Emerson Fittipaldi

Brazilian Formula One driver Emerson Fittipaldi, was born December 12th 1946, and throughout a long and successful career he has won the Indianapolis 500 twice and championships in both Formula One and CART. By the Age of 14 Fittipaldi was racing motorcycles, and aged by the age of 16 hydrofoils. Howevever While racing one day, his brother Wilson took off at 70 mph (110 km/h) and landed upside down – so wisely they both decided that although he had survived, they would no longer race hydrofoils and moved onto to racing karts instead. The pair then moved up to racing Formula Vees, and built up a company with their parents. In his second season in single-seaters, Fittipaldi won the Brazilian Formula Vee title at 21 years old. He left for Europe in 1969, with the ambition to convince team owners of his talent in three months. After some podiums and his first victories in Formula Ford, Fittipaldi was first trained and then subsequently engaged by the Jim Russell Driving School Formula Three team. Fittipaldi continued to win, drawing the attention of Colin Chapman, who was looking for a driver to support the Austrian Jochen Rindt in the 1970 Formula One season. The team’s No 3 driver, he ended up becoming No 1 driver after Rindt was killed at Monza and John Miles left the team.

Thrust into the spotlight by leading F1′s top team, he proved up to the task and won for Lotus in its first race post-Rindt. In his first full year as Lotus’ lead driver in 1971, Fittipaldi finished sixth in the drivers’ championship as the team further developed the previous season’s Lotus 72. Armed with what was arguably the greatest Formula one design of all time, the Lotus 72D, Fittipaldi proved dominant in 1972 as he won five of 11 races and easily won the F1 Drivers’ Championship from Jackie Stewart by 16 points. At 25 he was then the youngest champion in F1 history. Fittipaldi left Lotus to sign with the promising McLaren team. Driving the highly efficient McLaren M23, he had three victories in 1974, reached the podium four other times, and beat Clay Regazzoni in a close battle for his second championship. The following season, he notched two more victories and four other podiums, but was second to a dominant Niki Lauda. However, at the height of his F1 success, Fittipaldi shocked everyone by leaving McLaren to race for older brother Wilson Fittipaldi’s Copersucar-sponsored Fittipaldi Automotive team.

Emerson Fittipaldi decided to retire from Formula One racing at the end of 1980 & took time out from major racing for four years, returning in 1984 in CART. The 38-year old spent his first season acclimatising to IndyCars, driving for two teams before joining Patrick Racing as an injury replacement. He stayed five years with the team, recording six victories and solid finishes in the overall standings. In 1989 he had five wins and finished in the top five in every race he completed, giving him a CART championship. Among his wins was a dominant performance in the Indianapolis 500 where he led 158 of 200 laps and won by two laps, but only after a dramatic duel with Al Unser, Jr. in the closing laps of the race.

Roger Penske hired Emmo for his racing team in 1990 and he continued to be among the top drivers in CART, winning a race with Penske for six straight years. In 1993 he added a second Indianapolis 500 victory by taking the lead from defending Formula One World Champion Nigel Mansell on lap 185 and holding it for the remainder if the race. Fittipaldi returned to Indianapolis to drive the Chevrolet Corvette Pace Car for the 2008 Indianapolis 500. Approaching 50, he was still with Champ Car in 1996 when an injury at the Michigan International Speedway ended his career with 22 wins. In 2003 he made a return to Champcars as a team owner. Fittipaldi was the acting team principal for the Brazilian A1 GP entry. In 2005 Fittipaldi made a surprise return to competitive racing in the Grand Prix Masters event held at Kyalami in South Africa, finishing second behind former CART sparring partner Nigel Mansell and was inducted in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 2001.

Karl Benz

Generally regarded as the inventor of the gasoline-powered automobile, the German engineer & Automotive pioneer Karl Benz was born on November 25, 1844 in Mühlburg (Karlsruhe). Benz attended the local Grammar School in Karlsruhe. In 1853, at the age of nine he started at the scientifically oriented Lyceum. Next he studied at the Poly-Technical University. Benz had originally focused his studies on locksmithing, but went on to locomotive engineering. On September 30, 1860, at age fifteen, he passed the entrance exam for mechanical engineering at the University of Karlsruhe. During these years, while riding his bicycle, he developed a vehicle that would eventually become the horseless carriage.After his formal education, Benz had seven years of professional training in several companies, starting in Karlsruhe with two years of varied jobs in a mechanical engineering company. He then moved to Mannheim to work as a draftsman and designer in a scales factory. In 1868 he went to Pforzheim to work for a bridge building company Gebrüder Benckiser Eisenwerke und Maschinenfabrik. Finally, he went to Vienna to work at an iron construction company.

