The Secret Commonwealth: Book of Dust Volume two by Philip Pullman

The Secret Commonwealth : book of Dust Volume Two, by Philip Pullman has recently been published on Hardback. It takes place twenty years after the events of La Belle Sauvage: The Book of Dust Volume One unfolded which saw the baby Lyra Belacqua begin her life-changing journey and seven years since Lyra met the love of her young life, Will Parry, on a park bench in Oxford’s Botanic Gardens at the end of His Dark Materials.

The second volume of Sir Philip Pullman’s The Book of Dust The Secret Commonwealth, is a sort of sequel to Belle Sauvage and Amber Spyglass. It sees Lyra, now twenty years old and an Undergraduate at Oxford. Sadly her relationship with Pan her daemon has become rather strained, with Pan more and more frequently going for late-night strolls. Then, one night, he witnesses a murder. This sets off a chain of events and Lyra and Pantalaimon, find themselves drawn into the complex and dangerous factions a world that they had no idea existed as They are forced to undertake a perilous journey across Europe and into Asia, in search of answers, regardless of the danger.

Meanwhile Malcolm; once a boy with a boat and a mission to save a baby from the flood, is now a man with a strong sense of duty and a desire to do what is right, finally Meets up with Lyra and they set off together. Along the way they encounter many dangers including a city haunted by dæmons, a secret at the heart of a desert, as they try to uncover the mystery surrounding the elusive Dust.

Doctor Who Series 23 Blu-Ray special edition

Doctor Who series 23 has been released on Blu-ray it features The Trial of a Time Lord and Events of the serial are framed on an arcing plot that carries through the other three serials of the 23rd season. The Trial of a Time-Lord sees the Sixth Doctor is forced to land the TARDIS aboard a Gallifreyan space station, where he is brought into a courtroom presided over by. The Inquisitor informs the Doctor he is on trial for conduct unbecoming a Time Lord; evidence will be presented by the Valeyard. It contains four adventures: The Mysterious Planet, Mindwarp, Terror of the Vervoids, and The Ultimate Foe Events

Mysterious planet concerns the Doctor’s involvement in the planet Ravolox, where the Valeyard shows that the Doctor meddled in the affairs of the planet. The Doctor is aware that Ravolox was devastated by a fireball, according to official records, but the presence of flourishing plant life make him suspicious. As they walk, they are observed by Sabalom Glitz and Dibber, mercenaries on the planet attempting to destroy a “black light” generator in order to destroy the L3 robot deep underground that it powers. The Doctor and Peri find a tunnel and enter to find remains that appear to be that of the Marble Arch tube station on the London Underground Central line, Unfortunately Peri is captured by a local human tribe, led by Katryca, who informs Peri that she will need to take many husbands for the tribe, (steady on, we’ve only just met) and locks her away with Glitz and Dibber; the two were captured after approaching the tribe to try to convince them to let them destroy the generator, which the tribe has taken as a totem.

Meanwhile The Doctor, in exploring the modern underground complex, is also captured by humans under watch by “the Immortal”. He is brought before the Immortal, the L3 robot that Glitz is looking for. The robot calls itself Drathro, and is following its instructions to maintain the habitat of the underground system. Peri, Glitz, and Dibber eventually meet up with the Doctor back at the ruins of Marble Arch, trapped between the tribe and a service robot. Unfortunately, the tribesmen recapture the group and when The Doctor tries to explain the nature of the tribe’s totem, but Katryca is unimpressed. Glitz then makes a startling revelation concerning Ravolox. Meanwhile Drathro reactivates, so Katryca decides they should attack Drathro’s “castle” to steal its technology for itself, however this does not go to plan
Meanwhile the Doctor and Peri use the opportunity to escape and re-enter the underground complex, despite the dangers posed by the Black Light Generator and Drathro. The Doctor then offers Drathro a solution regarding the black light system, and Glitz makes Drathro another tempting offer

In the second story Mindwarp The Valeyard presents his second piece of evidence for the prosecution, the Doctor and Peri’s activities on Thoros Beta, where the Doctor is investigating arms sales, where he sees his old adversary Sil. Sil’s race, the Mentors, are revealed to have been supplying Yrcanos, the local king of a Viking-like primitive culture, with advanced weaponry. Meanwhile, a scientist, Crozier, is preparing for surgery on Kiv, an influential Mentor whose brain is expanding. When the Doctor learns that Peri has been chosen as the new host for Kiv’s brain, he allies with Yrcanos to kill the Mentors however this has tragic consequences.

