United Nations Anti Bullying Day

United Nations Anti Bullying Day takes place May 4. Bullying is the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate or aggressively dominate others. The purpose of International Stand Up to Bullying day is to educate people how to prevent, reduce and stop bullying. Many campaigns and events are designated to bullying prevention throughout the world. Bullying prevention campaigns and events include: Anti-Bullying Day, Anti-Bullying Week, International Day of Pink, International STAND UP to Bullying Day and National Bullying Prevention Month. Anti-Bullying laws in the U.S. have also been enacted in 23 of its 50 states, making bullying in schools illegal.

Bullying can be defined in many different ways. The United Kingdom has no legal definition of bullying, while some states in the United States have laws against it. Bullying is divided into four basic types of abuse – emotional (sometimes called relational), verbal, physical, and cyber. It typically involves subtle methods of coercion, such as intimidation. Bullying ranges from one-on-one, individual bullying through to group bullying called mobbing, in which the bully may have one or more “lieutenants” who may seem to be willing to assist the primary bully in his or her bullying activities. Bullying in school and the workplace is also referred to as peer abuse. Robert W. Fuller has analyzed bullying in the context of rankism.

Bullying is often repeated and habitual. One essential prerequisite is the perception, by the bully or by others, of an imbalance of social or physical power, which distinguishes bullying from conflict. Behaviors used to assert such domination can include verbal harassment or threat, physical assault or coercion, and such acts may be directed repeatedly towards particular targets. Rationalizations of such behavior sometimes include differences of social class, race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, appearance, behavior, body language, personality, reputation, lineage, strength, size or ability. If bullying is done by a group, it is called mobbing.

A bullying culture can develop in any context in which humans interact with each other. This includes school, family, the workplace, home, and neighborhoods. The main platform for bullying is on social media websites. In a 2012 study of male adolescent American football players, “the strongest predictor of bullying was the perception of whether the most influential male in a player’s life would approve of the bullying behavior”.

Individual bullying tactics can be perpetrated by a single person against a target or targets and can be classified into four types. Collective bullying is known as mobbing, and can include any of the individual types of bullying. Physical, verbal, and relational bullying are most prevalent in primary school and could also begin much earlier whilst continuing into later stages in individuals lives. It is stated that Cyber-bullying is more common in secondary school than in primary school.

Physical bullying hurts someone’s body or damages their possessions. Stealing, shoving, hitting, fighting, and destroying property all are types of physical bullying. Physical bullying is rarely the first form of bullying that a target will experience. Often bullying will begin in a different form and later progress to physical violence. In physical bullying the main weapon the bully uses is their body when attacking their target. Sometimes groups of young adults will target and alienate a peer because of some adolescent prejudice. This can quickly lead to a situation where they are being taunted, tortured, and beaten-up by their classmates. Physical bullying will often escalate over time, and can lead to a tragic ending, and therefore must be stopped quickly to prevent any further escalation.

Verbal bullying is conducted by speaking. Calling names, spreading rumors, threatening somebody, and making fun of others are all forms of verbal bullying. Verbal bullying is one of the most common types of bullying. In verbal bullying the main weapon the bully uses is their voice. In many cases, verbal bullying is the province of girls. Girls are more subtle (and can be more devastating), in general, than boys. Girls use verbal bullying, as well as social exclusion techniques, to dominate and control other individuals and show their superiority and power. However, there are also many boys with subtlety enough to use verbal techniques for domination, and who are practiced in using words when they want to avoid the trouble that can come with physically bullying someone else.

Relational bullying is done with the intent to hurt somebody’s reputation or social standing which can also link in with the techniques included in physical and verbal bullying. Relational Bullying is a form of bullying common amongst youth, but particularly upon girls. Relational bullying can be used as a tool by bullies to both improve their social standing and control others. Unlike physical bullying which is obvious, relational bullying is not overt and can continue for a long time without being noticed.

Cyber bullying is the use of technology to harass, threaten, embarrass, or target another person. When an adult is involved, it may meet the definition of cyber-harassment or cyberstalking, a crime that can have legal consequences and involve jail time. This includes email, instant messaging, social networking sites (such as Facebook), text messages, and cell phones.

Workplace bullying can occur in may jobs such as Information Technology, The legal Profession, medicine, nursing, teaching or blue collar jobs. It occurs when an employee experiences a persistent pattern of mistreatment from others in the workplace that causes harm. Workplace bullying can include such tactics as verbal, nonverbal, psychological, physical abuse and humiliation. This type of workplace aggression is particularly difficult because, unlike the typical forms of school bullying, workplace bullies often operate within the established rules and policies of their organization and their society. Bullying in the workplace is in the majority of cases reported as having been perpetrated by someone in authority over the target. However, bullies can also be peers, and occasionally can be subordinates.

Research has also investigated the impact of the larger organizational context on bullying as well as the group-level processes that impact on the incidence, and maintenance of bullying behavior. Bullying can be covert or overt. It may be missed by superiors or known by many throughout the organization. Negative effects are not limited to the targeted individuals, and may lead to a decline in employee morale and a change in organizational culture.

Collective bullying tactics are employed by more than one individual against a target or targets. Trolling behavior on social media, although generally assumed to be individual in nature by the casual reader, can sometime be organized by many. Mobbing refers to the bullying of an individual by a group, in any context, such as a family, peer group, school, workplace, neighborhood, community, or online. When it occurs as emotional abuse in the workplace, such as “ganging up” by co-workers, subordinates or superiors, to force someone out of the workplace through rumor, innuendo, intimidation, humiliation, discrediting, and isolation, it is also referred to as malicious, nonsexual, nonracial / racial, general harassment.