At the age of twenty-seven, Karl Benz joined August Ritter at the Iron Foundry and Mechanical Workshop in Mannheim, later renamed Factory for Machines for Sheet-metal Working. Karl Benz led in the development of new engines & in 1878 he began to work on new patents. First creating a reliable petrol two-stroke engine. Other German contemporaries, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach were also working on similar engines, but Benz was the first to make the internal combustion engine feasible for use in an automobile. Karl Benz showed genius, through his successive inventions registered while designing what would become the production standard for his two-stroke engine. Benz soon patented the speed regulation system, the ignition, the spark plug, the carburettor, the clutch, the gear shift, and the water radiator.

in 1882 The company became Gasmotoren Fabrik Mannheim, but Benz left in 1883 and got a job at a bicycle repair shop in Mannheim owned by Max Rose and Friedrich Wilhelm Eßlinger. In 1883, the three founded a new company producing industrial machines: Benz & Company Rheinische Gasmotoren-Fabrik, (Benz & Cie) which began producing static gas engines as well. Benz continued his ideas for a horseless carriage. Using a similar technology to that of motorcycles he created an automobile, which had wire wheels with a four-stroke engine of his own design between the rear wheels and a very advanced coil ignition and evaporative cooling rather than a radiator. Power was transmitted by means of two roller chains to the rear axle. Karl Benz finished his creation in 1885 and named it the Benz Patent Motorwagen. This was the first automobile entirely designed to generate its own power, and not simply a motorized-stage coach or horse carriage.

The next year Benz created the Motorwagen Model 2, which had several modifications, and in 1887, the definitive Model 3 with wooden wheels was introduced, showing at the Paris Expo the same year. Benz began to sell the vehicle making it the first commercially available automobile in history, then In Early 1888 another gear was added to The Motorwagen allowing it to climb hills. To generate publicity and demonstrate the feasibility of using the Benz Motorwagen for travel, Benz’s wife Bertha took her first long distance automobile trip from Mannheim to Pforzheim , using one of the vehicles.Having to locate pharmacies on the way to fuel up, and repairing various technical and mechanical problems during the journey, Including adding leather to the brake blocks to make them more effective thus inventing brake lining. She arrived at her destination and sent Karl Benz a Telgram announcing the fact & Today the event is considered world’s first long-distance journey by automobile.

This event is celebrated every two years in Germany with an antique automobile rally called the Bertha Benz Memorial Route and is signposted from Mannheim via Heidelberg to Pforzheim (Black Forest) and back. Benz’s Model 3 made its debut at the 1889 World’s Fair in Paris. there was a great demand Benz’s vehicles and By 1899 Benz was the largest automobile company in the world. In 1893 Benz created a less expensive vehicle suitable for mass production – the Victoria. This was a two-passenger automobile with a 2.2 kW (3.0 hp) engine, which could reach the top speed of 18 km/h (11 mph) and had a pivotal front axle operated by a roller-chained tiller for steering. The Benz Velo also participated in the world’s first automobile race, the 1894 Paris to Rouen, where Émile Roger finished 14th, after covering the 127 km (79 mi) in 10 hours 01 minute at an average speed of 12.7 km/h (7.9 mph). In 1895, Benz designed the first truck in history, some of these were subsequently modified to become the first motor buses.

In 1896, Karl Benz created the first flat engine. It had horizontally opposed pistons, where the corresponding pistons reach top dead centre simultaneously, thus balancing each other with respect to momentum. Flat engines with four or fewer cylinders are most commonly called boxer engines or horizontally opposed engines. This design is still used by Porsche, Subaru, and some high performance engines used in racing cars (Like the Subaru Impreza WRC) and BMW motorcycles.

Competitions between Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) in Stuttgart and Benz & Cie became intense. The main designer of DMG, Wilhelm Maybach, built the engine to the specifications of Emil Jellinek, who stipulated the new engine be named Daimler-Mercedes (after his daughter) and began racing the vehicles with great success. So Benz countered with the Parsifil, in 1903 with a vertical twin engine that achieved a top speed of 37 mph (60 km/h). In 1903 Karl Benz announced his retirement from design management but remained as director on the Board of Management through its merger with DMG in 1926 and, remained on the board of the new Daimler-Benz corporation until his death in 1929. Benz son Richard returned to the company in 1904 as the designer of passenger vehicles along with continuing as a director of Benz & Cie.

