World UFO Day Day

World UFO Day Day takes place annually on 2 July to commemorate the date of 2 July 1947 when an unidentified object crashed near Roswell, New Mexico, leading many to speculate that it was an alien space craft/flying saucer.

Following wide initial interest in the crashed “flying disc”, the US military stated that it was merely a conventional weather balloon. Interest subsequently waned until the late 1970s, when ufologists began promoting a variety of increasingly elaborate conspiracy theories, claiming that one or more alien spacecraft had crash-landed and that the extraterrestrial occupants had been recovered by the military, which then engaged in a cover-up.

In the 1990s, the US military published two reports disclosing the true nature of the crashed object: a nuclear test surveillance balloon from Project Mogul. Nevertheless, the Roswell incident continues to be of interest in popular media, and conspiracy theories surrounding the event persist. Roswell has been described as “the world’s most famous, most exhaustively investigated, and most thoroughly debunked UFO claim”.


More International and National events happening on 2 July

Ducktona 500
Freedom From Fear of Speaking Day
Hop-a-Park Day
I Forgot Day
Made in the USA Day
National Anisette Day
Special Recreation for the Disabled Day
World Sports Journalists Day

Vladimir Nabokov

Russian-born American novelist, poet, translator and entomologist Vladimir Nabokov sadly died 2 July 1977. He was born 22 April [O.S. 10 April] 1899 in Saint Petersburg, to a wealthy and prominent family of the Russian nobility that traced its roots to the 14th-century Tatar prince Nabok Murza, who entered into the service of the Tsars, and from whom the family name is derived. His father was the liberal lawyer, statesman, and journalist Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov  and his mother was the heiress Yelena Ivanovna née Rukavishnikova, the granddaughter of a millionaire gold-mine owner. His father was a leader of the pre-Revolutionary liberal Constitutional Democratic Party and wrote numerous books and articles about criminal law and politics. His cousins included the composer Nicolas Nabokov. His paternal grandfather, Dmitry Nabokov (1827–1904), was Russia’s Justice Minister during the reign of Alexander II. His paternal grandmother was the Baltic German Baroness Maria von Korff. He was also related to the composer Carl Heinrich Graun . Vladimir had four younger siblings: Sergey, Olga, Elena and Kirill. Sergey was killed in a Nazi concentration camp in 1945 after publicly denouncing Hitler’s regime. Ayn Rand recalled Olga (her close friend at Stoiunina Gymnasium) as a supporter of constitutional monarchy who first awakened Rand’s interest in politics.

Nabokov spent his childhood and youth in Saint Petersburg and at the country estate Vyra near Siverskaya, south of the city. . The family spoke Russian, English, and French in their household, and Nabokov was trilingual from an early age. The first English book his mother read to him was Misunderstood (1869) by Florence Montgomery.

In 1916, Nabokov published his first book, Stikhi (“Poems”), a collection of 68 Russian poems whilst attending Tenishev school in Saint Petersburg. Nabokov also inherited the estate Rozhdestveno, next to Vyra, from his uncle Vasily Ivanovich Rukavishnikov, but lost it in the October Revolution in 1917. After this, Nabokov’s father became a secretary of the Russian Provisional Government in Saint Petersburg. After the October Revolution, the family fled St. Petersburg for Crimea, and lived at a friend’s estate until September 1918 when they moved to Livadiya, at the time part of the Ukrainian Republic; Nabokov’s father became a minister of justice in the Crimean Regional Government.

After the withdrawal of the German Army in November 1918 and the defeat of the White Army (early 1919), the Nabokovs sought exile in western Europe. They settled briefly in England and Vladimir enrolled in Trinity College of the University of Cambridge, first studying zoology, then Slavic and Romance languages. His examination results on the first part of the Tripos, taken at the end of second year, were a starred first. He sat the second part of the exam in his fourth year, just after his father’s death which was marked second-class. His final examination result was second-class, and his BA conferred in 1922. Nabokov later drew on his Cambridge experiences to write several works, including the novels Glory and The Real Life of Sebastian Knight.

