International Paperback Book Day

International Paperback Book Day takes place annually on 30 July to commemorate the founding of British publishing house Penguin Books, by Sir Allen Lane, his brothers Richard and John, and V. K. Krishna Menon on 31 July 1935, with the aim of making quality writing available in easily portable paperback form, at prices almost everyone can afford. This revolutionised publishing in the 1930s through its inexpensive paperbacks, sold through Woolworths and other high street stores for sixpence, bringing high-quality paperback fiction and non-fiction to the mass market.[6] Penguin’s success demonstrated that large audiences existed for serious books. Penguin also had a significant impact on public debate in Britain, through its books on British culture, politics, the arts, and science

Penguin Books is now an imprint of the worldwide Penguin Random House, an emerging conglomerate which was formed in 2013 by the merger with American publisher Random House. Formerly, Penguin Group was wholly owned by British Pearson PLC, the global media company which also owned the Financial Times, but in the new umbrella company it retains a holding of 25% of the stock against Random House owner, German media company Bertelsmann, which controls the majority stake. It is one of the largest English-language publishers, formerly known as the “Big Six”, now the “Big Five”, along with Holtzbrinck/Macmillan, Hachette, HarperCollins, and Simon & Schuster.


Medicare’s Birthday

Medicare’s Birthday takes place annually on 30 July to commemorates 30 July 1965 when Former United States President Lyndon. B.Johnson ratified the Social Security Act into law, establishing Medicare and Medicaid. On 30 July 2004 Marilyn Clement founds Healthcare Now!, a non-profit organization advocating for a single-payer healthcare system in the U.S., and launches an annual celebration of the anniversary of Medicare, America’s only publicly financed, universal health plan, which has kept healthcare affordable for seniors since 1965.


National Support Public Education Day

National Support Public Education Day was launched 30 July 2010 by the SOS Million Teacher March to raise awareness of the crisis in U.S Public Education, and give teachers a voice in the policy-making decisions that impact their classrooms.


World Day Against Trafficking Persons

World Day Against Trafficking Persons takes place annually on 30 July. World Day against Trafficking Persons was declared by the UN General Assembly on 30 July 2013 as part of its Global Plan of Action to free an estimated 21 million victims of forced labour, 71% of them women and children, and put an end to human trafficking

Emily Brontë

Best remembered for her classic novel, Wuthering Heights, the English novelist Emily Brontë was born 30th july 1818 in Thornton, near Bradford in Yorkshire She was the third eldest of the four surviving Brontë siblings, between the youngest Anne and her brother Branwell. She published under the pen name Ellis Bell, and was the younger sister of Charlotte Brontë and the fifth of six children? After the death of their mother in 1821, when Emily was three years old, the older sisters Maria, Elizabeth and Charlotte were sent to the Clergy Daughters’ School at Cowan Bridge, where they encountered abuse and privations later described by Charlotte in Jane Eyre. Emily joined the school for a brief period. When a typhus epidemic swept the school, Maria and Elizabeth caught it. Maria, who may actually have had tuberculosis, was sent home, where she died. Emily was subsequently removed from the school along with Charlotte and Elizabeth. Sadly Elizabeth died soon after their return home.

From then on The three remaining sisters and their brother Patrick Branwell were educated at home by their father and aunt Elizabeth Branwell, their mother’s sister. In their leisure time the children created a number of fantasy worlds, which were featured in stories they wrote and enacted about the imaginary adventures of their toy soldiers along with the Duke of Wellington and his sons, Charles and Arthur Wellesley.When Emily was 13, she and Anne began a story about Gondal, a large island in the North Pacific. With the exception of Emily’sGondal poems and Anne’s lists of Gondal’s characters and place-names, their writings on Gondal were not preserved. Some “diary papers” of Emily’s have survived in which she describes current events in Gondal, some of which were written, others enacted with Anne. One dates from 1841, when Emily was twenty-three: another from 1845, when she was twenty-seven. At seventeen, Emily attended the Roe Head girls’ school, where Charlotte was a teacher, but managed to stay only three months before being overcome by extreme homesickness. She returned home and Anne took her place. At this time, the girls’ objective was to obtain sufficient education to open a small school of their own.in September 1838 Emily became a teacher at Law Hill School in Halifax, Unfortuntely when she was twenty. Her health broke under the stress of the 17-hour work day and she returned home in April 1839. Thereafter she became the stay-at-home daughter, doing most of the cooking and cleaning and teaching Sunday school