Bullying is typically ongoing and not isolated behaviour. Common ways that people try to respond, are to try to ignore it, to confront the bullies or to turn to an authority figure to try and address it. Ignoring it often does nothing to stop the bullying continuing, and it can become worse over time. It can be important to address bullying behaviour early on, as it can be easier to control the earlier it is detected. Bystanders play an important role in responding to bullying, as doing nothing can encourage it to continue, while small steps that oppose the behaviour can reduce it. Authority figures can also play an important role, such as parents in child or adolescent situations, or supervisors, human-resources staff or parent-bodies in workplace and volunteer settings. Authority figures can be influential in recognising and stopping bullying behaviour, and creating an environment where it doesn’t continue.n many situations however people acting as authority figures are untrained and unqualified, do not know how to respond, and can make the situation worse. In some cases the authority figures even support the people doing the bullying, facilitating it continuing and increasing the isolation and marginalising of the target. Some of the most effective ways to respond, are to recognise that harmful behaviour is taking place, and creating an environment where it won’t continue. People that are being targeted have little control over which authority figures they can turn to and how such matters would be addressed, however one means of support is to find a counsellor or psychologist that is trained in handling bullying.

International and National Events and Holdays happening on May 4

  • Bike To School Day
  • United States Bird Day
  • Great American Grump Out
  • International Firefighters Day
  • National Candied Orange Peel Day
  • National Orange Juice Day
  • National School Nurse Day
  • Occupational Safety and Health Professional Day
  • Petite and Proud Day
  • Renewal Day
  • Respect For Chickens Day
  • World Give Day

MCA (Beastie Boys)

Adam Yauch (A.K.A MCA) from the American hip hop band the Beastie Boys sadly died 4 May 2012. He was born 5 August 1964 . The Beastie Boys formed in 1981 consisting of threeMCs and musicians Michael “Mike D” Diamond (vocals, drums), Adam “MCA” Yauch (vocals, bass) and Adam “Ad-Rock” Horovitz (vocals, guitar). Originally formed as a four-piece hardcore punk band by Michael Diamond (vocals), John Berry (guitar), Adam Yauch (bass) and Kate Schellenbach (drums), the band appeared on the compilation cassette New York Thrash, before recording their first EP Polly Wog Stew, in 1982 and the 1983 experimental hip hop 12-inch “Cooky Puss”. From 1984 they released a string of successful 12-inch singles, toured with Madonna in 1985 and released their debut album Licensed to Ill.

Prior to forming the Beastie Boys, Michael Diamond had been in Walden Jazz Band, BAN and The Young Aborigines. The Beastie Boys formed in July 1981 when the Young Aborigines bassist Jeremy Shatan left New York City for the summer and the remaining members Michael Diamond, John Berry and Kate Schellenbach formed a new hardcore punk band with Adam Yauch called Beastie Boys. The band supported Bad Brains, the Dead Kennedys, the Misfits and Reagan Youth at venues such as CBGB, A7, Trudy Hellers Place and Max’s Kansas City. in 1982, the Beastie Boys recorded the 7″ EP Polly Wog Stew at 171A studios, an early recorded example of New York hardcore. The Beastie Boys played Philip Pucci’s birthday recorded as a short concert film of the Beastie Boys, Beastie at Bard College’s Preston Drama Dance Department Theatre. Pucci’s Idea was to distribute a mixture of both a half dozen 16 mm Bell & Howell Filmo cameras, and 16 mm Bolex cameras to audience members and ask that they capture the Beastie Boys performance from the audience’s own point of view while a master sync sound camera filmed from the balcony of the abandoned theater. The opening band for that performance was The Young and the Useless, which featured Adam Horovitz as the lead singer. A one-minute clip of Beastie was used the “Egg Raid on Mojo” segment of the “Skills to Pay the Bills” video which later went on to be certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).

Berry left the group in 1982 (later forming Thwig, Big Fat Love and Bourbon Deluxe) and was replaced by Adam Horovitz, guitarist of The Young and the Useless. Kate Schellenbach left the band in 1984 And Diamond became drummer. TheBeastie Boys performed their first hip hop track, “Cooky Puss”, based on a prank call by the group to Carvel Ice Cream franchise in 1983. This demonstrated a combination of rap and the use of samples. Following the success of “Cooky Puss”, they began to incorporate rap into their sets. They decided to hire a DJ for their live shows and ended up getting an NYU student named Rick Rubin. Soon thereafter, Rubin began producing records. He formed Def Jam Recordings with fellow NY University student, Russell Simmons. Following the departure of drummer Kate Schellenbach Diamond, Yauch and Horovitz adopted their own hip hop monikers—Mike D, MCA and Ad-Rock respectively. They released the 12-inch single “Rock Hard” in 1984, In 1985, the band opened for John Lydon’s post-Sex Pistols band Public Image Ltd, supported Madonna on her North American The Virgin Tour and headlined with Fishbone and Murphy’s Law with DJ Hurricane. They also toured with Run DMC, Whodini, LL Cool J, and the Timex Social Club. The Beastie Boys released the songs “Hold It Now, Hit It” “She’s on It” And the double A-side 12″, “Paul Revere/The New Style”. In 1986 The band recleased the album Licensed to Ill which was lauded byRolling Stone magazine with the now-famous headline, “Three Idiots Create a Masterpiece”. Licensed to Ill became the first rap album to go number 1 on the Billboard 200 chart and number 2 on the Top R&B album charts and featured the songs, “(You Gotta) Fight for Your Right (To Party!)” and “No Sleep till Brooklyn”