In 1920, Nabokov’s family moved to Berlin, where his father set up the émigré newspaper Rul’ (“Rudder”). Nabokov followed them to Berlin two years later, after completing his studies at Cambridge. Unfortunately Nabokov’s father was fatally shot in Berlin in 1922 by the Russian monarchist Pyotr Shabelsky-Bork as he was trying to shield the real target, Pavel Milyukov, a leader of the Constitutional Democratic Party-in-exile. Shortly after this, Nabokov’s mother and sister moved to Prague, however Nabokov stayed in Berlin, where he had become a recognised poet and writer within the émigré community and published under the nom de plume V. Sirin (a reference to the fabulous bird of Russian folklore). Nabokov also taught languages and gave tennis and boxing lessons. He stayed in Berlin for fifteen years within the lively Russian community of Berlin He knew little German and few Germans except for landladies, shopkeepers, and immigration officials at the police headquarters

In 1922, Nabokov became engaged to Svetlana Siewert; she broke off the engagement in early 1923, her parents worrying that he could not provide for her. In May 1923, he met a Russian-Jewish woman, Véra Evseyevna Slonim, at a charity ball in Berlin. They married in April 1925. Their only child, Dmitri, was born in 1934. In 1936, Véra lost her job because of the increasingly anti-Semitic environment; also in that year the assassin of Nabokov’s father was appointed second-in-command of the Russian émigré group. In 1937, he left Germany for France, where he had a short affair with Russian émigrée Irina Guadanini. His family followed him to France, making en route their last visit to Prague, then spent time in Cannes, Menton, Cap d’Antibes, and Fréjus and finally settled in Paris. Between 1926–38 Nabokov also wrote His first nine novels in Russian. In May 1940, the Nabokovs fled the advancing German troops to the United States on board the SS Champlain, with the exception of Nabokov’s brother Sergei, who died at the Neuengamme concentration camp on 9 January 1945.

The Nabokovs settled in Manhattan and Vladimir began volunteer work as an entomologist at the American Museum of Natural History. e Nabokovs resided in Wellesley, Massachusetts, during the 1941–42 academic year, Whereupon Nabokov joined the staff of Wellesley College in 1941 as resident lecturer in comparative literature and Nabokov is remembered as the founder of Wellesley’s Russian Department. In September 1942 they moved to Cambridge, where they lived until June 1948. Following a lecture tour through the United States, Nabokov returned to Wellesley for the 1944–45 academic year as a lecturer in Russian. In 1945, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. He served through the 1947–48 term as Wellesley’s one-man Russian Department, offering courses in Russian language and literature. He was also the curator of lepidoptery at Harvard University’s Museum of Comparative Zoology. In 1948 Nabokov left Wellesley to teach Russian and European literature at Cornell University, where he taught until 1959. Among his students at Cornell was future U.S. Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg.

In June 1953 Nabokov and his family went to Ashland, Oregon. There he finished Lolita and began writing the novel Pnin. He roamed the nearby mountains looking for butterflies, and wrote a poem called Lines Written in Oregon. On 1 October 1953, he and his family returned to Ithaca, New York, where he would later teach the young writer Thomas Pynchon

In 1955 Nabokov wrote Lolita while travelling on butterfly-collection trips in the western United States that he undertook every summer. Véra acted as “secretary, typist, editor, proofreader, translator and bibliographer; his agent, business manager, legal counsel and chauffeur; his research assistant, teaching assistant and professorial understudy”. Lolita became a great financial success and Nabokov returned to Europe and devoted himself to writing. His son obtained a position as an operatic bass at Reggio Emilia. On 1 October 1961, he and Véra moved to the Montreux Palace Hotel in Montreux, Switzerland; he stayed there until the end of his life. In 1962 he published Pale Fire. He also took tours to the Alps, Corsica, and Sicily to hunt butterflies and became an expert lepidopterist. Sadly In 1976 he was hospitalized with a fever doctors were unable to diagnose. He was rehospitalized in Lausanne in 1977, suffering from severe bronchial congestion. He died on 2 July in Montreux surrounded by his family His remains were cremated and buried at the Clarens cemetery in Montreux.

