PI approximation day

PI approximation day takes place annually on 22nd July. This is due to the fact that this date is often written 22/7 and this is reminiscent of fractions such as 22/7 and other rational numbers which are commonly used to approximate the mathmatical constant Pi( π). Pi was Originally defined as the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter, it now has various equivalent definitions and appears in many formulas in all areas of mathematics and physics. It is approximately equal to 3.14159. It has been represented by the Greek letter “π” since the mid-18th century, though it is also sometimes spelled out as “pi”.

Being an irrational number, π cannot be expressed exactly as a common fraction (equivalently, its decimal representation never ends and never settles into a permanent repeating pattern). The digits appear to be randomly distributed. The digit sequence of π is conjectured to satisfy a specific kind of statistical randomness, but to date, no proof of this has been discovered. Also, π is a transcendental number; that is, a number that is not the root of any non-zero polynomial having rational coefficients. This transcendence of π implies that it is impossible to solve the ancient challenge of squaring the circle with a compass and straightedge.

Ancient civilizations required fairly accurate computed values for π for practical reasons, including the Egyptians and Babylonians. Around 250 BC the Greek mathematician Archimedes created an algorithm for calculating it. It was approximated to seven digits, using geometrical techniques, in Chinese mathematics, and to about five digits in Indian mathematics in the 5th century AD. The historically first exact formula for π, based on infinite series, was not available until a millennium later, when in the 14th century the Madhava–Leibniz series was discovered in Indian mathematics. In the 20th and 21st centuries, mathematicians and computer scientists discovered new approaches that, when combined with increasing computational power, extended the decimal representation of π to many trillions of digits after the decimal point. Most scientific applications require no more than a few hundred digits of π, and many substantially fewer, so the primary motivation for these computations is the quest to find more efficient algorithms for calculating lengthy numeric series, as well as the desire to break records. The extensive calculations involved have also been used to test supercomputers and high-precision multiplication algorithms.

Because its most elementary definition relates to the circle, π is found in many formulae in trigonometry and geometry, especially those concerning circles, ellipses, and spheres. In more modern mathematical analysis, the number is instead defined using the spectral properties of the real number system, as an eigenvalue or a period, without any reference to geometry. It appears therefore in areas of mathematics and the sciences having little to do with the geometry of circles, such as number theory and statistics, as well as in almost all areas of physics. The ubiquity of π makes it one of the most widely known mathematical constants both inside and outside the scientific community; several books devoted to it have been published, the number is celebrated on Pi Day, and record-setting calculations of the digits of π often result in news headlines. Attempts to memorize the value of π with increasing precision have led to records of over 70,000 digits.

Pi Day is celebrated on the 3rd Month 14th Day since 3, 1 and 4 are the three most significant digits of pi in the decimal form. In 2009, the United States House of Representatives supported the designation of Pi Day. The earliest known official or large-scale celebration of Pi Day was organized by Larry Shaw in 1988 at the San Francisco Exploratorium, where Shaw worked as a physicist, with staff and public marching around one of its circular spaces, then consuming fruit pies. The Exploratorium continues to hold Pi Day celebrations. There are many ways of observing Pi Day. These include eating pie, discussing the significance of the number Pi and more recently watching Life Of Pi.

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology has often mailed its application decision letters to prospective students for delivery on Pi Day. Starting in 2012, MIT has announced it will post those decisions (privately) online on Pi Day at exactly 6:28 pm, which they have called “Tau Time”, to honor the rival numbers Pi and Tau equally.The town of Princeton, New Jersey also hosts numerous events in a combined celebration of Pi Day and Albert Einstein’s birthday, which is also March 14. Einstein lived in Princeton for more than twenty years while working at the Institute for Advanced Study. In addition to pie eating and recitation contests, there is also an annual Einstein look-alike contest.