In the third story Terror of the Vervoids the Doctor begins to suspect that evidence is being tampered with. It takes place in the year 2986, and sees the Doctor and his new companion Mel answer a distress call from the interstellar ship Hyperion III. The ship is sabotaged and people are dying at the hands of the Vervoids, plant-like humanoids who the Doctor learns were genetically engineered to be slaves. So the Doctor and Mel try to stop the Vervoids running amok

In the final story the Ultimate Foe The Doctor claims that the Matrix has been deliberately altered, and the Keeper of the Matrix is summoned Seconds later, the Master appears on the Matrix’s screen. Sabalom Glitz and Mellearn of a deadly conspiracyconcerning The Doctor who finally discovers the the uncomfortable truth behind the Valeyard’s true identity and that his suspicions may have been right. The Valeyard and Master then resorts to extreme measures against the High Council while the Doctor tries to stop them. The Inquisitor then makes the Doctor a tempting offer and reveals what really happened to Peri. However Mel makes a disturbing discovery concerning the Keeper of the Matrix….

Bon Jovi/ Radiohead

Tico Torres The Drummer with American rock band Bon Jovi Was born 7th October 1953. Bon Jovi are Originally from Sayreville, New Jersey and were Formed in 1983, by lead singer and namesake Jon Bon Jovi (John Francis Bongiovi, Jr.), guitarist Richie Sambora, keyboard player David Bryan and percussionist Tico Torres. The band’s lineup has remained mostly static during their history, the only exceptions being the departure of bass player Alec John Such in 1994, who was unofficially replaced by Hugh McDonald and Longtime guitarist and co-songwriter Richie Sambora who departed in 2013.

The band achieved widespread recognition with their third album, Slippery When Wet, released in 1986. Their fourth album New Jersey, which was released in 1988, became just as successful as its predecessor. Bon Jovi had thirteen U.S. Top 40 hits between 1986-1995, including four number-ones including You Give love a Bad Name“”, “Livin on a Prayer“, “Bad Medicine“, and “I’ll Be There for You”. Other hits include Keep the Faith ”Wanted Dead or Alive” ”Bed of Roses” Have a Nice Day and “Always”. After touring and recording non-stop during the late 1980s, the band went on hiatus following the New Jersey Tour in 1990, during which time Jon Bon Jovi and Richie Sambora both released successful solo albums. In 1992, the band returned with the album Keep the Faith. Their 2000 single “It’s My Life”, which followed a second hiatus, successfully introduced the band to a younger audience. Bon Jovi has been known to use different styles in their music, which has included country for their 2007 album Lost Highway, their next album The Circle was released in 2009 and their 12th Album What About Now was released in 2013.

BON JOVI LIVE IN CLEVELAND 2013 http://youtu.be/4HNlicwoDqw

In 2015 Bon Jovi released the singles “We Don’t Run” and “Saturday Night Gave Me Sunday Morning” from the latest album Burning Bridges, which was released August 21, 2015. According to Jon Bon Jovi, the album serves as a “fan record” to tie in with an accompanying international tour. Bon Jovi’s next album will be entitled This House Is Not For Sale and is due for release in 2016. Throughout their career, the band have released thirteen studio albums, three compilation albums and one live album, and have sold more than 130 million records worldwide. They have performed more than 2,700 concerts in over 50 countries for more than 35 million fans. Bon Jovi was inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2006. The band was also honored with the Award of Merit at the American Music Awards in 2004, and as songwriters and collaborators, Jon Bon Jovi and Richie Sambora were also inducted into Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2009.

Thom Yorke (Radiohead)

Thom Yorke, singer with English rock band Radiohead was born 7th october 1968. Originally from Abingdon, Oxfordshire, Radiohead formed in 1985. The band consists of Thom Yorke (lead vocals, guitar, piano), Jonny Greenwood (lead guitar, keyboards, other instruments), Colin Greenwood (bass), Phil Selway (drums, percussion) and Ed O’Brien (guitar, backing vocals). Radiohead released their debut single “Creep” in 1992. The song was initially unsuccessful, but it became a worldwide hit several months after the release of their debut album, Pablo Honey (1993). Radiohead’s popularity rose in the United Kingdom with the release of their second album, The Bends(1995). Radiohead’s third album, OK Computer (1997), propelled them to greater international fame. Featuring an expansive sound and themes of modern alienation, OK Computer is often acclaimed as one of the landmark records of the 1990s.