At the time of his death, he was working on a novel titled The Original of Laura. Véra and Dmitri which were entrusted with Nabokov’s literary executorship, In April 2008, Dmitri announced that he would publish the novel and The Original of Laura was published on 17 November 2009. Prior to this, several short excerpts of The Original of Laura were made public: German weekly Die Zeit reproduced some of Nabokov’s original index cards obtained by its reporter Malte Herwig in its 14 August 2008 issue. In the accompanying article Herwig concluded that Laura, although fragmentary, is “vintage Nabokov”. Lolita has since been ranked fourth in the list of the Modern Library 100 Best Novels in 2007 pale Fire was also ranked 53rd on the same list; and his memoir, Speak, Memory (1951), was listed eighth on publisher Random House’s list of the 20th century’s greatest nonfiction He was a finalist for the National Book Award for Fiction seven time

Nabokov became known as one of the leading prose stylists of the 20th century and is noted for his complex plots, clever word play, daring metaphors, and prose style capable of both parody and intense lyricism. He gained both fame and notoriety with his novel Lolita (1955), which tells of a grown man’s devouring passion for a twelve-year-old girl. This and his other novels, particularly Pale Fire (1962), won him a place among the greatest novelists of the 20th century. His longest novel, which met with a mixed response, is Ada (1969). He devoted more time to the composition of this novel than any of his others. Nabokov’s fiction is characterized by linguistic playfulness. His short story “The Vane Sisters” is famous in part for its acrostic final paragraph, in which the first letters of each word spell out a message from beyond the grave. In another of his short stories, “Signs andSymbols”, Nabokov creates a character suffering from an imaginary illness called “Referential Mania,” in which the afflicted is faced with a world of environmental objects exchanging coded messages.

Salvation Army Founding Day

Salvation Army Founding Day takes place annually on 2 July to commemorate the date of 2 July 1865 when one-time Methodist circuit-preacher William Booth and his wife Catherine  founded the Protestant Christian and  international charitable  organisation “the Salvation Army” In the Blind Beggar tavern. The objective Of the Salvation Army is “The advancement of the Christian religion … of education, the relief of poverty, and other charitable objects beneficial to society or the community of mankind as a whole”.

In 1878 Booth reorganised the mission, becoming its first General and introducing the military structure which has been retained as a matter of tradition.The purpose theology of the Salvation Army is derived from that of Methodism, Its founders sought to bring salvation to the poor, destitute, and hungry by meeting both their “physical and spiritual needs”. A peculiarity of the Army is that it gives its clergy titles of military ranks, such as “lieutenant” or “major”. It does not celebrate the rite of Baptism and Holy Communion. However, the Army’s doctrine is otherwise typical of holiness churches in the Wesleyan-Arminian tradition.

The current international leader of The Salvation Army and chief executive officer (CEO) is General Brian Peddle, who was elected by the High Council of The Salvation Army on 3 August 2018. The organisation currently reports a worldwide membership of over 1.7 million,consisting of soldiers, officers and adherents collectively known as Salvationists. It is present in 131 countries,running charity shops, operating shelters for the homeless and disaster relief and humanitarian aid to developing countries. Its highest priority is its Christian principles.

