Posted in Art

William Hogarth

English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic, and editorial cartoonist William Hogarth was born 10 November 1697. He has been credited with pioneering western sequential art. His work ranged from realistic portraiture to comic strip-like series of pictures called “modern moral subjects”. Knowledge of his work is so pervasive that satirical political illustrations in this style are often referred to as “Hogarthian” He first worked as an engraver in 1720, engraving coats of arms, shop bills, and designing plates for booksellers. Then in 1727, he was hired by Joshua Morris, a tapestry worker, to prepare a design for the Element of Earth. In 1757 he was appointed Serjeant Painter to the King. Early satirical works included an Emblematical Print on the South Sea Scheme, about the disastrous stock market crash known as the South Sea Bubble, in which many English people lost a great deal of money. This features Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish figures gambling, while in the middle there is a huge machine, like a merry-go-round, which people are boarding. At the top is a goat, written below which is “Who’l Ride”. Other early works include The Lottery ; The Mystery of Masonry brought to Light by the Gormogons ; A Just View of the British Stage ; some book illustrations; and the small print, Masquerades and Operas. He continued this theme in 1727, with the Large Masquerade Ticket.

In 1726 Hogarth prepared twelve large engravings for Samuel Butler’s Hudibras including The Assembly at Wanstead House. he then turned his attention to the production of small “conversation pieces” . Among his paintings were The Fountaine Family (c.1730), The Assembly at Wanstead House, The House of Commons examining Bambridge, and several pictures of The Beggar’s Opera. Hogarth’s depiction of John Dryden’s The Indian Emperor, or The Conquest of Mexico at the home of John Conduitt, master of the mint, in St George’s Street, Hanover Square, A Midnight Modern Conversation, Southwark Fair , The Sleeping Congregation Before andAfter, Scholars at a Lecture’ The Company of Undertakers (Consultation of Quacks), The Distrest Poet (1, The Four Times of the Day, and Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn are also Masterpeices.

In 1731, Hogarth completed the earliest of the series of moral works A Harlot’s Progress. This features six scenes, concerning the miserable downfall of a country girl who who starts off happy and healthy in the Countryside then moves to town where she is forced Into a career as a prostitute to make money and her life gradually goes downhill and gets more shameful and degrading until eventually she dies of venereal disease and has a merciless funeral ceremony. This was followed in 1735 by the sequel A Rake’s Progress which portrays the reckless life of Tom Rakewell, the son of a rich merchant, who starts off promisingly, but wastes all his money on luxurious living, whoring, and gambling, until he ultimately finishes his life in locked up in Bedlam.


In 1743–1745, Hogarth painted the six pictures of Marriage à-la-mode, a moralistic satire of upper-class 18th-century society which shows the miserable tragedy of an ill-considered marriage for money rather than love. They are set in a Classical interior, and show the story of the fashionable marriage of the son of bankrupt Earl Squanderfield to the daughter of a wealthy but miserly city merchant, starting with the signing of a marriage contract at the Earl’s mansion and ending with the murder of the son by his wife’s lover and the suicide of the daughter after her lover is hanged at Tyburn for murdering her husband.

In the twelve prints of Industry and Idleness (1747) Hogarth shows the progression in the lives of two apprentices, one of whom is dedicated and hard working, the other idle. This shows that those who work hard such as the industrious apprentice get rewarded, and he becomes Sheriff, Alderman, and finally the Lord Mayor of London. Whilst idle apprentice, begins with being “at play in the churchyard”, holes up “in a Garrett with a Common Prostitute” after turning highwayman) and is eventually “executed at Tyburn” after being sent to the gallows by the industrious apprentice himself. Later important prints include his pictorial warning of the unpleasant consequences of alcoholism in Beer Street and Gin Lane, which shows a happy city drinking the ‘good’ beverage of English beer, versus Gin Lane which showed the effects of drinking gin which, as a harder liquor, caused more problems for society. People are shown as healthy, happy and prosperous in Beer Street, while in Gin Lane they are scrawny, lazy and careless. The prints were published in support of what would become theGin Act 1751.