Kid A (2000) and Amnesiac (2001) marked an evolution in Radiohead’s musical style, as the group incorporated experimental electronic music, krautrock and jazz influences. Kid A, though somewhat polarizing at the time of its release, is now frequently recognized as one of the most important albums of the 2000s. Hail to the Thief (2003), a mix of piano and guitar driven rock, electronics and lyrics inspired by war, was the band’s final album for their major record label, EMI. Radiohead self-released their seventh album, In Rainbows (2007), as a digital download for which customers could set their own price, and later in physical form to critical and chart success. Radiohead’s eighth album, The King of Limbs (2011), was an exploration of rhythm and quieter textures, which the band released independently.

In 2006, Yorke released his debut solo album, The Eraser, comprising mainly electronic music. In 2009, to perform The Eraser live, he formed a new band, Atoms for Peace, with musicians including Red Hot Chili Peppers bassist Flea and Radiohead producer Nigel Godrich; they released an album, Amok, in 2013. In 2014, Yorke released his second solo album, Tomorrow’s Modern Boxes. He has collaborated with artists including Björk, Flying Lotus and PJ Harvey, and has composed soundtracks for film and theatre. With artist Stanley Donwood, he creates artwork for Radiohead albums.

Yorke has been critical of the music industry, particularly of major labels and streaming services such as Spotify, which he believes cannot support new music. With Radiohead and his solo work he has pioneered alternative music release platforms such as pay-what-you-want and BitTorrent. He is an activist on behalf of human rights, environmental, and anti-war causes, and his lyrics sometimes incorporate political themes.

So far Radiohead have sold more than 30 million albums worldwide, with the band’s work being placed highly in both listener polls and critics’ lists, they have the distinction of doing so in both the 1990s and 2000s. In 2005, Radiohead were ranked number 73 in Rolling Stone’s list of “The Greatest Artists of All Time”, while Jonny Greenwood and Ed O’Brien were both included in Rolling Stone’s list of greatest guitarists, and Thom Yorke in their list of greatest singers. In 2009, Rolling Stone readers voted the group the second best artist of the 2000s

Edgar Allan Poe

American author, poet, editor and literary critic Edgar Allan Poe tragically passed away On October 7, 1849, at the age of 40 in Baltimore. He was born January 19, 1809 in Boston, Massachusetts. He was orphaned young when his mother died shortly after his father abandoned the family & was taken in by John and Frances Allan, of Richmond, Virginia, but they never formally adopted him. He attended the University of Virginia for one semester but left due to lack of money. After enlisting in the Army and later failing as an officer’s cadet at West Point, Poe parted ways with the Allans’. His publishing career began humbly, with an anonymous collection of poems, Tamerlane and Other Poems (1827), credited only to “a Bostonian”. Poe switched his focus to prose and spent the next several years working for literary journals and periodicals, becoming known for his own style of literary criticism. His work forced him to move among several cities, including Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York City. In Baltimore in 1835, he married Virginia Clemm, his 13-year-old cousin.

In January 1845 Poe published his poem, “The Raven”, which tells of a talking raven’s mysterious visit to a distraught lover, who is lamenting the loss of his love, Lenore and it traces the man’s slow descent into madness. The poem has a supernatural atmosphere and also makes use of a number of folk and classical references and became a huge success. Poe claimed to have written the poem very logically and methodically, intending to create a poem that would appeal to both critical and popular tastes, as he explained in his 1846 follow-up essay “The Philosophy of Composition”. The poem was inspired in part by a talking raven in the novel Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of ‘Eighty by Charles Dickens. Its publication made Poe widely popular in his lifetime, although it did not bring him much financial success. Soon reprinted, parodied, and illustrated, critical opinion is divided as to the poem’s status, but it nevertheless remains one of the most famous poems ever written. He began planning to produce his own journal, The Penn (later renamed The Stylus).