Thomas Savery

On 2 July 1698, the English inventor Thomas Savery patented an early steam engine for raising water and allowing motion to all sorts of mill work by the impellent force of fire, which will be of great use and advantage for draining mines, serving towns with water, and for the working of all sorts of mills which don’t have water or constant winds. He demonstrated it to the Royal Society on 14 June 1699. The patent has no illustrations or even description, but in 1702 Savery described the machine in his book The Miner’s Friend; or, An Engine to Raise Water by Fire, in which he claimed that it could pump water out of mines. Savery’s engine had no piston, and no moving parts except from the taps. It was operated by first raising steam in the boiler; the steam was then admitted to the working vessel, allowing it to blow out through a downpipe into the water that was to be raised. When the system was hot and therefore full of steam the tap between the boiler and the working vessel was shut, and if necessary the outside of the vessel was cooled. This made the steam inside it condense, creating a partial vacuum, and atmospheric pressure pushed water up the downpipe until the vessel was full.

At this point the tap below the vessel was closed, and the tap between it and the up-pipe opened, and more steam was admitted from the boiler. As the steam pressure built up, it forced the water from the vessel up the up-pipe to the top of the mine.However, his engine hadfour serious problems. First, every time water was admitted to the working vessel much of the heat was wasted in warming up the water that was being pumped. Secondly, the second stage of the process required high-pressure steam to force the water up, and the engine’s soldered joints were barely capable of withstanding high pressure steam and needed frequent repair. Thirdly, although this engine used positive steam pressure to push water up out of the engine (with no theoretical limit to the height to which water could be lifted by a single high-pressure engine) practical and safety considerations meant that in practice, to clear water from a deep mine would have needed a series of moderate-pressure engines all the way from the bottom level to the surface. Fourthly, water was pushed up into the engine only by atmospheric pressure (working against a condensed-steam ‘vacuum’), so the engine had to be no more than about 30 feet (9.1 m) above the water level – requiring it to be installed, operated, and maintained far down in the mine.

Savery’s original patent of July 1698 gave 14 years’ protection; the next year, 1699, an Act of Parliament was passed which extended his protection for a further 21 years. This Act became known as the “Fire Engine Act”. Savery’s patent covered all engines that raised water by fire, and it thus played an important role in shaping the early development of steam machinery in the British Isles.The architect James Smith of Whitehill acquired the rights to use Savery’s engine in Scotland. In 1699, he entered into an agreement with the inventor, and in 1701 he secured a patent from the Parliament of Scotland, modeled on Savery’s grant in England, and designed to run for the same period of time. Smith described the machine as “an engyne or invention for raiseing of water and occasioning motion of mill-work by the force of fire”, and he claimed to have modified it to pump from a depth of 14 fathoms, or 84 feet. In England, Savery’s patent meant that Thomas Newcomen was forced to go into partnership with him.

By 1712, arrangements had been between the two men to develop Newcomen’s more advanced design of steam engine, which was marketed under Savery’s patent. Newcomen’s engine worked purely by atmospheric pressure, thereby avoiding the dangers of high-pressure steam, and used the piston concept invented in 1690 by the Frenchman Denis Papin to produce the first steam engine capable of raising water from deep mines. After his death in 1715 Savery’s patent and Act of Parliament became vested in a company, The Proprietors of the Invention for Raising Water by Fire. This company issued licences to others for the building and operation of Newcomen engines, charging as much as £420 per year patent royalties for the construction of steam engines. In one case a colliery paid the Proprietors £200 per year and half their net profits “in return for their services in keeping the engine going”.The Fire Engine Act did not expire until 1733, four years after the death of Newcomen.

A newspaper in March 1702 announced that Savery’s engines were ready for use and might be seen on Wednesday and Saturday afternoons at his workhouse in Salisbury Court, London, over against the Old Playhouse.One of his engines was set up at York Buildings in London. According to later descriptions this produced steam ‘eight or ten times stronger than common air’ (i.e. 8-10 atmospheres), but blew open the joints of the machine, forcing him to solder the joints with spelter. Another was built to control the water supply at Hampton Court, while another at Campden House in Kensington operated for 18 years.A few Savery engines were tried in mines, an unsuccessful attempt being made to use one to clear water from a pool called Broad Waters in Wednesbury (then in Staffordshire) and nearby coal mines. This had been covered by a sudden eruption of water some years before. However the engine could not be ‘brought to answer’. The quantity of steam raised was so great as ‘rent the whole machine to pieces’. The engine was laid aside, and the scheme for raising water was dropped as impracticable. This may have been in about 1705.Another engine was proposed in 1706 by George Sparrow at Newbold near Chesterfield, where a landowner was having difficulty in obtaining the consent of his neighbours for a sough to drain his coal. Nothing came of this, perhaps due to the explosion of the Broad Waters engine. It is also possible that an engine was tried at Wheal Vor, a copper mine in Cornwall. Several later pumping systems may be based on Savery’s pump. For example, the twin-chamber pulsometer steam pump was a successful development of it.