Another print The Four Stages of Cruelty, is a cautionary print in which Hogarth depicts what happens to people who are cruel to animals and people. It features the downfall of Tom Nero, a coach driver whose cruelty to his horse causes it to break its leg. Tom is then depicted murdering a woman, until in the last print titled Reward of Cruelty, Tom gets his comeuppance and is executed for his crimes and is shown being dissected by scientists after his execution. The method of execution, and the dissection, reflect the 1752 Act of Parliament. Other notable prints include The Pool of Bethesda and The Good Samaritan, Moses brought before Pharaoh’s Daughter, Paul before Felix, his altarpiece for St. Mary Redcliffe, Bristol and The Gate of Calais. Hogarth sadly died in London on 26 October 1764 and was buried at St. Nicholas’s Churchyard, Chiswick Mall, Chiswick, London.

Posted in films & DVD, music, Television

Sesame Street Day

National Sesame Street Day takes place on November 10. It commemorates the anniversary of the first broadcast of Sesame Street on November 10, 1969. It was created in New York City, by a Mayoral Proclamation from Michael Bloomberg, who established November 10, 2009 as “Sesame Street Day,” a day to mark the show’s 40th Anniversary. To celebrate the occasion, the corner of 64th Street and Broadway in Lincoln Square was temporarily renamed 123 Sesame Street with a dedication ceremony on November 9, 2009.

Sesame Street is an American educational children’s television series that combines live action, sketch comedy, animation and puppetry. It is produced by Sesame Workshop (formerly known as the Children’s Television Workshop until June 2000) and was created by Joan Ganz Cooney and Lloyd Morrisett. The program is known for its images communicated through the use of Jim Henson’s Muppets, and includes short films, with humor and cultural references. It was conceived in 1966 during discussions between television producer Joan Ganz Cooney and Carnegie Foundation vice president Lloyd Morrisett. Their goal was to create a children’s television show that would “master the addictive qualities of television and do something good with them” such as helping young children prepare for school. After two years of research, the newly formed Children’s Television Workshop (CTW) received a combined grant of US$8 million ($53 million in 2017 dollars) from the Carnegie Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and the U.S. Federal Government to create and produce a new children’s television show. The program premiered on public television stations on November 10, 1969. was the first preschool educational television program to base its contents and production values on laboratory and formative research. Initial responses to the show included adulatory reviews, some controversy,and high ratings. The series premiered on November 10, 1969, to positive reviews, some controversy, and high viewership; it has aired on the U.S.’s national public television provider PBS since its debut,

Sesame Street has evolved from its initial inception. According to writer Michael Davis, by the mid-1970s the show had become “an American institution”. The cast and crew expanded during this time, with emphasis on the hiring of women crew members and the addition of minorities to the cast. The show’s success continued into the 1980s. In 1981, when the federal government withdrew its funding, CTW turned to, and expanded, other revenue sources, including its magazine division, book royalties, product licensing, and foreign broadcast income. Sesame Street’s curriculum has expanded to include more affective topics such as relationships, ethics, and emotions. Many of the show’s storylines were taken from the experiences of its writing staff, cast, and crew, most notably, the 1982 death of Will Lee—who played Mr. Hooper and the marriage of Luis and Maria in 1988

The format of Sesame Street consists of a combination of commercial television production elements and techniques which have evolved to reflect the changes in American culture and the audience’s viewing habits. With the creation of Sesame Street, producers and writers of a children’s television show used, for the first time, educational goals and a curriculum to shape its content. It was also the first time a show’s educational effects were formally studied. The show, therefore, has undergone significant changes in its history as adjustments to the format and content have been made to reflect change sources to the curriculum. Sesame Street Became the fifteenth-highest-rated children’s television show in the United States. A 1996 survey found that 95% of all American preschoolers had watched the show by the time they were three years old.

By the end of the 1990s, Sesame Street faced societal and economic challenges, including changes in viewing habits of young children, competition from other shows, the development of cable television, and a drop in ratings.After the turn of the 21st century, Sesame Street made major structural changes and from 2002, its format became more narrative and included ongoing storylines. After its thirtieth anniversary in 1999 and due to the popularity of the Muppet Elmo, the show also incorporated a popular segment known as “Elmo’s World”.