In 1842, Emily accompanied Charlotte to Brussels, Belgium, where they attended a girls’ academy run by Constantin Heger. They planned to perfect their French and German in anticipation of opening their school.In 1844, Emily began going through all the poems she had written, recopying them neatly into two notebooks. One was labelled “Gondal Poems”; the other was unlabelled. Scholars such as Fannie Ratchford and Derek Roper have attempted to piece together a Gondal storyline and chronology from these poems. In the autumn of 1845, Charlotte discovered the notebooks and insisted that the poems be published. Emily, furious at the invasion of her privacy, at first refused, but relented when Anne brought out her own manuscripts and revealed she had been writing poems in secret as well.In 1846, the sisters’ poems were published in one volume as Poems by Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell. The Brontë sisters had adopted pseudonyms for publication: Charlotte was Currer Bell, Emily was Ellis Bell and Anne was Acton Bell. Charlotte wrote in the “Biographical Notice of Ellis and Acton Bell” that their “ambiguous choice” was “dictated by a sort of conscientious scruple at assuming Christian names positively masculine, while we did not like to declare ourselves women, because we had a vague impression that authoresses are liable to be looked on with prejudice.

In 1847, Emily published her novel, Wuthering Heights, as two volumes of a three-volume set (the last volume being Agnes Grey by her sister Anne). Its innovative structure somewhat puzzled critics at the time, and Although it is considered a classic of English literature today, Wuthering Heights met with mixed reviews and controversy when it first appeared, mainly because of the narrative’s stark depiction of mental and physical cruelty and amoral passion,It takes place at a Yorkshire manor on the moors and centres on the all-encompassing, passionate, but ultimately doomed love between Catherine Earnshaw and Heathcliff, and how this unresolved passion eventually destroys them and the people around them.and the book subsequently became an English literary classic.

Although Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre was generally considered the best of the Brontë sisters’ works during most of the nineteenth century, many subsequent critics of Wuthering Heights argued that it was a superior achievement. Wuthering Heights has also given rise to many adaptations and inspired works, including films, radio, television dramatisations, a musical by Bernard J. Taylor, a ballet, three operas (respectively by Bernard Herrmann, Carlisle Floyd, and Frédéric Chaslin), a role-playing game, and the 1978 chart topping song by Kate Bush. Sadly Emily’s health, like her sisters’, had been weakened by unsanitary conditions at home, the source of water being contaminated by runoff from the church’s graveyard. She became sick during her brother’s funeral in September 1848. Though her condition worsened steadily, she rejected medical help and all proffered remedies, saying that she would have “no poisoning doctor” near her. She eventually died of tuberculosis, on 19 December 1848 at around two in the afternoon. She was interred in the Church of St. Michael and All Angels family vault, Haworth, West Yorkshire.

Maeve Binchy

Best known for her sympathetic and often humorous portrayal of small-town life in Ireland, her descriptive characters, her interest in human nature, and her often clever surprise endings, the Irish novelist, playwright, short story writer, columnist, speaker and described as one of Ireland’s best-loved and most recognisable and well known writers Anne Maeve Binchy sadly died 30 July 2012 at age 73

Maeve Binchy was born on 28 May 1939 in Dalkey, the oldest of the four children, her brother, William Binchy, became Regius Professor of Laws at Trinity College, Dublin, he also had two sisters: Irene “Renie” (who predeceased Binchy), and Joan, Mrs Ryan. Her uncle was the historian D. A. Binchy (1899–1989). Binchy was Educated at St Anne’s Dún Laoghaire, and later at Holy Child Convent, Killiney, she went on to study at University College Dublin (where she earned a bachelor’s degree in history), she worked as a teacher of French, Latin, and history at various girls’ schools, then a journalist at The Irish Times, and later became a writer of novels, short stories, and dramatic works.