the subsequent Licensed to Ill tour was mired in controversy. It featured female members of the crowd dancing in cages and a giant motorized inflatable penis similar to one used by The Rolling Stones in the 1970s. The tour was also troubled by lawsuits and arrests, with the band accused of provoking the crowd. This culminated in their notorious gig at the Royal Court Theatre, Liverpool, England which became a riot approximately 10 minutes after the Beasties hit the stage and culminated in the arrest of Adam Horovitz by Merseyside Police for assault causing grievous bodily harm. Following Licensed to Ill, the Beasties parted ways with Def Jam and ended their relationship with Rick Rubin . The movie Tougher Than Leather, by Rick Rubin was released as a star vehicle for Run-D.M.C. and Def Jam Recordings with appearances by the Beastie Boys was released in 1988. In 1989 Beastie Boys released their second album, Paul’s Boutique”named after a Lower East Manhattan thrift store andfeaturing the song, “Hey Ladies”. Rolling Stone described the album as “the Pet Sounds/The Dark Side of the Moon of hip hop.”Paul’s Boutique is a sample-laden album Produced by the Dust Brothers and Matt Dike.Rolling Stone ranked it number 156 on its list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. due to its large array of samples and intricate use of multi-layering. It was remastered and re-released in 2009.

The follow-up album, Check Your Head, was released in 1992. Featuring the songs “So What’cha Want”, “Pass the Mic”, Lighten Up”,”Something’s Got to Give”,”Time for Livin’”, and a Sly & the Family Stone cover. It was recorded in the band’s own “G-Son” studio in Atwater Village, California And the band was influenced to play instruments on this album by Dutch group Urban Dance Squad; with Mike D on drums, Yauch on bass, Horovitz on guitar and Mark Ramos Nishita (“Keyboard Money Mark”) on keyboards and introduced a more experimental direction, with funk and jazz inspired songs. The Beastie Boys signed an eclectic roster of artists to their Grand Royal label, including Luscious Jackson, Sean Lennon and promising Australian artist Ben Lee. The group owned Grand Royal Records until 2001 when it was then sold. In 1993, the Beastie Boys contributed the track “It’s the New Style” (with DJ Hurricane) to the AIDS benefit album No Alternative, produced by the Red Hot Organization.The Beastie Boys also published Grand Royal Magazine, with the first edition in 1993 featuring a cover story on Bruce Lee, artwork by George Clinton, and interviews with Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and A Tribe Called Quest MC Q-Tip. A 1995 issue contained a memorable piece on the mullet. The Oxford English Dictionary cites this as the first published use of the term, which was coined, and popularized, by the Beastie Boys”. Grand Royal Magazine is also responsible for giving British band Sneaker Pimps their name.

The Beastie boys next album Ill Communication, was released in 1994, Featuring the singles “Get It Together” and “Sabotage” with a music video, directed by Spike Jonze. In 1994 the Beastie Boys also released Some Old Bullshit, featuring the band’s early independent material and headlined at Lollapalooza with The Smashing Pumpkins. the Beastie Boys also performed three concerts (in Los Angeles, New York City, and Washington D.C.) to raise money for the Milarepa Fund and dedicated the royalties from “Shambala” and “Bodhisattva Vow” to the cause. The Milarepa Fund aims to raise awareness of Tibetan human rights issues and the exile of the Dalai Lama. In 1996, Yauch organized the largest rock benefit show since 1985’s Live Aid – the Tibetan Freedom Concert, a two-day festival at Golden Gate Park in San Francisco that attracted over 100,000 attendees. The Beastie Boys also played shows at Madison Square Garden and Chicago’s Rosemont Horizon. One dollar from each ticket sold went through Milarepa to local charities in each city on the tour. The Beastie Boys toured South America and Southeast Asia and released Aglio e Olio, a collection of eight songs lasting just 11 minutes harking back to their punk roots, in 1995. The in Sound from Way Out!, a collection of previously released jazz/funk instrumentals, was released on Grand Royal in 1996 as a homage to electronic pop music pioneers Perrey and Kingsley. In 1992, The Beastie Boys were prosecuted for unlicensed infringement ofcopyright after they sampled portions of the sound recording of “Choir” by James Newton in various renditions of their song “Pass the Mic” However The district court said that no license was required because the three-note segment of “Choir” lacked the requisite originality and was therefore not copyrightable.

Beastie Boys next album Hello Nasty was released in 1998 and featured bombastic beats, rap samples, and experimental sounds together with the addition of Mix Master Mike, this featured the song “Intergalactic”. The Beastie Boys won two Grammy Awards in 1999, receiving the Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album for Hello Nasty as well as the Grammy Award for Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group for “Intergalactic” and won Video Vanguard Award for their contribution to music videos at the 1998 MTV Video Music Awards. they also won the award for Best Hip Hop Video for their hit song “Intergalactic” At the1999 MTV Video Music Awards. The Beastie Boys also toured during 1998 and in1999, Beastie Boys joined Elvis Costello to play “Radio Radio” on the 25th anniversary season of Saturday Night Live. In 1999 The Beastie Boys released The Sounds of Science, a two-CD anthology of their works featuring one new song “Alive”, reachedIn 2000, Beastie Boys had planned to co-headline the “Rhyme and Reason Tour” with Rage Against the Machine and Busta Rhymes, but the tour was canceled when drummer Mike D suffered a serious injury following a bicycle accident which needed surgery and extensive rehabilitation. By the time he recovered, Rage Against the Machine had disbanded, although they would reunite seven years later. Mike D recorded an album, Country Mike’s Greatest Hits, Under the name “Country Mike” and Adam “Ad-Rock” Horovitz’s side project BS 2000 also released Simply Mortified in 2001.