By 2006, there were independently produced versions, or “co-productions”, of Sesame Street broadcast in twenty countries. In 2001, there were over 120 million viewers of various international versions of Sesame Street, and by the show’s 40th anniversary in 2009, it was broadcast in more than 140 countries. In 2008, it was estimated that 77 million Americans had watched the series as children and Upon its fortieth anniversary in 2009, the show received a Lifetime Achievement Emmy at the 36th Daytime Emmy Awards and it was estimated that 77 million Americans had watched the series as children and Sesame Street had been broadcast in over 120 countries, and 20 international versions had been produced.

In 2015, as part of a five-year programming and development deal, Sesame Workshop announced that first-run episodes of Sesame Street would move to premium television service HBO beginning with season 46, which premiered In 2016. HBO will hold first-run rights to all newer episodes of the series, after which they will air on PBS member stations following a nine-month exclusivity window, with no charge to the stations for airing the content. The agreement also gives HBO exclusive rights to stream past and future Sesame Street episodes on HBO Go and HBO Now – assuming those rights from Amazon Video and Netflix. Sesame Workshop also announced that it would phase out its in-house subscription streaming service, Sesame Go, as a standalone service; the service will remain in operation, likely with its offerings reduced to a slate content available for free or serving as a portal for Sesame Street’s website. As of 2014, Sesame Street has won 167 Emmy Awards and 8 Grammy Awards—more than any other children’s show. In April 2017, Sesame Street introduced Julia, a new Muppet who has autism, performed by Stacey Gordon, who has a son on the autism spectrum.

Posted in Events

International Accounting Day

International Accounting Day or International Accountant’s Day is celebrated annually on 10 November in recognition of accountants who do highly challenging and stressful job of keeping an organisations finances and financial strategies healthy. International accounting day marks the anniversary of November 10 1494, when Italian mathematician and Franciscan friar Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli first published “Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni et Proportionalita” (Everything About Arithmetic, Geometry and Proportion). It included a detailed description of double-entry bookkeeping, called the Method of Venice. Although this technique had been practiced for centuries, Pacioli’s treatise was the first of its kind in print and earned him the title of “Father of Modern Accounting. International Accounting Day is also an opportunity to reflect on what it means to be an accountant and a great opportunity to celebrate all accountant. It was first celebrated in 1972 as “Accounting Career Day” to promote the accounting profession, and in 1976, the name evolved to “Accounting Day.”

Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations. The modern field was established by the Italian mathematician Luca Pacioli in 1494. Accounting, which has been called the “language of business”, measures the results of an organization’s economic activities and conveys this information to a variety of users, including investors, creditors, management, and regulators. Practitioners of accounting are known as accountants. The terms “accounting” and “financial reporting” are often used as synonyms.

Accounting can be divided into several fields including financial accounting, management accounting, external auditing, tax accounting and cost accounting. Accounting information systems are designed to support accounting functions and related activities. Financial accounting focuses on the reporting of an organization’s financial information, including the preparation of financial statements, to the external users of the information, such as investors, regulators and suppliers; and management accounting focuses on the measurement, analysis and reporting of information for internal use by management. The recording of financial transactions, so that summaries of the financials may be presented in financial reports, is known as bookkeeping, of which double-entry bookkeeping is the most common system.

Accounting is facilitated by accounting organizations such as standard-setters, accounting firms and professional bodies. Financial statements are usually audited by accounting firms, and are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) GAAP is set by various standard-setting organizations such as the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in the United States and the Financial Reporting Council in the United Kingdom. As of 2012, “all major economies” have plans to converge towards or adopt the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).

More events and Celebration Days celebrated on November 10

Area Code Day
National Forget-Me-Not Day
National Vanilla Cupcake Day
World Science Day for Peace and Development

Posted in books, films & DVD, Television

Neil Gaiman

English author Neil Gaiman was born 10 November 1960 in Portsmouth. After living for a period in the nearby town of Portchester, Hampshire, where Neil was born in 1960, the Gaimans moved in 1965 to the West Sussex town of East Grinstead, where his parents studied Dianetics at the town’s Scientology centre; one of Gaiman’s sisters works for the Church of Scientology in Los Angeles.

Gaiman was able to read at the age of four. For his seventh birthday, Gaiman received C. S. Lewis’s The Chronicles of Narnia series and by the time he was about ten years old, he read his way through the works of Dennis Wheatley, such as The Ka of Gifford Hillary and The Haunting of Toby Jugg. Another novel that made a particular impression on him was J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings which also inspired his desire to become an author. Narnia also introduced him to literary awards, specifically the 1956 Carnegie Medal won by the concluding volume. Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland was another childhood favourite, and He also enjoyed reading Batman comics as a child.