In 1963, Binchy began working in a Jewish school in Dublin, teaching French with an Irish accent to kids, primarily Lithuanians. The parents there gave me a trip to Israel as a present. I had no money, so I went and worked in a kibbutz – plucking chickens, picking oranges. My parents were very nervous; here I was going out to the Middle East by myself. I wrote to them regularly, telling them about the kibbutz. My father and mother sent my letters to a newspaper, which published them. So I thought, It’s not so hard to be a writer. Just write a letter home. After that, I started writing other travel articles. Trip to Israel profoundly affected both her career and her faith.

Binchey met her future husband children’s author Gordon Snell when recording a piece for Woman’s Hour in London. Snell was working As a freelance producer with the BBC. Their friendship blossomed into a cross-border romance, with her in Ireland and him in London, until she eventually secured a job in London through The Irish Times.She and Snell married in 1977 and, after living in London for a time, moved to Ireland. They lived together in Dalkey, not far from where she had grown up, until Binchy’s death.

Binchy’s “writing career began by accident in the early 1960s, after she spent time on a kibbutz in Israel. Her father was so taken with her letters home that “he cut off the ‘Dear Daddy’ bits,”Donal Lynch observed of her first paying journalism role: the Irish Independent and commissioned her. Sadly In 1968, her mother died of cancer aged 57 Binchy also joined the staff at The Irish Times, and worked there as a writer, columnist, the first Women’s Page editor then the London editor, later reporting for the paper from London before returning to Ireland. Binchy’s first published book is a compilation of her newspaper articles titled My First Book and was Published in 1970, however it is now out of print. Binchy’s father died in 1971, so she sold the family house and moved to a bedsit in Dublin. Her literary career began with two books of short stories: Central Line (1978) and Victoria Line (1980).

Binchy published her debut novel Light a Penny Candle in 1982. In 1983, it sold for the largest sum ever paid for a first novel: £52,000. The timing was fortuitous, as Binchy and her husband were two months behind with the mortgage at the time. Most of Binchy’s stories are set in Ireland, dealing with the tensions between urban and rural life, the contrasts between England and Ireland, and the dramatic changes in Ireland between World War II and the present day. While some of Binchy’s novels are complete stories (Circle of Friends, Light a Penny Candle), many others revolve around a cast of interrelated characters (The Copper Beech, Silver Wedding, The Lilac Bus, Evening Class, and Heart and Soul). Her later novels, Evening Class, Scarlet Feather, Quentins, and Tara Road, feature a cast of recurring characters. Five further novels were published before her death: Quentins (2002), Nights of Rain and Stars (2004), Whitethorn Woods (2006), Heart and Soul (2008), and Minding Frankie (2010). Her final novel, A Week in Winter, was published posthumously in 2012. In 2014 a collection of 36 unpublished short stories that she had written over a period of decades was published under the title Chestnut Street. She also wrote several dramas specifically for radio and the silver screen. Additionally, several of her novels and short stories were adapted for radio, film, and television.

Sadly from 2002, Binchy began suffering health problems related to a heart condition”, which inspired her to write Heart and Soul. The book about (what Binchy terms) “a heart failure clinic” in Dublin and the people involved with it, reflects many of her own experiences and observations in the hospital. Binchy was a prolific writer “In all, Binchy published 16 novels, four short-story collections, a play and a novella. A 17th novel, A Week in Winter, was published posthumously. Her novels, were translated into 37 languages,and sold more than 40 million copies worldwide, she finished 3rd in a 2000 poll for World Book Day, ahead of Jane Austen, Charles Dickens, and Stephen King. Binchy died on 30 July 2012. She was 73 and had suffered from various maladies, including painful osteoarthritis. As a result of the arthritis she had a hip operation. A month before her death she suffered a severe spinal infection (acute discitis), and finally succumbed to a heart attack. Gordon was by her side when she died in a Dublin hospital. Despite being an atheist, Binchy was given a traditional Requiem Mass which took place at the Church of the Assumption, in her hometown of Dalkey. She was later cremated at Mount Jerome Cemetery and Crematorium.