International and National events happening on 22 July

  • Casual Pi Day/22-7
  • Lion’s Share Day
  • Hammock Day
  • Penuche Fudge Day
  • Doonerism Spay …er…Spoonerism Day
  • Summer Leisure Day

George Clinton (Parliament Funkadelic)

Often cited as one of the foremost innovators of funk music, along with James Brown and Sly Stone, The American singer and musician, bandleader, music producer and principal architect of P-Funk, George Clinton, was born 22 July 1941. He pioneered late 1960s and early ’70s funk. The fusion of R&B rhythms, infectious melodies, and psychedelia and also created a new pop/soul/rock hybrid called Funkadelic, the impact of which has proven lasting and widespread. George was the also the mastermind of the bands Parliament and Funkadelic during the 1970s.

The collective’s origins date back to the doo-wop group The Parliaments, which was formed in the late 1950s in Plainfield, New Jersey by a then teenage George Clinton and For a period in the 1960s Clinton was also a staff songwriter for Motown. Despite initial commercial failure (and one major hit single, “(I Wanna) Testify” in 1967), The Parliaments eventually found success under the names Parliament and Funkadelic in the seventies as a funk, soul and rock music collective headed by George Clinton.Funkadelic had a psychedelic rock touch whose influences include the amplifier sounds of Jimi Hendrix and Led Zeppelin, James Brown’s funk, blues, Sun Ra’s experimentation, Frank Zappa’s and the Coasters’ humour, the concept albums of the Beatles and the Who and southern soul artists like Otis Redding and Screamin’ Jay Hawkins, other influences also include the funky side of Hendrix and Sly Stone, Motown soul groups turned funk groups like the Temptations, the political songs of the Impressions, Rufus Thomas’ southern funk, doo-wop groups like the Coasters for the humour and Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers. Their style has been dubbed P-Funk.

Collectively the group has existed under various names since the 1960s and has been known for top-notch musicianship, politically charged lyrics, outlandish concept albums and memorable live performances. Overall, the collective achieved thirteen top ten hits in the American R&B music charts between 1967 and 1983, including six number one hits and and three platinum albums.By the early 1980s, Clinton consolidated the collective’s multiple projects and continued touring under the names “George Clinton and the P-Funk All-Stars” or “George Clinton and Parliament-Funkadelic”. In 1982, Clinton released the songs Computer Games and “Atomic Dog”. During the next four years, Clinton released three more studio albums (You Shouldn’t-Nuf Bit Fish, Some of My Best Jokes Are Friends and R&B Skeletons in the Closet) as well as a live album, Mothership Connection (Live from the Summit, Houston, Texas) and charting three singles in the R&B Top 30, “Nubian Nut”, “Last Dance”, and “Do Fries Go with That Shake?”.In 1985, he was recruited by the Red Hot Chili Peppers to produce their album Freaky Styley, because the band members were huge fans of George Clinton and funk in general. Clinton, in fact, wrote the vocals and lyrics to the title track which was originally intended by the band to be left as an instrumental piece. The album was not a commercial success at the time, but has since sold 500,000 copies after the Red Hot Chili Peppers became popular years later.

Clinton is also a notable music producer working on almost all of the albums he performs on, as well as producing albums for Bootsy Collins and also contribute to several tracks on Primal Scream’s studio album Give Out But Don’t Give Up, and also sang “Mind Games” on the John Lennon tribute Working Class Hero. Clinton also worked with Tupac Shakur on the song “Can’t C Me” from the album All Eyez on Me; Ice Cube on the song and video for “Bop Gun (One Nation)” on the Lethal Injection album (which sampled Funkadelic’s earlier hit “One Nation Under A Groove”); Outkast on the song “Synthesizer” from the album Aquemini; Redman on the song “J.U.M.P.” from the album Malpractice; Souls of Mischief on “Mama Knows Best” from the album Trilogy: Conflict, Climax, Resolution; Killah Priest on “Come With me” from the album Priesthood, and the Wu Tang Clan on “Wolves” from the album 8 Diagrams.