Following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. The band increased their level of political activism organizing and headlining the New Yorkers Against Violence Concert at the Hamerstein Ballroom in October 2001. in 2002 the Beastie Boys released the protest song “In A World Gone Mad”, against the 2003 Iraq war. The 19th and 20th Tibetan Freedom Concerts were held in Tokyo and Taipei, Beastie Boys’ first Taiwan appearance. Beastie Boys also headlined the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival. The song “”Ch-Check It Out”, debuted on The O.C. in “The Vegas” episode from Season 1. In 2004 The Beastie Boys released the album To the 5 Boroughs featuring the song “Ch-Check It Out”. The album caused controversy with allegations that it installed spyware when inserted into the CD drive of a computer. The band denied this, stating that there is no copy protection software on the albums sold in the US and UK. The Beastie Boys rleased their next album the Mix-Up in 2007 and played several tracks from the album at the 2007 Virgin Festival at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore, Maryland and appeared at numerous festivals includingSónar (Spain), Roskilde (Denmark), Hurricane/ Southside (Germany), Bestival (Isle of Wight), Electric Picnic (Ireland) and Open’er Festival (Poland). Beastie Boys performed at the UK leg of Live Earth July 7, 2007 at Wembley Stadium, London with “Sabotage”, “So What’cha Want”, “Intergalactic”, and “Sure Shot” andworked with Reverb, a non-profit environmental organization, on their 2007 summer tour.

In 2008 They won a Grammy for The Mix-Up in the “Best Pop Instrumental Album” category at the 50th Annual Grammy Awards and Hello Nasty was also reissued on September 22, 2009. The Beastie Boys appeared at Bonnaroo Music and Arts Festival and performed the new single from the album titled “Too Many Rappers” alongside rapper Nas. Yauch announced the cancellation of several tour dates and the postponement of the new album due to the discovery of a cancerous tumor in his parotid gland and a lymph node. The group also had to cancel their co-headlining gig at the Osheaga Festival in Montreal as well as a headlining spot at 2009’s Lollapalooza and also another headlining spot for the first night of the All Points West Festival in Jersey City, New Jersey. The Beastie Boys album Hot Sauce Committee Part 2 was eventually released in 2011 containing the same 16 tracks originally slated for inclusion on Hot Sauce Committee Part 1 including a collaboration with Santigold who co-wrote and sang with the band on the track “Don’t Play No Game That I Can’t Win”. The third single for the album was “Make Some Noise” was made available for download on April 11, 2011 as well as a limited edition 7″ vinyl single for Record Store Day five days later with a Passion Pit remix of the track as a b-side which wassubsequently made available via their blog.

In 2012 The Beastie Boys were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fames by Chuck D and LL Cool J. Sadly On May 4, 2012, Yauch died from cancer at the age of 47. In 2014 A children’s playground in Brooklyn was renamed for Adam Yauch in his honour. Mike D stated that neither he nor Horovitz would ever perform under the name the Beastie Boys again out of respect for Yauch. Sadly Founding Beastie Boys guitarist John Berry died on May 19, 2016, aged 52, as a result of frontotemporal dementia,after a decline of health for several years. He was credited with coming up with the Beastie Boys name, and played guitar on the first EP the Beastie Boys recorded. Before the Beastie Boys, he was also a part of Even Worse, Big Fat Love, Highway Stars, Bourbon Deluxe, and Idaho. The first Beastie Boys show took place at Berry’s loft.

The group sold 22 million albums in the United States and 40 million albums worldwide, making them, according to Billboard, “the biggest-selling rap group” since 1991. With seven platinum or better albums from 1986–2004, the Beastie Boys were one of the longest-lived hip hop acts worldwide, and they continued to enjoy commercial and critical success more than 25 years after Licensed to Ill. In 2009, the group released digitally remastered deluxe editions of their albums Paul’s Boutique, Check Your Head, Ill Communication and Hello Nasty. Their eighth studio album, Hot Sauce Committee Part Two, was released in 2011, and received positive reviews. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in April 2012, “just the third rap group to enter the Hall, after Run-D.M.C. (2009) and Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five (2007).” Sadly The following month, MCA died of cancer of the parotid salivary gland, which led to the speculation that the other members may decide to disband the group.

Star Wars Day

Star Wars takes place annually on May 4th to celebrate Star Wars culture, books and honour the films. The date was chosen because of the popularity of a common pun “May the fourth be with you”. If you wanted To prolong the celebrations you could also try Revenge of the 5ith, The la5t Jedi, Ro6ue One or Revenge of the Si(x)th. The original quote is derived from the famous quote ‘May the Force be with you” and was first used in an advertisement placed in the London Evening News when Margaret Thatcher was elected Britain’s first female Prime Minister on May 4, 1979, and The Conservative political party placed an advertisement in The London Evening News which read “May the Fourth Be with You, Maggie. Congratulations.” The line was also recorded in the UK Parliament’s Hansard. Star Wars creator George Lucas was also asked to say the famous sentence “May the Force be with you” during a 2005 interview on German news Channel N24 and the nterpreter simultaneously interpreted the sentence into German as Am 4. Mai sind wir bei Ihnen (“On May 4 we are with you.”). The first organized celebration of Star Wars Day took place in Toronto, Ontario, Canada at the Toronto Underground Cinema in 2011 festivities included an Original Trilogy Trivia Game Show; a costume contest with celebrity judges; and the web’s best tribute films, mash-ups, parodies, and remixes on the big screen. The second annual edition took place on Friday, May 4, 2012. In 2013, Disney’sHollywood Studios is celebrating the holiday with several Star Wars events and festivities.