In 1906 Karl Benz, Bertha Benz, and their son, Eugen, then founded the private company, C. Benz Sons (German: Benz Söhne), producing automobiles and gas engines. The latter type was replaced by petrol engines because of lack of demand. The Benz Sons automobiles were of good quality and became popular in London as taxis.In 1909, the Blitzen Benz was built in Mannheim by Benz & Cie. The bird-beaked vehicle had a 21.5-liter (1312ci), 150 kW (200 hp) engine, and on November 9, 1909 in the hands of Victor Hémery of France, the land speed racer at Brooklands, set a record of 226.91 km/h (141.94 mph). on November 25, 1914, the seventy-year-old Karl Benz was awarded an honorary doctorate by his alma mater, the Karlsruhe University, thereby becoming—Dr. Ing. h. c. Karl Benz.

sports car racing became a major method to gain publicity for manufacturers and the Benz Velo participated in the first automobile race: Paris to Rouen. soon Unique race vehicles were being built. Including the Benz Tropfenwagen, which was introduced at the 1923 European Grand Prix at Monza and became the first mid-engine aerodynamically designed Racing car.In 1924 both Benz Cie and DMG started using standardized design, production, purchasing, sales, and advertising— marketing their automobile models jointly—although keeping their respective brands. Then in 1926, Benz & Cie. and DMG finally merged as the Daimler-Benz company, naming all of its automobiles, Mercedes Benz, after ten-year-old Mercédès Jellinek. A new logo was created, consisting of a three pointed star (representing Daimler’s motto: “engines for land, air, and water”) with the laurels from the Benz logo. Sadly On April 4, 1929, Karl Benz passed away at his home in Ladenburg at the age of eighty-four from a bronchial inflammation.The Benz home is historic and is now used as a scientific meeting facility for the Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz Foundation, which honors both Bertha and Karl Benz for their roles in the history of automobiles.

Other Events and Holidays occuring on 25 November

International Day For the Elimination of Violence against Women
National Parfait Day
Shopping Reminder Day

Murray Walker OBE

Semi-retired Formula One motorsport commentator and journalist Murray Walker, OBE was born 10th October 1923. For most of his Formula One Commentating career he worked for the BBC, but when it lost the contract for F1 coverage to the company ITV, Walker continued his commentating after the change of broadcaster.He has a distinctive, enthusiastic commentary style. Since 1978, British television commentary of the Formula 1 seasons has been used by other broadcasters right around the world, including Australia and Japan. He was an exponent of the commentator’s curse, noting in an interview that he might say how well a driver was racing or that they would probably win the race, only to have them retire or crash out of the race shortly thereafter, hence his catchphrase “…Unless I’m very much mistaken…” which might lead shortly after to a correction “…And I am very much mistaken…” to introduce the correction of the foregoing comment if it turned out in the event to be incorrect.

He is known for his gentlemanly and considerate conduct, seeing the best in drivers who had attracted controversy. He rarely criticised drivers and preferred to give the benefit of the doubt in attributing blame for incidents. One example of this was during the 1994 Australian Grand Prix where, following the controversial crash between Michael Schumacher and Walker’s close friend Damon Hill which decided the World Drivers’ Championship in the German’s favor, Walker, unlike his fellow commentators at the time, most notably former 500cc Motorcycle World Champion Barry Sheene, declined to blame Schumacher outright for the crash. Here are some of Murray Walker’s best quotes:“

“It’s raining and the track is wet”
“He is shedding buckets of adrenalin in that car”
“With half the race gone, there is half the race still to go”
“Anything happens in Grand Prix racing and it usually does”
“Do my eyes deceive me, or is Senna’s Lotus sounding rough ?”
“As you look at the first four, the significant thing is that Alboreto is 5th”
“Senna is 3rd with Mansell 2nd and Piquet 3rd!”

“This will be Williams’ first win since the last time a Williams won.”
“You can’t see Alesi’s Ferrari because it isn’t there!”
“You might not think that’s cricket, and it’s not, it’s motor racing”
“……..and Schumacher has just completed lap 77 out of 73.”
“..and Micheal Schumacher is leading Micheal Schumacher”
And Michael Schumacher is actually in a very good position. He is in last place.
“There is nothing wrong with the car except that it is on fire.”
“A sad ending, albeit a happy one”
“So this being Michael Schumacher’s 10th race in his 151st year in F1″
“There are 7 winners of the Monaco Grand prix on the starting line today and four of them are Michael Schumacher“.
Fantastic!! There are four different cars filling the first four places!!“Senna 1st, Prost 2nd and Berger 3rd that makes up the top four!”
“Here at Brands Hatch Will Gollop has a clear lead over Will Gollop”.

Murray: There’s a fiery glow coming from the back of the Ferrari
– James: No Murray, that’s his rear safety light
Murrary: “What’s that? There’s a BODY on the track!!!
-James: “Um, I think that that is a piece of BODY-WORK, from someone’s car.