In 1997 Sixteen members of Parliament-Funkadelic (Including Clinton) were inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and P-Funk’s effect on modern popular music is still immense. Besides their innovation in the entire genre of funk music, George Clinton and P-Funk are still heard often today, especially in hip-hop sampling. The song “Atomic Dog” is one of the most sampled songs in the history of hip hop, especially in the sub-genre G-funk. The Red Hot Chili Peppers video for their 2006 single Dani California featured a tribute to Parliament-Funkadelic. Parliament-Funkadelic’s musical influence can also be heard in R&B, Soul music, Electronica, Gospel, Jazz, and New Wave

Don Henley(The Eagles)

Best known as a founding member of the Eagles , the American singer-songwriter, producer, and drummer, Don Henley was born July 22, 1947 in Linden, Texas. Henley attended Linden-Kildare High School where he initially played football, but due to his relatively small build his coach suggested that he quit, and he joined the high school band instead. He first played the trombone, then in the percussion section. After leaving high school in 1965, he initially attended college at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas. He then attended North Texas State University (renamed in 1988 as the University of North Texas) in Denton, Texas, While still at high school, Henley was asked to join a Dixieland band formed by his childhood friend Richard Bowden’s father Elmer, together with another school friend Jerry Surratt. They then formed a band called the Four Speeds. In 1964 the band was renamed Felicity, and went through a number of changes in band personnel. As Felicity they were signed to local producer and released a Henley-penned song called “Hurtin’”.from 1967 to 1969 Henley left school to spend time with his father. In 1969, they met by chance fellow Texan Kenny Rogers who took an interest in their band. They changed their name to Shiloh and recorded a few songs for Rogers, and “Jennifer (O’ My Lady)” was released as their first single.

Sadly Surratt died in a dirt bike accident just before their single was released, and the band members then became Henley, Richard Bowden and his cousin Michael Bowden, Al Perkins, and Jim Ed Norman. Rogers helped sign the band to Amos Records, and brought the band to Los Angeles in June 1970. They recorded a self-titled album produced by Rogers at Larrabee Studios, Shiloh disbanded in 1971 over the band’s leadership and creative differences between Henley and Bowden. In Los Angeles, Henley met Glenn Frey and they were recruited by John Boylan to be members of Linda Ronstadt’s backup band for her tour in 1971. Touring with her was the catalyst for forming a group, as Henley and Frey decided to form their own band They were joined by Randy Meisner and Bernie Leadon who also played in Ronstadt’s backing band and became the Eagles in 1971. Henley was the drummer and co-lead singer for the Eagles from 1971 to 1980, when the band broke up, and from 1994 to 2016, when they reunited.

The Eagles released their first studio album in 1972, which contained the hit songs”Take It Easy”, written by Frey and Jackson Browne, Witchy Woman”, which was co-written with Leadon, and “Desperado” written by Frey and Henley who also sang lead vocals on many of the band’s popular songs, including “Desperado”, “Witchy Woman”, “Best of My Love”, “One of These Nights”, “Hotel California”, “The Long Run”, “Life in the Fast Lane” “Wasted Time””Witchy Woman”, “The Long Run” and “Get Over It”. The Eagles won numerous Grammy Awards during the 1970s and became one of the world’s most successful rock bands of all time. They are also among the top 5 overall best-selling bands of all time in America and the highest selling American band in U.S. history.

The Eagles broke up in 1980, following a difficult tour and personal tensions that arose during the recording of The Long Run. Following the breakup of the Eagles, Henley embarked on a solo career. He and Stevie Nicks (his girlfriend at the time) had duetted on her Top 10 Pop and Adult Contemporary hit “Leather and Lace”, written by Nicks for Waylon Jennings and his wife Jessi Colter, in late 1981. Henley’s first solo album, I Can’t Stand Still, was a moderate seller. The single “Dirty Laundry” reached No. 3 on Billboard Hot 100 at the beginning of 1983 and earned a Gold-certified single for sales of over a million copies in the US. It was Henley’s all-time biggest solo hit single, and also was nominated for a Grammy Award. Henley also contributed “Love Rules” to the 1982 Fast Times at Ridgemont High movie soundtrack. in 1984 he released the album, Building the Perfect Beast. Including the single release, “The Boys of Summer”,