Phantom Menace

The first film in the Star Wars saga “the Phantom Menace” takes place during a trade dispute between The greedy Trade Federation and the Galactic Federation Over the Taxation of Trade Routes, and the Trade Federation blockade many trade routes. So two Jedi Knights Qui Gonn Jinn and Obi Wan Kenobi are despatched to negotiate. Meanwhile the evil Darth Sidious, a Sith Lord and the Trade Federation’s secret adviser, uses the situation to his advantage and orders Federation Viceroy Nute Gunray to kill the Jedi and invade Naboo with an army of battle droids.  The Jedi escape and flee to Naboo. During the invasion, Qui-Gon encounters a Gungan outcast who leads the Jedi to an underwater Gungan city. The Jedi unsuccessfully try to persuade the Gungan leader, Boss Nass, into helping the people of Naboo. They journey to Theed, and rescue Queen Amidala, the ruler of the Naboo people, before escaping on her royal starship,

Amidala’s ship lands on the desert planet Tatooine. Qui-Gon, Jar Jar, astromech droid R2-D2, and Amidala visit Mos Espa where they meet the shop’s owner Watto and his nine-year-old slave, Anakin Skywalker. . Qui-Gon senses a strong presence of the Force within Anakin and is convinced that he is the “chosen one” of Jedi prophecy who will bring balance to the Force.  Anakin wins his freedom in a Podrace, And joins the group to be trained as a Jedi. En route to their starship, Qui-Gon confronts Darth Maul, Darth Sidious’s apprentice,

Qui-Gon and Obi-Wan escort Amidala to the Republic capital planet of Coruscant so that she can plead her people’s case to Chancellor Valorum and the Galactic Senate. Qui-Gon asks the Jedi Council for permission to train Anakin as a Jedi, Naboo’s Senator Palpatine persuades Amidala to make a vote of no confidence in Valorum and to elect him instead. Frustrated by the lack of action, Amidala then decides to return to Naboo accompanied by Qui-Gon and Obi-Wan and persuades the Gungans To join the Naboo and fight against the droid army of the Trade Federation on the ground while Anakin inadvertently gets drawn into the battle against the Federation droid control ship in an exciting battle. While, back on Naboo, Qui-Gon and Obi-Wan battle Darth Maul in an exciting duel.

Attack of the Clones

The Second film “Attack of the Clones” takes place Ten years after the Trade Federation’s invasion of Naboo, now the Galactic Republic is threatened by a Separatist movement organized by former Jedi Master Count Dooku. Senator Padmé Amidala comes to coruscant and narrowly avoids being assassinated. So she is placed under the protection of Jedi Knight Obi-Wan Kenobi and his apprentice, Anakin Skywalker.  a second attempt is made on her life by the assassin, Zam Wesell so The Jedi Council assigns Obi-Wan to investigate further, while Anakin is assigned to escort Padmé back to Naboo.

Obi-Wan’s investigation leads him to the remote ocean planet Kamino, where he discovers an army of clones is being produced for the Republic, with bounty hunter Jango Fett serving as their genetic template. Obi-Wan deduces Jango to be the bounty hunter he is seeking, and follows him and his clone son, Boba, to the desert planet Geonosis via a homing beacon placed on their ship, the Slave I. Meanwhile, Anakin becomes troubled by premonitions of his mother, Shmi, in pain, and travels to Tatooine with Padmé to save her. They meet Owen Lars, Anakin’s stepbrother and the son of Shmi’s new husband, Cliegg Lars. Cliegg tells Anakin that Shmi was abducted by Tusken Raiders weeks earlier and is likely dead. Determined to find her, Anakin ventures out and finds Shmi at the Tusken campsite, where she dies in Anakin’s arms. Enraged, Anakin massacres the Tuskens and returns to the Lars homestead with Shmi’s body.

On Geonosis, Obi-Wan discovers a Separatist gathering led by Count Dooku, whom Obi-Wan learns had authorized Padmé’s assassination and is developing a battle droid army with Trade Federation Viceroy Nute Gunray. Obi-Wan is captured. With knowledge of the droid army, Supreme Chancellor Palpatine is voted emergency powers to send the clones into battle. Anakin and Padmé journey to Geonosis to rescue Obi-Wan, but are also captured. The three are sentenced to death. However procedings are interrupted by a battalion of Jedi and clone troopers led by Mace Windu and Yoda who battle the Droid army. Then Obi-Wan and Anakin pursue Dooku, and the three engage in a lightsaber battle before Yoda arrives and duels the count, however Dooku escapes to Coruscant… 

Revenge of the Sith

Three years after the start of the Clone Wars between the Galactic Republic and the Confederacy of Independent Systems, Jedi Knights Obi-Wan Kenobi and Anakin Skywalker lead a mission to rescue the kidnapped Supreme Chancellor Palpatine from Separatist commander General Grievous during a battle over the skies of Coruscant. After infiltrating Grievous’s flagship, the Jedi battle Count Dooku meanwhile Grievous flees. Soon after Anakin reunites with, Padmé Amidala, who reveals some unexpected news