Gaiman was educated at several Church of England schools, including Fonthill School in East Grinstead, Ardingly College (1970–74), and Whitgift School in Croydon (1974–77). His father’s position as a public relations official of the Church of Scientology was the cause of the seven-year-old Gaiman being blocked from entering a boys’ school, forcing him to remain at the school that he had previously been attending. He lived in East Grinstead from 1965 to 1980 and again from 1984 to 1987. He met his first wife, Mary McGrath, while she was studying Scientology and living in a house in East Grinstead that was owned by his father. The couple were married in 1985 after having their first child, Michael.

As a child and a teenager, Gaiman read the works of C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Lewis Carroll, Mary Shelley, Rudyard Kipling, Edgar Allan Poe, Alan Moore, Steve Ditko, Will Eisner, Ursula K. Le Guin, Harlan Ellison, Lord Dunsany and G. K. Chesterton. He was also inspired by Roger Zelazny, Michael Moorcock, Samuel R. Delany, Angela Carter, and R.A. Lafferty Whom he contacted When he was 19–20 years old, asking for advice on becoming an author along with a Lafferty pastiche he had written. The writer sent Gaiman an encouraging and informative letter back, along with literary advice.

During the 1980s, Gaiman worked as a journalist, conducting interviews and writing book reviews, as a means to learn about the world and to make connections that he hoped would later assist him in getting published. He wrote and reviewed extensively for the British Fantasy Society. His first professional short story publication was “Featherquest”, a fantasy story, in Imagine Magazine in May 1984. When waiting for a train at London’s Victoria Station in 1984, Gaiman noticed a copy of Swamp Thing written by Alan Moore, and carefully read it. Moore’s fresh and vigorous approach to comics inspired Gaiman and he began visiting London’s Forbidden Planet to buy comics. In 1984, he wrote his first book, a biography of the band Duran Duran, as well as Ghastly Beyond Belief, a book of quotations, with Kim Newman. he was also offered a job by Penthouse but refused. He also wrote interviews and articles for many British magazines, including Knave using pseudonyms, including Gerry Musgrave and Richard Grey.

Gaiman ended his journalism career in 1987 andIn the late 1980s, he wrote Don’t Panic: The Official Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy Companion in what he calls a “classic English humour” style. In 1987 Gaiman started writing comic-books, for comic-book writer Alan Moore picking up Miracleman after Moore finished his run on the series. Gaiman and artist Mark Buckingham collaborated on several issues of the series before its publisher, Eclipse Comics, collapsed, leaving the series unfinished. His first published comic strips were four short Future Shocks for 2000 AD in 1986–87. He wrote three graphic novels with his favourite collaborator and long-time friend Dave McKean: Violent Cases, Signal to Noise, and The Tragical Comedy or Comical Tragedy of Mr. Punch. Impressed with his work, DC Comics hired him in February 1987, and he wrote the limited series Black Orchid.

Karen Berger, head of DC Comics’s Vertigo, then read Black Orchid and offered Gaiman a job: to re-write The Sandman. This tells the tale of the ageless, anthropomorphic personification of Dream that is known by many names, including Morpheus and is a mixture of fantasy, horror, and ironic humour. In the eighth issue of The Sandman, Gaiman and artist Mike Dringenberg introduced Death, the older sister of Dream, who would become as popular as the series’ title character and In 1993 DC launched Vertigo with The limited series Death: The High Cost of Living. The 75 issues of the regular series, along with an illustrated prose text and a special containing seven short stories, have been collected into 12 volumes that remain in print, 14 if the Death: The High Cost of Living and Death: The Time of Your Life spin-offs are included. Artists include Sam Kieth, Mike Dringenberg, Jill Thompson, Shawn McManus, Marc Hempel and Michael Zulli, lettering by Todd Klein, colours by Daniel Vozzo, and covers by Dave McKean. The series became one of DC’s top selling titles, eclipsing even Batman and Superman. Gaiman and Jamie Delano were due to become co-writers of the Swamp Thing series following Rick Veitch. However An editorial decision by DC to censor Veitch’s final storyline caused both Gaiman and Delano to withdraw. Gaiman then produced two stories for DC’s Secret Origins series in 1989. A Poison Ivy and a Riddler. A Riddler was originally written for Action Comics Weekly but was shelved due to editorial concerns however it was finally published in 2000 as Green Lantern/Superman: Legend of the Green Flame.