The cause of Poe’s death is unknown and has been variously attributed to alcohol, brain congestion, cholera, drugs, heart disease, rabies, suicide, tuberculosis, and other agents. Nevertheless Poe made a lasting impression and is considered part of the American Romantic Movement and is remebered for his tales of mystery and the macabre, Poe was one of the earliest American practitioners of the short story and is considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre. He is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction.and his works influenced literature in the United States and around the world, as well as in specialized fields, such as cosmology and cryptography. Poe and his work appear throughout popular culture in literature, music, films, and television. A number of his homes are dedicated museums today. The Mystery Writers of America present an annual award known as the Edgar Award for distinguished work in the mystery genre. The award is named after this author. Many of Edgar Allan Poe’s macabre stories have also been adapted for stage, silver screen and television numerous times and his novels remain popular.

Kevin Godley (10cc)

English singer, musician, and director Kevin Godley, (10cc, Godley & Creme, Art of Noise, Producers, Doctor Father, Hotlegs, andThe Magic Lanterns) was born 7 October 1945. Three of the founding members of 10cc were childhood friends in the Manchester area. As boys, kevin Godley and Lol Creme knew each other; Graham Gouldman and Kevin Godley attended the same secondary school; their musical passion led to playing at the local Jewish Lads’ Brigade. Their first recorded collaboration was in 1964, when Gouldman’s band The Whirlwinds recorded the Lol Creme composition, “Baby Not Like You”, as the B-side of their only single, “Look At Me”. The Whirlwinds then changed members and name, becoming The Mockingbirds (including singer-guitarist Gouldman, bassist Bernard Basso and drummer Kevin Godley, formerly of The Sabres with Creme). The Mockingbirds recorded five singles in 1965–66 without any success, before dissolving. The guitarist in both The Whirlwinds and The Mockingbirds was Stephen Jacobson, brother of well-known writer Howard Jacobson.

In 1967, Godley and Creme reunited and recorded (“Seeing Things Green” b/w “Easy Life” on UK CBS) under the name “The Yellow Bellow Room Boom”. In 1969, Gouldman took them to a Marmalade Records recording session. The boss Giorgio Gomelsky offered them a recording contract. In September 1969, Godley & Creme recorded some basic tracks at Strawberry Studios, with Stewart on guitar and Gouldman on bass.The song, “I’m Beside Myself” b/w “Animal Song”, was issued as a single, credited to Frabjoy and Runcible Spoon. Gomelsky (an ex-manager of The Yardbirds) planned to market Godley & Creme as a duo, in the vein of Simon & Garfunkel. Solo tracks by Godley and Gouldman, With Stewart and Creme—were released in a 1969 Marmalade Records music sample album, 100 Proof. Gouldman’s track was “The Late Mr. Late”. In 1970 Godley released the song “To Fly Away” on the debut Hotlegs album, Thinks: School Stinks. Gouldman, Penned the songs “Heart Full of Soul”, “Evil Hearted You” and “For Your Love” for The Yardbirds, “Look Through Any Window” and “Bus Stop” for The Hollies and “No Milk Today”, “East West” and “Listen People” for Herman’s Hermits.

Meanwhile guitarist Eric Stewart was a member of Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders, a group that hit No.1 with “The Game of Love”. However Fontana left the band in October 1965 and, the group became known simply as The Mindbenders, with Stewart as their lead vocalist. They Released “A Groovy Kind of Love” in 1965and made an appearance in the 1967 film To Sir, with Love with “It’s Getting Harder All the Time” and “Off and Running.” In 1968, Gouldman joined Stewart in The Mindbenders, replacing bassist Bob Lang and wrote the songs, “Schoolgirl” and “Uncle Joe the Ice Cream Man” and the Mindbenders split. Following thisStewart began recording demos of new material at Inner City Studios, a Stockport studio then owned by Peter Tattersall, a former road manager for Billy J. Kramer and the Dakotas. IStewart joined Tattersall as a partner in the studio, and in1968, the studio was moved to bigger premises and renamed Strawberry Studios, after The Beatles’ “Strawberry Fields Forever”.