Ernest Hemingway

American author and journalist Ernest Hemingway sadly committed suicide on July 2, 1961. He was Born July 21, 1899 and was raised in Oak Park, Illinois. Ernest Hemingway’s mother Grace Hall Hemingway began writing about him, in a series of scrapbooks documenting the future author’s childhood, She began by describing how the sun shone and robins sang on the day in July 1899 when Hemingway was born. The scrapbooks also contain childhood paintings and tell of Hemingway playing the cello, suiting up for a ‘lightweight’ football squad and taking up boxing. During his junior year of high school, he was on his school’s prom committee and, according to a report card note from his Latin teacher, showed ‘improvement both in attitude and work.’

By the time Hemingway was five, his mother noted that he was collecting war cartoons and had an appreciation for characters with courage.’He loves stories about Great Americans,’ she wrote.The scrapbooks have a plethora of family photos from the Hemingway family’s home in Oak Park, Illinois, and their vacation cottage on a lake in Northern Michigan, including shots of a bare-bottomed baby Hemingway playing in the water by a canoe.They include letters to Hemingway and others he wrote as a child, including a note of contrition in which he confessed to bad behavior in church.’My conduct tomorrow will be good,’ 13-year-old Hemingway promised.

As Hemingway matured, the scrapbooks showcased his earliest attempts at the craft that would come to define his professional life. Among them were a short story from his high school’s literary magazine, clippings from some of his first assignments as a high school newspaper reporter and a sonnet in which 16-year-old Hemingway seemed to poke fun at himself.’Nobody likes Ernest, that, is straight stuff,’ he said, ‘and when he writes stories – we all cry “Enough.”

After high school he reported for a few months for The Kansas City Star, before leaving for the Italian front to enlist with the World War I ambulance drivers. However In 1918, he was seriously wounded and returned home. His wartime experiences formed the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms. In 1922, he married Hadley Richardson, the first of his four wives. The couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a foreign correspondent, and fell under the influence of the modernist writers and artists of the 1920s “Lost Generation” expatriate community. The Sun Also Rises, Hemingway’s first novel, was published in 1926.

Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He published seven novels, six short story collections and two non-fiction works. Three novels, four collections of short stories and three non-fiction works were published posthumously. Many of these are considered classics of American literature and . His economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image also influenced later generations.

In 1927 Hemingway divorced his first wife Hadley Richardson and married Pauline Pfeiffer, However They also divorced after he returned from the Spanish Civil War where he had acted as a journalist, and after which he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls. Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940. They separated when he met Mary Welsh in London during World War II; during which he was present at the Normandy Landings and liberation of Paris. Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea in 1952, Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was almost killed in two successive plane crashes that left him in pain or ill-health for much of the rest of his life. Hemingway had permanent residences in Key West, Florida, and Cuba during the 1930s and 1940s, but in 1959 he moved from Cuba to Ketchum, Idaho. A farewell to Arms remains a popular novel and ‘The scrapbooks his Mother created are part of the collection that Hemingway’s widow, Mary, gifted to the JFK Library and Museum after the author’s 1961 suicide and The contents of five Hemingway scrapbooks are also available online, giving fans and scholars the chance to follow the life of one of the 20th century’s literary greats from diapers to high school degree.