In 1990, Gaiman wrote The Books of Magic, a four-part mini-series that provided a tour of the mythological and magical parts of the DC Universe through a frame story about an English teenager who discovers that he is destined to be the world’s greatest wizard. The miniseries was popular, and sired an ongoing series written by John Ney Rieber. Sadly Gaiman’s adaptation of Sweeney Todd, illustrated by Michael Zulli for Stephen R. Bissette’s publication Taboo, was discontinued. In the mid-1990s, he also created a number of new characters and a setting that was to be featured in a title published by Tekno Comix. The concepts were then altered and split between the titles: Lady Justice, Mr. Hero the Newmatic Man, and Teknophage, Gaiman then wrote a semi-autobiographical story about a boy’s fascination with Michael Moorcock’s anti-hero Elric of Melniboné for Ed Kramer’s anthology Tales of the White Wolf.

In 1996, Gaiman and Ed Kramer co-edited The Sandman: Book of Dreams. This was Nominated for the British Fantasy Award and featured stories and contributions by Tori Amos, Clive Barker, Gene Wolfe, Tad Williams. Gaiman then wrote two series for Marvel Comics. Marvel 1602, an eight-issue limited series and The Eternals a seven-issue limited series drawn by John Romita Jr. In 2009, Gaiman wrote a two-part Batman story for DC Comics to follow Batman R.I.P. titled “Whatever Happened to the Caped Crusader? Referencing the classic Superman story “Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow?” by Alan Moore. Gaiman contributed a twelve-part Metamorpho serial drawn by Mike Allred for Wednesday Comics. Gaiman and Paul Cornell also co-wrote Action Comics #894 featuring an appearance by Death. In 2013, DC Comics released The Sandman: Overture with art by J. H. Williams III and Gaiman’s Angela character was introduced into the Marvel Universe in the last issue of the Age of Ultron miniseries in 2013

Neil Gaiman also collaborated with Terry Pratchett on his first comic novel Good Omens which was published in 1990. The 1996 novelisation of Gaiman’s teleplay for the BBC mini-series Neverwhere was his first solo novel. The novel was released in tandem with the television series though it presents some notable differences from the television series. Gaiman has since revised the novel twice, the first time for an American audience unfamiliar with the London Underground, the second time because he felt unsatisfied with the original. In 1999, Gaiman published his fantasy novel Stardust, which was highly influenced by Victorian fairytales and culture and has been released as a standard novel and in an illustrated graphic novel. Gaiman’s next novel American Gods was published in 2001 and has become one of Gaiman’s best-selling and multi-award-winning novels. Gaiman’s characters from American Gods also Crop up in a short story set in Scotland, which applies the same concepts developed in American Gods to the story of Beowulf.

Gaiman’s next novel Anansi Boys was published in 2005 and deals with Anansi (‘Mr. Nancy’), tracing the relationship of his two sons, one semi-divine and the other an unassuming Englishman, as they explore their common heritage. In 2008, Gaiman published The Graveyard Book which follows the adventures of a boy named Bod after his family is murdered and he is left to be brought up by a graveyard. It is heavily influenced by Rudyard Kipling’s The Jungle Book. In 2013 Gaiman published The Ocean at the End of the Lane which follows an unnamed man who returns to his hometown for a funeral and remembers events that began forty years earlier and was voted Book of the Year in the British National Book Awards. In 2017 Neil Gaiman published the novel Norse Mythology.

Gaiman has also written prolifically for television. In 1996 wrote BBC dark fantasy television series Neverwhere and cowrote the screenplay for the movie MirrorMask with his old friend Dave McKean for McKean to direct. In addition, he wrote the localised English language script to the anime movie Princess Mononoke, based on a translation of the Japanese script. He alsomcowrote the script for Robert Zemeckis’s Beowulf with Roger Avary, And has expressed interest in collaborating on a film adaptation of the Epic of Gilgamesh. Neil Gaiman was featured in the History Channel documentary Comic Book Superheroes Unmasked. He also wrote the script for the Babylon 5 episode “Day of the Dead. Gaiman’s novel Stardust has also been made into a film starring Charlie Cox, Robert De Niro, Michelle Pfeiffer, Claire Danes, and directed by Matthew Vaughn. A stop motion version of Coraline was released in 2009, with Henry Selick directing and featuring the voices of Dakota Fanning and Teri Hatcher. Gaiman’s 2009 Newbery Medal winning book The Graveyard Book will also be made into a movie, directed by Ron Howard.