Palpatine appoints Anakin to the Jedi Council as his representative, but the Council declines to grant Anakin the rank of Jedi Master and orders him to spy on Palpatine, shaking Anakin’s faith in the Jedi Meanwhile Palpatine encourages Anakin to follow revealing that he is a Sith Lord. Elsewhere Obi-Wan travels to the planet Utapau to deal with General Grievous, and Yoda travels to Kashyyyk to defend the planet from invasion. Anakin is torn between loyalties between his friend Palpatine and the Jedi Order. Things come to a head when Mace Windu, confronts the Sith Lord and Anakin makes a fateful life changing decision to join Palpatine meanwhile the clone troopers massacre the rest of the Jedi. The remaining Separatist leaders hiding on the volcanic planet Mustafar meet a similar grisly fate while Palpatine addresses the Galactic Senate, transforming the Republic into the Galactic Empire and declaring himself Emperor. Obi-Wan and Yoda return to Coruscant and learn of Anakin’s treachery. So Padmé and Obi-Wan travel to Mustafar however this ends in tragedy. On Coruscant, Yoda battles Palpatine before fleeing with Bail Organa. 

On the asteroid Polis Massa, Obi-Wan rejoins Yoda and Padmé gives birth to twins Luke and Leia before dying. A funeral is held for Padmé on Naboo. Palpatine rescues Anakin from Mustafar, who recieves medical treatment for his injuries. Obi-Wan and Yoda decide to conceal the twins from the Sith, as they are the galaxy’s only hope for freedom. Bail Organa adopts Leia as his own daughter and takes her to Alderaan, while Obi-Wan delivers Luke to his step-family Owen and Beru Lars on Tatooine. Yoda exiles himself to the planet Dagobah.

Rogue One

Rogue one sits between trilogies. It features An Imperial technician named Galen Erso who has a crisis of concience leaves the evil Empire and goes AWOL with his family Jyn and Lyra to the the remote planet Lahmu. Sadly though the Empire eventually locate him, catch up with him and take him prisoner and send his daughter Jyn to Wobani Labour Camp. However She is rescued by Guerrilla leader and Rebel extremist Saw Gerrera who teaches her to become a fighter with his militia as well as a smuggler and criminal.

However Jyn is abandoned by Gerrera, luckily though she is rescued by a Rebel named Ruescott Melshi and taken to the rebel base where she meets Mon Mothma and Cassian Andor. Meanwhile an Imperial Pilot Defector named Bodhi Rook is being held by Saw Gerrera at the holy city of Jedha having been sent by Galen Erso to warn the rebels that the Empire Is constructing a superweapon of unimagineable power called the Death Star, which is capable of destroying whole planets

So The Rebels send Jyn Erso and rebel pilot Cassian Andor to Jedha where they encounter two Mystic Warriors Chirrut Imwe and Baze Malbus battling the Imperial Invaders. They also encounter Saw Gerrera who is also waging his own guerrilla warfare on the Empire. Meanwhile the Empire led by Grand Moff Tarkin and Scientist Orson Krennic decide to demonstrate the Death Star’s destructive capacity on Jedha. And Cassian, Jyn, Bodhi Rook, Chirrut Imwe and Baze only just manage to escape the subsequent carnage. They are then sent to an Imperial Research Facility on the windswept, inhospitable planet Eadu on a mission to find and extract Galen Erso and are followed bth rebel fighters. Whilst on Eadu Jyn, Cassian, Bodhi Rook, Chirut Imwe and Baze Malbus discover that the technical blueprints for the Empire’s superweapon are being stored in another Imperial Facility on the planet Scarif. So they set off, unbeknownst to the Rebels, on an unsanctioned and very dangerous mission to Scarif to recover the technical blueprints for the Death Star…

Star Wars

Star Wars is The first film in the original Star Wars Trilogy and was originally released 25 May 1977. (Technically it is the fourth film, and chronologically the prequels take place before Star Wars, but were released sixteen years after this date). Star Wars features a young farm boy named Luke Skywalker who finds himself thrust unwittingly into a Rebellion to rid the galaxy of an evil empire after acquiring two droids C3POandR2D2, who have escaped from a spaceship which has come under attack from the Empire and landed on the desolate planet Tattooine. Along the way He meets an old Jedi Knight named Obi Wan Kenobi and discovers that one of the droids is carrying the technical data for the Empire’s terrifying new weapon ‘The Death Star’ which is capable of destroying whole planets. Luke also learns that he has a special power and asks Obi Wan to teach him to master it. On Tattoine he also meets charismatic smuggler Han Solo and his wookiee first mate Chewbacca, who are asked to take them to the planet Alderaaan, home of Princess Leia to help mount an attack on the Death Star. However Princess Leia has been captured by the evil Empire, led by The Evil Sith Lord Emperor Palpatine and his sinister apprentice Darth Vader and taken to theDeath Star and Alderaan has been destroyed. so the rebels mount a daring rescue attempt to free Princess Leia and Luke gets swept up in the battle to destroy the Death Star

Empire Strikes Back

Empire Strikes Back takes place Three years later, and sees the Rebels attacked by the Empire on the ice world of Hoth and Luke traveling to find Jedi Master Yoda, who is living in exile on the swamp-infested world Dagobah, to begin his Jedi training. The Rebels manage to escape Hoth hotly pursued by the Empire. However, Luke is interrupted from his training when Vader lures him into a trap by capturing Han and the others who have journeyed to Cloud City on Bespin seeking help from Han’s old acquaintance Lando Calrissian. During a fierce lightsaber duel, Vader reveals that he is in fact Luke’s father and used to be Anakin Skywalker, and attempts to turn Luke to the dark side.