In 1969, Gouldman also began using Strawberry to record demos of songs he was writing for Marmalade and also became a financial partner in the studios. By 1969, all four members of the original 10cc line-up were working together regularly at Strawberry Studios. American pop writer-producers Jerry Kasenetz and Jeff Katz of Super K Productions came to England and commissioned Gouldman to write and produce formula bubblegum songs, many of which were recorded at Strawberry Studios, including the song “Sausalito”, featuring Gouldman on lead vocal, and vocal and instrumental backing by the other three future 10cc members. In 1969, Gouldman began working solely at Strawberry, rather than move constantly between Stockport, London and New York. Gouldman convinced the pair that these throwaway two-minute songs could all be written, performed and produced by him and his three colleagues, Stewart, Godley and Creme, at a fraction of the cost of hiring outside session musicians. This produced many songs for others including “There Ain’t No Umbopo” by Crazy Elephant, “When He Comes” by Fighter Squadron and “Come on Plane” by Silver Fleet (all three with lead vocals by Godley), and “Susan’s Tuba” by Freddie and the Dreamers (which was a monster hit in France and featured lead vocals by Freddie Garrity.

When the three-month production deal with Kasenetz-Katz ended, Gouldman returned to New York to work as a staff songwriter for Super K Productions. With Gouldman absent, Godley, Creme and Stewart continued recording singles including, “Neanderthal Man”, And Umbopo” under the name of Doctor Father. After Reverting to the successful band name Hotlegs, in early 1971 Godley, Creme and Stewart recorded the album Thinks: School Stinks, which included “Neanderthal Man”. They then recalled Gouldman for a short tour supporting The Moody Blues, before releasing a follow-up single “Lady Sadie” b/w “The Loser”. Philips reworked their sole album, removed “Neanderthal Man” and added “Today” and issued it as Song. Stewart, Creme and Godley also released a cover version of Paul Simon’s Cicellia in 1971 as, The New Wave Band, with former Herman’s Hermits member Derek “Lek” Leckenby on guitarThe band also colaborated with Dave Berry, Wayne Fontana, Peter Cowap and Herman’s Hermits, and doing original compositions for various UK football (soccer) teams. In 1971 they produced and played on Space Hymns, an album by New Age musician Ramases; in 1972–73 they co-produced and played on two Neil Sedaka albums, Solitaire and The Tra-La Days Are Over. The success of these albums convinced them to form a band together And they recorded the Stewart/Gouldman song, “Waterfall”, and The Godley/Creme composition “Donna” which was a Frank Zappa-influenced 1950s doo-wop parody, a sharp mix of commercial pop and irony with a chorus sung in falsetto.

Jonathan King signed them up and chose the 10cc name after having a dream in which he was standing in front of the Hammersmith Odeon in London where the boarding read “10cc The Best Band in the World”. However another claim, Suggests that the band name represented a volume of semen that was more than the average amount ejaculated by men, thus emphasising their potency or prowess. 10cc then released their first single Donna”. Their second single, was a similarly 1950s-influenced song called “Johnny Don’t Do It” and their third single “Rubber Bullets”, was a catchy satirical take on the “Jailhouse Rock” concept. These were follwed by “The Dean and I”, “Headline Hustler” and “The Worst Band in the World”. They toured in 1973, joined by second drummer Paul Burgess, before returning to Strawberry Studios in November to finish their second LP, Sheet Music, which was released in 1974 and included “The Worst Band in the World”, “The Wall Street Shuffle” & “Silly Love”. In 1975, the band split with Jonathan King a and signed with Mercury Records after manager Ric Dixon invited Head of A & R Nigel Grainger to listen to the latest album The Original Soundtrack which contained , Godley & Creme’s eight minute opus “Une Nuit A Paris (One Night in Paris), ‘Life Is A Minestrone’ & “I’m Not in Love” and featured distinctive cover art by Hipgnosis. 10cc’s fourth LP, How Dare You! Was released in 1976 And featured another Hipgnosis cover, and the songs “Art for Art’s Sake” and “I’m Mandy, Fly Me”. Sadly the once close personal and working relationships between the four members had begun to fray, and it was the last album with the original line-up. In 1976 10cc rereleased the album Hotlegs album under the new title You Didn’t Like It Because You Didn’t Think of It with two additional tracks. The title track was the epic B-side of “Neanderthal Man”, reworked as “Fresh Air for My Mama”