The music video for the song was directed by Jean-Baptiste Mondino and won several MTV Video Music Awards including Best Video of the Year. Henley also won the Grammy Award for Best Male Rock Vocal Performance for the sons Several other songs on the album, “All She Wants to Do Is Dance”,”Not Enough Love in the World” and “Sunset Grill” Henley also released “Who Owns This Place?” from 1986’s The Color of Money soundtrack. Henley’s next album, 1989’s The End of the Innocence, was even more successful. The album’s title track, a collaboration with Bruce Hornsby, reached No. 8 as a single. “The Heart of the Matter”, “The Last Worthless Evening” and “New York Minute”. Henley again won the Best Male Rock Vocal Performance Grammy Award in 1990 for “The End of the Innocence” and made a brief appearance on MTV’s Unplugged series. In 2000, after 11 years, Henley released another solo album named “Inside Job” Featuring the songs “Taking You Home”, “Everything Is Different Now, “Workin’ It” and “For My Wedding”. In 2002 a live DVD entitled Don Henley: Live Inside Job was released. In 2005 Henley opened 10 of Stevie Nicks’ concerts on her Two Voices Tour. Henley also performed duets with Kenny Rogers on Rogers’ 2006 release Water & Bridges, titled “Calling Me” and on Reba McEntire’s 2007 album, Reba: Duets, performing “Break Each Other’s Hearts Again”. Henley’s next solo album Cass County contained country covers featuring special guests including. Ronnie Dunn from Brooks & Dunn and Alison Krauss

In 1994 The Eagles reunited and Henley continues to tour and record with the Eagles. Their latest album, Long Road Out of Eden, was released in 2007. The band had a number of highly successful tours, such as the Hell Freezes Over Tour (1994-1996), and Long Road Out of Eden Tour. On April 1, 2013, during a concert at the Casino Rama in Rama, Ontario, Henley announced the History of the Eagles Tour, which began in July 2013 and ended in July 2015, six months before Frey’s death. At the 2016 Grammy Awards, the Eagles and Jackson Browne performed “Take It Easy” as a tribute to Frey. Henley and Frey have been called the American version of McCartney and Lennon. (CBS Early Morning Show, interview with Don Henley, December 8, 2016)

The Eagles have sold over 150 million albums worldwide, won six Grammy Awards, had five No. 1 singles, 17 Top 40 singles, and six No. 1 albums. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1998 and are the biggest selling American band in history. As a solo artist, Henley has sold over 10 million albums worldwide, had eight Top 40 singles, won two Grammy Awards and five MTV Video Music Awards. Combined with the Eagles and as a solo artist, Henley has released 25 Top 40 singles on the Billboard Hot 100. He has also released seven studio albums with the Eagles and four as a solo artist. In 2008, he was ranked as the 87th greatest singer of all time by the Rolling Stone magazine.

Rob Collins (The Charlatans)

Rob Collins, The former keyboard player With the Charlatans Tragically died Died 22 July 1996. The original members of the Charlatans comprised of Tim Burgess (vocals), Mark Collins (guitar), Martin Blunt (bass), Tony Rogers (keyboards) and Jon Brookes (drums and percussion) most were located in the West Midlands, however many sources state that they formed in Northwich, Cheshire. This is because the band relocated to the home town of new lead singer Tim Burgess (who lived in Northwich) before the 1990 release of The Charlatans’ debut single “Indian Rope”, The Charlatan’s debut single, “Indian Rope” proved an indie hit and the group soon found a major label, Beggars Banquet off-shoot Situation Two, in time for the release of “The Only One I Know” which reached the Top 10 in the UK Singles Chart. A further single, “Then”, and debut album Some Friendly, were released later that year. Around this time The Charlatans were forced to add UK to their name for an American tour due to competing claims by a 1960s rock band also known as The Charlatans.

Baker left the band after 1991′s “Over Rising” single to be replaced by Mark Collins (no relation to Rob), and the band brought in producer Flood for their second album Between 10th and 11th (named after the address of the New York Marque, site of the group’s first US concert). Released in early 1992, the album failed to reach the Top 20 in the UK Albums Chart. However, the Top 20 success of the lead single “Weirdo” and a double weekend of gigs (‘Daytripper’) in Blackpool and Brighton with Ride kept them in the public eye. The follow-up album, Up To Our Hips (1994) reached number 8 in the UK Albums Chart. In 1995 the band’s self-titled fourth album saw them become major UK stars again, topping the UK albums chart and spawning the Top 20 single “Just When You’re Thinkin’ Things Over”.The fifth album Tellin’ Stories was released in 1997 and contained the singles “One to Another”, “North Country Boy” and “How High”. In 1998 they released the career-spanning compilation Melting Pot. The band also helped put “The B-sides collection Songs From The Other Side” and DVD “Just Lookin’ 1990 – 1997″ together