Return of the Jedi

Return of the Jedi sees, Luke journeys to Tattoine to save Han from the clutches of the vile gangster Jabba the Hutt and then return to Yoda to complete his training. However, now over 900 years old, Yoda is on his deathbed. Before he passes away, Yoda confirms that Vader is Luke’s father; moments later, Obi-Wan’s spirit tells Luke that he must face his father before he can become a true Jedi, and that Leia is his twin sister. The Rebels then attempt to destroy a second Death Star which is being built near the forest moon of Endor and manage to pursuade the local inhabitants to help them. Meanwhile Luke confronts Vader as Palpatine watches; both Sith Lords intend to turn Luke to the dark side and take him as their apprentice. During the subsequent lightsaber duel, Luke succumbs to his anger and brutally overpowers Vader, but controls himself at the last minute; realizing that he is about to suffer his father’s fate, and he spares Vader’s life and declares his allegiance to the Jedi. An enraged Palpatine then attempts to kill Luke with Force lightning. However Darth Vader Redeems himself at the last moment, switching loyalties from the Empire to his Son, but pays the ultimate price. Subsequently Luke becomes a full-fledged Jedi, and the Rebels destroy the second Death Star.

The Force Awakens

Thirty years have passed since the Death Star was destroyed and Emperor Palpatine defeated, however a new evil power has risen in the form of the First Order led by the Sinister Supreme Leader Snoke and his acolyte Kyle Ren. (Adam Driver). Meanwhile on the remote planet of Jakku a young woman named Rey (Daisy Ridley) eeks out a meager living by scavenging parts from obsolete space ships in exchange for food, she finds a droid BB-8, which contains a top secret map. Then a defector named Finn (John Boyega) crash-lands on Jakku, where he meets Rey (Daisy Ridley), Together, the young duo try to escape theFirst Order who are in hot pursuit and encounter Han Solo (Harrison Ford) before finding themselves drawn into the fight against the evil First Order, led by Princess Leia (Carrie Fisher) and the search for Luke Skywalker (Mark Hamill), the last of the Jedi Knights, who mysteriously vanished after a former pupil turned evil.

The Last Jedi

Rey locates Luke and begins training as a Jedi, meanwhile the First Order led by Supreme Leader Snoke and Kylo Ren continue to pursue the Resistance led by Princess Leia. Kylo Ren lures Rey into a trap and After capturing Her, Kylo Ren also decides he has finally had enough of Supreme Leader Snoke and resorts to drastic action before fleeing.

E. Nesbit

Celebrated English author and poet Edith Nesbit sadly passed away on 4 May 1924. She was born 15th August 1858 and wrote or collaborated on over 60 books of fiction for children, several of which have been adapted for film and television. She was also a political activist and co founoded the Fabian Society, a precursor to the modern Labour Party. Nesbit published approximately 40 books for children, including novels, collections of stories and picture books. Collaborating with others, she published almost as many more.According to her biographer Julia Briggs, Nesbit was “the first modern writer for children”: “(Nesbit) helped to reverse the great tradition of children’s literature inaugurated by Lewis Carroll, George MacDonald and Kenneth Grahame, in turning away from their secondary worlds to the tough truths to be won from encounters with things-as-they-are, previously the province of adult novels.” Briggs also credits Nesbit with having invented the children’s adventure story. Noël Coward was a great admirer of hers and, in a letter to an early biographer Noel Streatfeild, wrote “she had an economy of phrase, and an unparalleled talent for evoking hot summer days in the English countryside.”

Among Nesbit’s best-known books are The Story of the Treasure Seekers (1898) and The Railway Children. This concerns a family who move to “Three Chimneys”, a house near the railway, after the father, who works at the Foreign office, is imprisoned after being falsely accused of spying. The children befriend an Old Gentleman who regularly takes the 9:15 train near their home; he is eventually able to help prove their father’s innocence, and the family is reunited. The family take care of a Russian exile, Mr Szczepansky, who came to England looking for his family (later located) and Jim, the grandson of the Old Gentleman, who suffers a broken leg in a tunnel. The theme of an innocent man being falsely imprisoned for espionage and finally vindicated might have been influenced by the Dreyfus Affair, which was a prominent worldwide news item a few years before the book was written. And the Russian exile, persecuted by the Tsars for writing “a beautiful book about poor people and how to help them” and subsequently helped by the children, was most likely an amalgam of the real-life dissidents Sergius Stepniak and Peter Kropotkin who were both friends of the author.

The Railway Children was also adapted into 1970 British drama film based on the novel by E. Nesbit. The film was directed by Lionel Jeffries, and stars Dinah Sheridan, Jenny Agutter (who had earlier featured in the successful BBC’s 1968 dramatisation of the novel), Sally Thomsett and Bernard Cribbins in leading roles. The film was released to cinemas in the United Kingdom on 21 December 1970. The film rights were bought by Lionel Jeffries. It was his directorial debut, and he was also responsible for writing the screenplay for the film. The Railway Children turned out to be a critical success, both at the time of its release and in later years. It has gone on to gain a place in several surveys of the greatest films ever made, including surveys conducted by the British Film Institute and Total Film magazine.

Nesbitt also wrote The Wouldbegoods (1899), which recount stories about the Bastables, a middle class family that has fallen on relatively hard times. The Railway Children is also extremely well known. Her children’s writing also included numerous plays and collections of verse.She created an innovative body of work that combined realistic, contemporary children in real-world settings with magical objects – what would now be classed as contemporary fantasy – and adventures and sometimes travel to fantastic worlds. In doing so, she was a direct or indirect influence on many subsequent writers, including P. L. Travers (author of Mary Poppins), Edward Eager, Diana Wynne Jones and J. K. Rowling.