International Trigeminal Neuralgia Awareness Day

International Trigeminal Neuralgia awareness day takes place annually on 7 October to raise awareness about Trigeminal neuralgia (TN or TGN) a chronic pain disorder which affects the trigeminal nerve. This nerve is responsible for sensory data such as tactition (pressure), thermoception (temperature), and nociception (pain) originating from the face above the jawline; it is also responsible for the motor function of the muscles of mastication, the muscles involved in chewing but not facial expression. Trigeminal neuralgia was first described by physician John Fothergill and treated surgically by John Murray Carnochan, both of whom were graduates of the University of Edinburgh Medical School. Historically TN has been called “suicide disease” due to studies by Harvey Cushing involving 123 cases of TN during 1896 and 1912.

The trigeminal nerve is a paired cranial nerve that has three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2), and the mandibular nerve (V3). One, two, or all three branches of the nerve may be affected. Trigeminal neuralgia most commonly involves the middle branch (the maxillary nerve or V2) and lower branch (mandibular nerve or V3) of the trigeminal nerve.

There are two main types: typical and atypical trigeminal neuralgia. The typical form results in episodes of severe, sudden, shock-like pain in one side of the face along the trigeminal nerve divisions which can last for seconds to a few minutes. Groups of these episodes can occur over a few hours. The episodes of intense pain may occur paroxysmally. To describe the pain sensation, people often describe a trigger area on the face so sensitive that touching or even air currents can trigger an episode; however, in many people, the pain is generated spontaneously without any apparent stimulation. It affects lifestyle as it can be triggered by common activities such as eating, talking, shaving and brushing teeth. The wind, chewing, and talking can aggravate the condition in many patients. The attacks are said by those affected to feel like stabbing electric shocks, burning, sharp, pressing, crushing, exploding or shooting pain that becomes intractable. The atypical form results in a constant burning pain that is less severe. Episodes may be triggered by any touch to the face. Both forms may occur in the same person. It is one of the most painful conditions, and can result in depression.

The exact cause is unclear, but believed to involve loss of the myelin around the trigeminal nerve This may occur due to compression from a blood vessel as the nerve exits the brain stem, multiple sclerosis, stroke, or trauma Less common causes include a tumor or arteriovenous malformation. It is a type of nerve pain. Diagnosis is typically based on the symptoms, after ruling out other possible causes such as postherpetic neuralgia. It was once believed that the nerve was compressed in the opening from the inside to the outside of the skull; but leading research indicates that it is an enlarged or lengthened blood vessel – most commonly the superior cerebellar artery – compressing or throbbing against the microvasculature of the trigeminal nerve near its connection with the pons which can injure the nerve’s protective myelin sheath and cause erratic and hyperactive functioning of the nerve. This can lead to pain attacks at the slightest stimulation of any area served by the nerve as well as hinder the nerve’s ability to shut off the pain signals after the stimulation ends. Causes vary from aneurysms (an outpouching of a blood vessel); by an AVM (arteriovenous malformation);tumor; such as an arachnoid cyst or meningioma in the cerebellopontine angle; or a traumatic event such as a car accident.

Short-term peripheral compression is often painless. Persistent compression results in local demyelination with no loss of axon potential continuity. Chronic nerve entrapment results in demyelination primarily, with progressive axonal degeneration subsequently. trigeminal neuralgia is therefore associated with demyelination of axons in the Gasserian ganglion, the dorsal root, or both.Further compression may be related to an aberrant branch of the superior cerebellar artery that lies on the trigeminal nerve. Further causes, include, multiple sclerosis or cerebellopontine angle tumor, a posterior fossa tumor, or brainstem diseases from strokes

Treatment includes medication or surgery. The anticonvulsant carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine is usually the initial treatment, and is effective in about 80% of people. Other options include lamotrigine, baclofen, gabapentin, and pimozide. Amitriptyline may help with the pain, but opioids are not usually effective in the typical form. In those who do not improve or become resistant to other measures, a number of types of surgery may be tried. It is estimated that 1 in 8,000 people per year develop trigeminal neuralgia. It usually begins in people over 50 years old, but can occur at any age. Women are more commonly affected than men.