In 2011 Gaiman wrote an episode of Doctor Who, called The Doctor’s Wife Featuring Matt Smith and Alex Kingston which won the 2012 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation (Short Form). Gaiman also appeared as himself on The Simpsons episode “The Book Job” broadcast on 20 November 2011. In 2013 Gaiman wrote another episode of Doctor Who titled “Nightmare in Silver”. A six-part radio play of Neverwhere was broadcast in March 2013, adapted by Dirk Maggs for BBC Radio 4 and Radio 4 Extra. Featured stars include James McAvoy as Richard, Natalie Dormer, Benedict Cumberbatch, Christopher Lee, Bernard Cribbens and Johnny Vegas. Neil Gaiman’s novel American Gods has also been adapted for television. In 2014, Gaiman and Terry Pratchett joined forces with BBC Radio 4 to make the first ever dramatisation of their co-penned novel Good Omens. A television adaptation of Good Omens starring David Tennant and Michael Sheen has also been made in association with Amazon Prime.

Throughout his prolific career Neil Gaiman has won numerous awards, including the Hugo, Nebula, and Bram Stoker awards, as well as the Newbery and Carnegie medals. He is the first author to win both the Newbery and the Carnegie medals for the same work, The Graveyard Book (2008). In 2013, The Ocean at the End of the Lane was voted Book of the Year in the British National Book Awards.

Posted in Uncategorized

Remembrance Sunday

This years Poignant Remembrance Sunday service took place Sunday 10 November 2019 and was Led by Members of the The Royal Family including Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, HRH Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, HRH Prince William the Duke of Cambridge, Prince of Wales, Duchess of Cambridge, Duchess of Cornwall, HRH Prince Andrew – The Duke of York, HRH Prince Edward – The Earl of Wessex, Sophie Countess of Wessex, The Princess Royal Princess Anne, Prince Michael of Kent, Meghan Merkle and Field Marshal Lord GutJohnrie of Craigiebank. There was a Brief service conducted by the Bishop of London then at The first stroke of Big Ben at 11am the firineg of a gun from Horse Guards Parade by The King’s Troop Royal Horse Artillery marked the start of two minutes’ silence, which was followed by The Last Post, sounded by the Buglers of the Royal Marines.

The event included the traditional Laying of the Wreaths and March-past the Cenotaph War Memorial in Whitehall London finishing at Horseguards Parade. This year nearly 10,000 people took part many dignitaries who laid wreaths at the event including HM Queen Elizabeth II, HRH Prince Charles prince of Wales, the German President, Prince Andrew, Prince EdwardPrincess Ann, Prince Michael of Kent. They were followed by Prime Minister Boris Johnson, Deputy Prime Minister and Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn, Jo Swinson, the leader of the Liberal Democrat Party, Rt. Hon. Arlene Foster MLA leader of the Democratic Union Party, Sir Lindsay Hoyle, recently elected speaker of the House of Commons, and Lord Fowler Speaker of the house of Lords.

Others who laid wreaths included the Duke’s equerry, Captain Ben Tracy and culture secretary, Karen Bradley, Former Prime Ministers Theresa May, David Cameron John Major, Gordon Brown and Tony Blair, the Home Secretary Priti Patel, the Secretary Of State for Education Rt Hon Gavin Williamson CBE MP, plus the Mayor of London Sadiq Kahn, Scottish National Party Leader, The forty seven High Commissioners of the Commonwealth including Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India, Northern Ireland, Guyana, Gambia, Barbuda, Lesotho, Tonga, Fiji, Bangladesh, Solomon Islands, St Dominique Brunei, Namibia, Cameroon, Falkland Islands, Nigeria, St Kitts, Barbados, St. Lucia, Jamaica, Togo and Tobago and the Ambassador of Ireland Adrian o’Neil. They were followed by the Chiefs of the Armed Services and Roy Wilsher on behalf of the civillian sevices. Fifteen Religious leaders also took part including representatives of the Roman Catholic, Jewish, Buddhist, Sikh, Zaoastrian and Hindu faiths and The President of the Royal British Legion also laid a wreath as did the Chairman of the British Legion, and Pauline Cotton Secretary of Transport for London