She received tributes from many Fellow writers including Ian Rankin, Jilly Cooper, Anne Rice, Jeffrey Archer, John Banville, Roddy Doyle,and Colm Tóibín. Many Politicians also paid tribute to Maeve Binchey Including President Michael D. Higgins Who stated: “Our country mourns.” Taoiseach Enda Kenny said, “Today we have lost a national treasure.” While Minister of State for Disability, Equality and Mental Health Kathleen Lynch, said Binchy was, as worthy an Irish writer as James Joyce or Oscar Wilde.

Sean Moore (Manic Street Preachers)

Welsh drummer, percussionist and occasional trumpet player of the Welsh alternative rock band Manic Street Preachers Sean Anthony Moore was born 30 July 1968 in Pontypool, Torfaen, he attended Oakdale Comprehensive near Blackwood with his cousin James Dean Bradfield, and other future band members Nicky Wire and Richey Edwards.

The Manic Street Preachers were formed in 1986 at Oakdale Comprehensive School, in Blackwood, Caerphilly and consisting of cousins James Dean Bradfield (lead vocals, lead guitar), and Sean Moore (drums, percussion, soundscapes), plus Nicky Wire (bass guitar, lyrics). They are often colloquially known as The Manics. Bradfield and the slightly older Moore are cousins, and shared bunkbeds in the Bradfield family home after Moore’s parents divorced.

During the bands early years, Bradfield, alongside the classically trained Moore, primarily wrote the music while Wire focused on the lyrics. The origin of the band’s name remains unclear, but the most often-told story relates that Bradfield, while busking one day in Cardiff, got into an altercation with someone (sometimes said to be a homeless man) who asked him “What are you, boyo, some kind of manic street preacher? Original bassist Flicker (Miles Woodward) left the band in early 1988. The band continued as a three-piece, with Wire switching from guitar to bass, and in 1988 they released their first single, “Suicide Alley”. Despite its recording quality, this punk ode to youthful escape provides an early insight into both Bradfield’s guitar work and Moore’s live drumming, the latter of which would be absent from the band’s first LP.[10] The Manics intended to restore revolution to rock and roll at a time when Britain was dominated by shoegaze and acid house. The NME gave “Suicide Alley” an enthusiastic review, citing a press release by Richey Edwards: “We are as far away from anything in the ’80s as possible.”After the release of “Suicide Alley,” Edwards joined the band on rhythm guitar and contributed to lyrics alongside Wire. Edwards also designed record sleeves and artwork, and drove the band to and from gigs.

In 1990 the Manic Street Preachers signed a deal with label Damaged Goods Records for one EP. The four-track New Art Riot E.P. attracted as much media interest for its attacks on fellow musicians as for the actual music. With the help of Hall or Nothing management, the Manics signed to indie label Heavenly Records. The band recorded their first single for the label, entitled “Motown Junk”.Their next single, “You Love Us”, sampled Krzysztof Penderecki’s “Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima” as well as Iggy Pop. The video featured Nicky Wire in drag as Marilyn Monroe and contained visual references to the film Betty Blue and to Aleister Crowley. In an interview with then-NME journalist Steve Lamacq, Edwards carved the phrase “4REAL” into his arm with a razor blade to prove their sincerity. He was taken to hospital and received seventeen stitches.

As a result of their controversial behaviour, the Manics quickly became favourites of the British music press, which helped them build a rabidly dedicated following. They signed toColumbia Records of Sony Music UK and began work on their debut album.Following the release of their first single, “Suicide Alley”, the band was joined by Richey Edwards as co-lyricist and rhythm guitarist. The band’s early albums were in a punk vein, eventually broadening to a greater alternative rock sound, whilst retaining a leftist politicisation. Their early combination of androgynous glam imagery and lyrics about “culture, alienation, boredom and despair” has gained them a loyal following and cult status.