International Trigeminal Neuralgia awareness day takes place annually on 7 October to raise awareness about Trigeminal neuralgia (TN or TGN) a chronic pain disorder which affects the trigeminal nerve. This nerve is responsible for sensory data such as tactition (pressure), thermoception (temperature), and nociception (pain) originating from the face above the jawline; it is also responsible for the motor function of the muscles of mastication, the muscles involved in chewing but not facial expression. Trigeminal neuralgia was first described by physician John Fothergill and treated surgically by John Murray Carnochan, both of whom were graduates of the University of Edinburgh Medical School. Historically TN has been called “suicide disease” due to studies by Harvey Cushing involving 123 cases of TN during 1896 and 1912.

The trigeminal nerve is a paired cranial nerve that has three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2), and the mandibular nerve (V3). One, two, or all three branches of the nerve may be affected. Trigeminal neuralgia most commonly involves the middle branch (the maxillary nerve or V2) and lower branch (mandibular nerve or V3) of the trigeminal nerve.

There are two main types: typical and atypical trigeminal neuralgia. The typical form results in episodes of severe, sudden, shock-like pain in one side of the face along the trigeminal nerve divisions which can last for seconds to a few minutes. Groups of these episodes can occur over a few hours. The episodes of intense pain may occur paroxysmally. To describe the pain sensation, people often describe a trigger area on the face so sensitive that touching or even air currents can trigger an episode; however, in many people, the pain is generated spontaneously without any apparent stimulation. It affects lifestyle as it can be triggered by common activities such as eating, talking, shaving and brushing teeth. The wind, chewing, and talking can aggravate the condition in many patients. The attacks are said by those affected to feel like stabbing electric shocks, burning, sharp, pressing, crushing, exploding or shooting pain that becomes intractable. The atypical form results in a constant burning pain that is less severe. Episodes may be triggered by any touch to the face. Both forms may occur in the same person. It is one of the most painful conditions, and can result in depression.

The exact cause is unclear, but believed to involve loss of the myelin around the trigeminal nerve This may occur due to compression from a blood vessel as the nerve exits the brain stem, multiple sclerosis, stroke, or trauma Less common causes include a tumor or arteriovenous malformation. It is a type of nerve pain. Diagnosis is typically based on the symptoms, after ruling out other possible causes such as postherpetic neuralgia. It was once believed that the nerve was compressed in the opening from the inside to the outside of the skull; but leading research indicates that it is an enlarged or lengthened blood vessel – most commonly the superior cerebellar artery – compressing or throbbing against the microvasculature of the trigeminal nerve near its connection with the pons which can injure the nerve’s protective myelin sheath and cause erratic and hyperactive functioning of the nerve. This can lead to pain attacks at the slightest stimulation of any area served by the nerve as well as hinder the nerve’s ability to shut off the pain signals after the stimulation ends. Causes vary from aneurysms (an outpouching of a blood vessel); by an AVM (arteriovenous malformation);tumor; such as an arachnoid cyst or meningioma in the cerebellopontine angle; or a traumatic event such as a car accident.

Short-term peripheral compression is often painless. Persistent compression results in local demyelination with no loss of axon potential continuity. Chronic nerve entrapment results in demyelination primarily, with progressive axonal degeneration subsequently. trigeminal neuralgia is therefore associated with demyelination of axons in the Gasserian ganglion, the dorsal root, or both.Further compression may be related to an aberrant branch of the superior cerebellar artery that lies on the trigeminal nerve. Further causes, include, multiple sclerosis or cerebellopontine angle tumor, a posterior fossa tumor, or brainstem diseases from strokes

Treatment includes medication or surgery. The anticonvulsant carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine is usually the initial treatment, and is effective in about 80% of people. Other options include lamotrigine, baclofen, gabapentin, and pimozide. Amitriptyline may help with the pain, but opioids are not usually effective in the typical form. In those who do not improve or become resistant to other measures, a number of types of surgery may be tried. It is estimated that 1 in 8,000 people per year develop trigeminal neuralgia. It usually begins in people over 50 years old, but can occur at any age. Women are more commonly affected than men.