C. S. Lewis wrote of her influence on his Narnia series and mentions the Bastable children in The Magician’s Nephew. Michael Moorcock would go on to write a series of steampunk novels with an adult Oswald Bastable (of The Treasure Seekers) as the lead character. Nesbit also wrote for adults, including eleven novels, short stories and four collections of horror and has left a long lasting legacy in the form of some great novels and Poems.

World Give Day

World Give Day was launched by GiveForward in 2010 for May 4 as “one day a year when people focus on giving. One day when people across the United States can join together to make a difference. One day, where every person, regardless of age or income level, can collectively have a huge impact. Whether people give money, time, resources, or random acts of kindness, it all helps.”

GiveForward.com was launched on August 14, 2008 in Chicago, Illinois. It is an online fundraising tool designed to help people raise money for the causes and organizations that they care about. GiveForward.com has become popular among the growing number of people who fundraise to help pay for a loved one’s medical bills. The Chicago Tribune called it the “future of medical fundraising in the Internet Age.”. GiveForward started an online and physical petition to support National Give Day. The purpose of this collection of signatures was to encourage the Mayor of Chicago, Richard M. Daley, to make May 4, 2010 the first National Give Day. GiveForward.com, has found a niche in the online fundraising industry by being one of few sites that allows people to fundraise for projects that are not affiliated with a registered 501(c)(3) (United States Internal Revenue Code). Due to the absence of this prerequisite, GiveForward cannot be designated a non-profit itself. Therefore GiveForward operates as a for-profit company with a strong social mission.

Since then Users have initiated fundraising pages on GiveForward.com to raise money for medical expenses incurred by a friend, a family member, or even a pet. In March 2009, two sisters used the site to raise $32,000 to pay for one sister’s kidney transplant. After David Hartsock, a skydiving instructor, saved a woman’s life after a parachute failure and became a quadriplegic, he raised over $150,000 on GiveForward.

International Firefighters Day

International Firefighters’ Day (IFFD) is observed annually on May 4. It was instituted In remembrance of five firefighters from the Geelong West Fire Brigade, Comprising of Garry Vredeveldt, Chris Evans, Stuart Davidson, Jason Thomas, and Matthew Armstrong , who all tragically died in tragic circumstances, While fighting a large bush fire in Linton, Victoria, Australia On December 2, 1998 after the wind suddenly changed direction engulfing the truck in which they were traveling in flames. This unfortunate incident inspired JJ Edmondson to bring about an international holiday, called International Fire Fighters Day, to support the lives lost and dedicated fire fighters who risk their lives every day to save life and property.

One of the most significant symbols of International Fire Fighters Day is the red and blue ribbon. This ribbon is cut precisely five centimeters long and one centimeter wide, with the two separate colors conjoined at the top. JJ Edmonson chose red and blue because the red stood for the element of fire whereas the blue would represent the element of water. Coincidentally, red and blue are also the colors recognized world-wide to signify emergency services; therefore, red and blue being the best choice of color to recognize an international holiday. The ribbon is traditionally worn on the lapel-otherwise known as the fold of fabric on a shirt- but is not limited to that certain spot. Some people may also put it on their cars visors, hats, hang them in windows or off of car mirrors, or even hang them from trees in their front lawn. The places this ribbon can be placed are plentiful- just be creative! The red and blue ribbon is a simple but yet effective way to show support for International Fire Fighters Day.

May 4 used to be a traditional Firefighters’ Day in many European countries, because it is the day of Saint Florian, patron saint of firefighters. St. Florian was a patron from Noricum, Rome in 300 AD, who was said to be one of the first commanding fire fighters of an actual battalion. As legend states, St. Florian saved an entire village engulfed in flames using just a single bucket of water. Legend also states, because of this act St. Florian is known as the protector of those who have come in danger of fire. The duties St. Florian performed for his province are the same duties that fire fighters around the world perform every day—with the same dedication and braveries. On May 4, St. Florian is globally recognized and honored and is also known as the day of St. Florian. Therefore, International Fire Fighters Day was chosen to be honored on May 4 in honor of the saint.

Fire prevention and the need for more intensive and thorough training is one of the main aspects of International Fire Fighters Day. Fire fighters and their agencies around the world are constantly stressing fire prevention: in schools, to the community, at public events, at assemblies and even to their own families. The safest way to keep fire fighters alive and home to their families is training. In many paid fire departments, there is a mandatory amount of required training for each individual to complete within each shift. Unfortunately, it is not the amount you train but how you train. Therefore, training needs to be as intense and realistic as it can be. This ideal is one that International Fire Fighters Day stresses. That the need for proper training is one that needs to be met, and therefore IFFD is an opportunity to do exactly this.

Although International Firefighters Day originated from the deaths of five wild land fire fighters, they are not the only aspect of the service recognized. On IFFD, every person in the emergency service career gets recognized; Hazardous Materials Specialists, Fire Prevention Specialists, paid firefighters, volunteer fire fighters, wild land fire fighters, heavy equipment operators/mechanics, Emergency Medical Technicians, and many more. Some of these jobs may seem insignificant; however, without all sectors of the emergency department services working together one would not hold up without the other; therefore, resulting in International Fire Fighters Day to be a time to celebrate everyone who serves in the emergency services.