With their debut album, Generation Terrorists, the Manic Street Preachers proclaimed it would be the “greatest rock album ever”, it contains the songs; “Nat West-Barclays-Midlands-Lloyds”, “Motorcycle Emptiness”,”Little Baby Nothing” a duet between Traci Lords and Bradfield, And Everything Must Go. The band also made a cover version of the song ′′Suicide is Painless′′. However the album’s failed to meet this level of success, then Richey Edwards disappeared in February 1995 and Edwards was legally “presumed dead” in 2008

The Manic Street Preachers next album Gold Against the Soul, displayed a more commercial, grungy sound which alienated some fans. The group’s third album, The Holy Bible features an alternative rock sound and incorporates various elements from other musical genres, such as hard rock, British punk, post-punk, new wave, industrial, art rock and gothic rock. Lyrically the album deals with subjects including prostitution, American consumerism, British imperialism, freedom of speech, the Holocaust, self-starvation, serial killers, the death penalty, political revolution, childhood, fascism and suicide. There was also an element of autobiographic subjects, like in the song “4st 7lb” where the lyrics clearly tackle Richey’s own experience and life. In 1996 the Manic Street Preachers released their next album “Everything must go” without Richey, featuring the songs Everything must go, Swimming Horses, Design for Life, Australia”, “Everything Must Go” and “Kevin Carter”. The album was shortlisted for the 1996 Mercury Prize award for best album, and won the band two BRIT Awards for Best British Band and Best British Album. In 1997 the band performed a special gig at the Manchester Arena for more than 20,000 people.

In 1997 the Manic Street Preachers released thier fifth album This Is My Truth Tell Me Yours featuring the songs “You Stole the Sun from My Heart”, “Tsunami” ,”The Everlasting” and “If You Tolerate This Your Children Will Be Next”.This song’s theme is taken from the Spanish Civil War, and the idealism of Welsh volunteers who joined the left-wing International Brigades fighting for the Spanish Republic against Francisco Franco’s military rebels. The song takes its name from a Republican poster of the time, displaying a photograph of a young child killed by the Nationalists under a sky of bombers with the stark warning “If you tolerate this, your children will be next” written at the bottom. The song is in the Guinness World Records as the number one single with the longest title without brackets.

In1999The Manics won Best British Band and Album awards at the BRIT Awards, This Is My Truth Tell Me Yours was also shortlisted for the 1999 Mercury Prize and the band received a further nomination in the category of Best UK & Ireland Act in the 1999 MTV Europe Music Awards, where the band performed live the single If You Tolerate This Your Children Will Be Next. In the NME Awards in 1999, the band won every single big prize, Best Band, Best Album, Best Live Act, Best Single and Best Video, nailing also the prize for Best Band In The World Today in the Q Awards 1998. The album went to number 1 of the band in the UK, remaining at the top of the albums chart for 3 weeks, selling 136,000 copies in the first week and spending a total of 74 weeks in the Album Chart. The title is a quotation taken from a speech given by Aneurin Bevan, a Labour Party politician from Wales.

After headlining Glastonbury Festival, T In the Park and V Festival, the band played the Leaving the 20th Century concert at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff on 31 December 1999, the first concert to be held there, with 57,000 people attending and the final song being broadcast around the world by satellite as part of 2000 Today.

In 2000, they released the limited edition single “The Masses Against the Classes”. And In 2001, they became the first popular Western rock band to play in Cuba (at the Karl Marx Theater), and met with president Fidel Castro. Their concert and trip to Cuba was documented and then released as a DVD entitled Louder Than War. At this concert they revealed many tracks from their upcoming sixth album, Know Your Enemy, which was released on 19 March. The left-wing political convictions of the Manic Street Preachers are apparent in many of the album’s songs, such as “Baby Elián” as they comment on the strained relations between the United States and Cuba as seen in the Elián González affair, The album also Features tribute to singer and civil rights activist Paul Robeson in the song “Let Robeson Sing”, James Dean Bradfield wrote the song “Ocean Spray” about his mother’s battle with cancer. Other songs include So Why So Sad” and “Found That Soul”. The Manics also headlined Reading and Leeds Festival.A greatest hits (plus remixes) album Forever Delayed was released in 2002, containing two new songs, “Door to the River” and the single “There by the Grace of God”. Several songs were edited for length (“Motorcycle Emptiness,” “You Love Us”, “Australia,” “Everything Must Go,” “Little Baby Nothing,” and “The Everlasting”)