Following the album Us And Us Only,The band released their ninth full-length album on 10 April 2006. Titled Simpatico, it was a reggae and dub tinged album and featured tracks like the fan favourite “NYC (There’s No Need to Stop)” and “Blackened Blue Eyes”. Their follow-up to Simpatico was another career-spanning singles compilation entitled Forever: The Singles which was released on CD and DVD on 13 November 2006. In an October 2007 issue of the NME, the band contributed the song “Blank Heart, Blank Mind” to the magazine’s free Love Music, Hate Racism compilation CD. Later the same month, the new single “You Cross My Path” was released as a free download exclusively through the XFM website. On the 3 March 2008, The Charlatans teamed up with Xfm again to become the first UK band to release an album completely free to download via a radio station. This was preceded a week earlier by the second single from the album, “Oh! Vanity”. The Charlatans tenth album, “You Cross My Path”, was release In 2008. Their eleventh studio album, Who We Touch, was released on 6 September 2010 and The first single release was “Love Is Ending”.

In 2011 Universal Music re-released a deluxe edition of the band’s Us & Us Only album, originally released in 1999, featuring a collection of bonus tracks including B-sides, live recordings, radio sessions and rare remixes. In March/April 2011 Tim Burgess and Mark Collins played an acoustic tour of the UK. To coincide with the acoustic tour the band released Warm Sounds EP. Featuring six stripped-down and reworked versions of Charlatans tracks including “North Country Boy”, “The Only One I Know” and “Smash The System”. It was available to download from iTunes and The Charlatans website. The Charlatans latest album Different Days was released in 2017.

Rat catchers day

Ratcatcher’s Day is celebrated annually on 26 June or 22 July. Rat Catchers day commemorates the myth of the Pied Piper of Hamelin. The town of Hamelin itself uses the June date and the term “Pied Piper Day”. The Pied Piper of Hamelin took place In 1284, during a rat infestation in Hamelin, Germany. A piper dressed in multicolored (“pied”) clothing appeared, claiming to be a rat-catcher. He promised the mayor a solution to their problem with the rats. The mayor, in turn, promised to pay him for the removal of the rats. The piper accepted and played his pipe to lure the rats into the Weser River, where all but one, which was deaf, drowned.

Despite the piper’s success, the mayor reneged on his promise and refused to pay him the full sum even going so far as to blame the piper for bringing the rats himself in an extortion attempt. Enraged, the piper stormed out of the town, vowing to return later to take revenge. On Saint John and Paul’s day, while the adults were in church, the piper returned dressed in green like a hunter playing his pipe. In so doing, he attracted the town’s children. 130 children followed him out of town and into a cave and were never seen again. However Three children remained behind: one was lame and could not follow quickly enough, the second was deaf and therefore could not hear the music, and the last was blind and unable to see where he was going. These three informed the villagers of what had happened when they came out from church.

Other versions say that the Pied Piper either led the children to the top of Koppelberg Hill, where he took them to a beautiful land, or a place called Koppenberg Mountain, or Transylvania, or made them walk into the Weser as he did with the rats, and they all drowned. Some versions state that the Piper returned the children after payment, or that he returned the children after the villagers paid several times the original amount of gold.

The disparity in dates is because the Brothers Grimm cite 26 June 1284 as the date the Pied Piper led the children out of the town, while the poem by Robert Browning gives it as 22 July 1376. It is a holiday remembering rat-catchers, similar to Secretary’s Day. Other Famous Ratcatcher’s in literature include Serafina, the Chief Rat Catcher of the Biltmore Estate in Asheville, N.C. Serafina is a fictional character created by author Robert Beatty and was first introduced in “Serafina and the Black Cloak,” a spooky, historical-fiction novel. Serafina’s mysterious adventures grew into a trilogy (Book 2: Serafina and the Twisted Staff, Book 3: Serafina and the Splintered Heart) and the 4th book in the series is due for release in Summer 2019.