthetics.

Administrative Professionals Day

Administrative Professionals Day (also known as Secretaries Day or Admin Day) takes place yearly on 24 April in a small number of countries. It is not a public holiday in any of them. In some countries, it falls within Administrative Professionals Week (the last full week of April in the United States). The day recognizes the work of secretaries, administrative assistants, receptionists, and other administrative support professionals. Typically administrative professionals are given cards, flowers, chocolates, kebabs and lunches.

The origins of Administrative Professionals Day go back to World War II, when there was a shortage of skilled administrative personnel in the United States due to Depression-era birth-rate decline and booming post-war business. So The National Secretaries Association, was founded in 1942, to recognize the contributions of administrative personnel to the economy, support their personal development, and to help attract workers to the administrative field. Key figures who created the holiday were the president of the National Secretaries Association, Mary Barrett; president of Dictaphone Corporation, C. King Woodbridge; and public relations account executives at Young & Rubicam, Harry F. Klemfuss and Daren Ball. Then In 1981 The National Secretaries Association’s name was changed to Professional Secretaries International and to the International Association of Administrative Professionals (IAAP) in 1988. The official period of celebration was first proclaimed by U.S. Secretary of Commerce Charles W. Sawyer as “National Secretaries Week”, which was held June 1–7 in 1952 with Wednesday, June 4 designated as National Secretaries’ Day. The first Secretaries’ Day was sponsored by the National Secretaries Association with the support of corporate groups.[

In 1955, the observance date of National Secretaries Week was moved to the last full week of April, with Wednesday now designated as Administrative Professionals Day. The name was changed to Professional Secretaries Week in 1981 and became Administrative Professionals Week in 2000 to encompass the expanding responsibilities and wide-ranging job titles of administrative support staff in the modern economy. The week-long observance was created in order to space out the bookings at restaurants, country clubs, and other places where administrative professionals would be taken out to lunch.[2]