This was Followed by the National Anthem, other music was performed by Chapel Royal Choir School and the Massed Bands of the Black Watch and the Royal Marines, which included Rule Britannia, Heart of Oak (The Unofficial Anthem of the Royal Navy) and Nimrod from Sir Edward Elgar’s “Enigma Variations” ,The Minstrel Boy by Thomas Moore, Men of Harlech, The Skye Boat Song, Isle of Beauty by Thomas Haynes Bayly, David of the White Rock, Oft in the Stilly Night by John Andrew Stevenson, Flowers of the Forest, Nimrod from the Enigma Variations by Edward Elgar, Dido’s lament by Henry Purcell, OH Valiant Hearts by Charles Harris, Solemn Melody by Walford Davies, Last Post – a bugle call, Beethoven’s Funeral March No. 1, by Johann Heinrich Walch, O God, Our Help in Ages Past – words by Isaac Watts, music by William Croft, Reveille – a bugle call and God Save The Queen.

This was followed by a March past the Cenotaph with Princess Ann taking the salute. Organisations taking part in the march-past the Cenotaph included Royal navy association, Royal Airforce Association, Paratroop Regiment association, Royal Marines Association, Merchant Navy Association, Fleet air arm association, Gurkhas Association, Burma Star association, the Chinditz, Royal Mechanical Engineers association, Royal Northumberland fusiliers association, Royal Army Corps, 656 squadron Association, Home Guard, Royal Engineers Association, Army Air Corps, Metropolitan Police, Royal Pioneer CorpsReconnaissance corps, Maritime Air Association, Bomber Command, Royal Observer Corps, Falklands Association, Sappers Association! War Widows Association, Irish Defence Association, Royal Marine Commandos association, The Salvation Army, NAAFI Association, National Association of Retired Police Officers, Saint Johns Ambulance, The Red Cross Association, Commonwealth Graves Association, the RAF survival equipment association, Army Cadets, Sea Cadets, Army Training Corps, the Church Lads Brigade, THE Girl Guides, The Scouts, The Cubs and The YMCA.

With It being one hundred years since the end of World War I, the event was marked by bells being rung simultaneously at different cathedrals and Churches throughout the country at 12:30 pm. Elsewhere In Liverpool a special service at St George’s hall featured Joey, the giant puppet from the play Warhorse, The Royal National Memorial Arberetum in Alrewas also held a service, The arboretum’s focal point, the national Armed Forces Memorial, is designed so that on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month, a shaft of sunlight dissects its inner and outer walls, falling on a bronze wreath sculpture. In Wales a day-long motor racing event on Anglesey was paused for the two-minute silence and included a remembrance ceremony. The races were organised by Mission Motorsport which uses racing as part of rehabilitation for physically or mentally injured veterans, including helping those with post-traumatic stress disorder, At the Field of Remembrance at Cardiff Castle, which is one of six created across the UK by the British Legion, more than 10,000 crosses were laid. Elesewhere The Archbishop of Canturbury, Bishop of Durham, led a remembrance service at St. Gabriel’s Church in Sunderland. The Duke of Gloucester KG GCVO laid a wreath at The Armed Forces Memorial during the service which was attended by more than 3,000 people.

The Portland stone memorial is the nation’s tribute to more than 16,000 servicemen and women who have died on duty, or as a result of terrorism, since 1948. In Scotland, the First Minister joined the Lord Lieutenant and Lord Provost of Edinburgh Donald Wilson, Scottish Secretary Michael Moore, military leaders, veterans and serving personnel at the Stone of Remembrance at the City Chambers in Edinburgh. He observed a two minute silence and laid a wreath on behalf of the people of Scotland. The First Minister then attended a Service of Remembrance at St Giles Cathedral. In Northern Ireland Taoiseach Enda Kenny laid a wreath on behalf of the Irish Government, at the cenotaph in Enniskillen.