Despite enduring many tragedies The band went on to gain critical and commercial success And Throughout their career, the Manics have headlined several festivals including Glastonbury, T in the Park, V Festival and Reading, won eleven NME Awards, eight Q Awards and four BRIT Awards. They have been nominated for the Mercury Prize in 1996 and 1999, and have had one nomination for the MTV Europe Music Awards. The group has reached number 1 in the UK charts three times: in 1998, with the album This Is My Truth Tell Me Yours and the single “If You Tolerate This Your Children Will Be Next”, and again in 2000 with the single “The Masses Against the Classes”. They have sold more than ten million albums worldwide. Sean Moore may be the quietest of the Manics, but according to his bandmates he is their “musical driving force”. In their early days, he was often mistaken for a girl due to his long hair, naturally effeminate features (as opposed to Nicky Wire and Richey Edwards’ arguably more forced androgynism) and small stature. He is the only current member of the Manic Street Preachers who has not released a solo album.

International Friendship Day

International Friendship Day takes place anually on 30th July As a way of celebrating friendship. The day is a popular celebration in several South American countries since it was first proposed in 1958 in Paraguay as ‘International Friendship Day’. The day was Initially created by the greeting card industry, however interest in the holiday tmay have grown with the spread of the Internet, particularly in India, Bangladesh, and Malaysia. Digital communication modes such as the Internet and cell phones may be helping to popularize the custom, since greeting friends en masse is now easier than before.

Those who promote the holiday in South Asia attribute the tradition of dedicating a day in honor of friends to have originated in the United States in 1935, but it actually dates from 1919. The exchange of Friendship Day gifts like flowers, cards and wrist bands is a popular tradition of this occasion. Friendship Day celebrations occur on different dates in different countries. The first World Friendship Day was proposed for 30 July in 1958, by the World Friendship Crusade. On 27 April 2011 the General Assembly of the United Nations declared 30 July as official International Friendship Day. However, some countries, including India celebrate Friendship Day on the first Sunday of August. In Oberlin, Ohio, Friendship Day is celebrated on 8 April each year.

Friendship Day was originated by Joyce Hall, the founder of Hallmark cards in 1930, intended to be 2 August and a day when people celebrated their friendships by holiday celebrations.[citation needed] Friendship Day was promoted by the greeting card National Association during the 1920s but met with consumer resistance – given that it was too obviously a commercial gimmick to promote greetings cards. By the 1940s the number of Friendship Day cards available in the U.S. by had dwindled and the holiday largely died out there.[citation needed] There is no evidence to date for its uptake in Europe; however, it has been kept alive and revitalised in Asia, where several countries have adopted it.

In honor of Friendship Day in 1998, Nane Annan, wife of UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, named Winnie the Pooh as the world’s Ambassador of Friendship at the United Nations. Some friends acknowledge each other with exchanges of gifts and cards on this day. Friendship bands are very popular in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and parts of South America. With the advent of social networking sites, Friendship Day is also being celebrated online. The commercialization of the Friendship Day celebrations has led to some dismissing it as a “marketing gimmick”. But nowadays it is celebrated on the first Sunday of August rather than 30 July. However, on 27 July 2011 the 65th Session of the United Nations General Assembly declared 30 July as “International Day of Friendship”.

The idea of a World Friendship Day was first proposed on 20 July 1958 by Dr. Ramon Artemio Bracho during a dinner with friends in Puerto Pinasco, a town on the River Paraguay about 200 miles north of Asuncion, Paraguay. Out of this humble meeting of friends, the World Friendship Crusade was born. The World Friendship Crusade is a foundation that promotes friendship and fellowship among all human beings, regardless of race, color or religion. Since then, 30 July has been faithfully celebrated as Friendship Day in Paraguay every year and has also been adopted by several other countries.

The World Friendship Crusade has lobbied the United Nations for many years to recognise 30 July as World Friendship Day and finally on 20 May, General Assembly of the United Nations decided to designate 30 July as the International Day of Friendship; and to invite all Member States to observe the International Day of Friendship in accordance with the culture and customs of their local, national and regional communities, including through education and public awareness-raising activities.