International Trigeminal Neuralgia awareness day takes place annually on 7 October to raise awareness about Trigeminal neuralgia (TN or TGN) a chronic pain disorder which affects the trigeminal nerve. This nerve is responsible for sensory data such as tactition (pressure), thermoception (temperature), and nociception (pain) originating from the face above the jawline; it is also responsible for the motor function of the muscles of mastication, the muscles involved in chewing but not facial expression. Trigeminal neuralgia was first described by physician John Fothergill and treated surgically by John Murray Carnochan, both of whom were graduates of the University of Edinburgh Medical School. Historically TN has been called “suicide disease” due to studies by Harvey Cushing involving 123 cases of TN during 1896 and 1912.

The trigeminal nerve is a paired cranial nerve that has three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2), and the mandibular nerve (V3). One, two, or all three branches of the nerve may be affected. Trigeminal neuralgia most commonly involves the middle branch (the maxillary nerve or V2) and lower branch (mandibular nerve or V3) of the trigeminal nerve.

There are two main types: typical and atypical trigeminal neuralgia. The typical form results in episodes of severe, sudden, shock-like pain in one side of the face along the trigeminal nerve divisions which can last for seconds to a few minutes. Groups of these episodes can occur over a few hours. The episodes of intense pain may occur paroxysmally. To describe the pain sensation, people often describe a trigger area on the face so sensitive that touching or even air currents can trigger an episode; however, in many people, the pain is generated spontaneously without any apparent stimulation. It affects lifestyle as it can be triggered by common activities such as eating, talking, shaving and brushing teeth. The wind, chewing, and talking can aggravate the condition in many patients. The attacks are said by those affected to feel like stabbing electric shocks, burning, sharp, pressing, crushing, exploding or shooting pain that becomes intractable. The atypical form results in a constant burning pain that is less severe. Episodes may be triggered by any touch to the face. Both forms may occur in the same person. It is one of the most painful conditions, and can result in depression.

The exact cause is unclear, but believed to involve loss of the myelin around the trigeminal nerve This may occur due to compression from a blood vessel as the nerve exits the brain stem, multiple sclerosis, stroke, or trauma Less common causes include a tumor or arteriovenous malformation. It is a type of nerve pain. Diagnosis is typically based on the symptoms, after ruling out other possible causes such as postherpetic neuralgia. It was once believed that the nerve was compressed in the opening from the inside to the outside of the skull; but leading research indicates that it is an enlarged or lengthened blood vessel – most commonly the superior cerebellar artery – compressing or throbbing against the microvasculature of the trigeminal nerve near its connection with the pons which can injure the nerve’s protective myelin sheath and cause erratic and hyperactive functioning of the nerve. This can lead to pain attacks at the slightest stimulation of any area served by the nerve as well as hinder the nerve’s ability to shut off the pain signals after the stimulation ends. Causes vary from aneurysms (an outpouching of a blood vessel); by an AVM (arteriovenous malformation);tumor; such as an arachnoid cyst or meningioma in the cerebellopontine angle; or a traumatic event such as a car accident.

Short-term peripheral compression is often painless. Persistent compression results in local demyelination with no loss of axon potential continuity. Chronic nerve entrapment results in demyelination primarily, with progressive axonal degeneration subsequently. trigeminal neuralgia is therefore associated with demyelination of axons in the Gasserian ganglion, the dorsal root, or both.Further compression may be related to an aberrant branch of the superior cerebellar artery that lies on the trigeminal nerve. Further causes, include, multiple sclerosis or cerebellopontine angle tumor, a posterior fossa tumor, or brainstem diseases from strokes

Treatment includes medication or surgery. The anticonvulsant carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine is usually the initial treatment, and is effective in about 80% of people. Other options include lamotrigine, baclofen, gabapentin, and pimozide. Amitriptyline may help with the pain, but opioids are not usually effective in the typical form. In those who do not improve or become resistant to other measures, a number of types of surgery may be tried. It is estimated that 1 in 8,000 people per year develop trigeminal neuralgia. It usually begins in people over 50 years old, but can occur at any age. Women are more commonly affected than men.

Treatment includes medication or surgery. The anticonvulsant carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine is usually the initial treatment, and is effective in about 80% of people. Other options include lamotrigine, baclofen, gabapentin, and pimozide. Amitriptyline may help with the pain, but opioids are not usually effective in the typical form. In those who do not improve or become resistant to other measures, a number of types of surgery may be tried. It is estimated that 1 in 8,000 people per year develop trigeminal neuralgia. It usually begins in people over 50 years old, but can occur at any age. Women are more commonly affected than men.