Murray (To Damon Hill)): When did you realise that you had a puncture, Damon?
– Damon Hill: When my tyre went down, Murray!“
“Frentzen is taking, er…, reducing that gap between himself and Frentzen.
”Michael has moved up to the position that..that…that…the other one isn’t“
Two McLarens on the first row of the grid, two Ferarri’s on the first row of the grid…”
“Jenson Button is in the top ten, in eleventh position.
Upon seeing Pedro Diniz’s Sauber catch fire ” Fire! Fire!, Diniz in the oven”
“…and HERE COMES DAMON HILL IN THE WILLIAMS!!!!…..this car is absolutely unique!….except for the one behind it….which is exactly the same…”

International Coffee Day

International Coffee Day takes place annually on 1 October to promote and celebrate coffee as a beverage, promote fair trade coffee and to raise awareness for the plight of the coffee growers. Coffee is prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain Coffea species. The genus Coffea is native to tropical Africa (specifically having its origin in Ethiopia and Sudan) and Madagascar, the Comoros, Mauritius, and Réunion in the Indian Ocean.Coffee plants are now cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, Indian subcontinent, and Africa. The two most commonly grown are C. arabica and C. robusta. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. Dried coffee seeds (referred to as “beans”) are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. Roasted beans are ground and then brewed with near-boiling water to produce coffee.

Coffee is darkly colored, bitter, slightly acidic and has a stimulating effect in humans, primarily due to its caffeine content. It is one of the most popular drinks in the world,and it can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways (e.g., espresso, French press, caffè latte). It is usually served hot, although iced coffee is a popular alternative. Clinical studies indicate that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial in healthy adults, with continuing research on whether long-term consumption lowers the risk of some diseases, although those long-term studies are of generally poor quality.

coffee is native to Ethiopia and Sudan, however the earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking as the modern beverage appears in modern-day Yemen in southern Arabia in the middle of the 15th century in Sufi shrines.It was in what is now Yemen that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a manner similar to how it is now prepared for drinking. But the coffee seeds had to be first exported from East Africa to Yemen, The Yemenis obtained their coffee via Somali traders from Berbera (who in turn procured the beans from the Ethiopian Highlands) and began to cultivate the seed. By the 16th century, the drink had reached Persia, Turkey, and North Africa. From there, it spread to Europe and the rest of the world.

International coffee day was launched officially On 1 October 2015, by the International Coffee OrganizationAt a meeting in Milan on 3–7 March 2014,as part of Expo 2015 although many other International Coffee DayS had been held in other countries beforehand. An event was first promoted in Japan in 1983 by The All Japan Coffee Association (全日本コーヒー協会) and In the United States “National Coffee Day” was mentioned publicly as early as 2005. The name “International Coffee Day” was first used by the Southern Food and Beverage Museum, which called a press conference on October 3, 2009 to celebrate it and to announce the first New Orleans Coffee Festival.It was promoted in China by the International Coffee Organization, first celebrated in 1997, and made into an annual celebration in early April 2001.Taiwan first celebrated International Coffee Day in 2009. Nepal first celebrated National Coffee Day on November 17, 2005. Indonesia, which first celebrated National Coffee Day on August 17, 2006, celebrates it on the same day as Indonesia’s Independence Day and Various other events have been held, called Coffee Day or National Coffee Day, around September 29.

On this day, many businesses offer free or discounted cups of coffee.Some businesses share coupons and special deals with their loyal followers via social networking.Some greeting card companies sell National Coffee Day greeting cards as well as free e-cards. As of 2016, Brazil was the leading grower of coffee beans, producing one-third of the world total. Coffee is a major export commodity,and is one of the most valuable commodities exported by developing countries. Green, unroasted coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world.The way developed countries trade coffee with developing nations has been criticised, as well as the impact on the environment with regards to the clearing of land for coffee-growing and water use. Consequently, the markets for fair trade and organic coffee are expanding.

More international and National Events happening 1October

  • CD Player Day
  • Day of Unity Against Domestic Violence
  • Digital Scrapbooking Day
  • Fire Pup Day
  • International Day of Older Persons
  • International Raccoon Appreciation Day
  • Model T Day
  • National Lace Day
  • World Vegetarian Day

Ferry Porsche

Automotive designer and Engineer Ferdinand Porsche was born 19 September 1909, mainly known as Ferry Porsche. His father, Ferdinand Porsche, Sr. was also a renowned automobile engineer and founder of Volkswagen and Porsche. His nephew, Dr. Ferdinand Piëch, was chairman of Volkswagen from 1993 to 1998, and his son, Ferdinand Alexander Porsche, was involved in the design of the 911. Ferdinand Porsche Sr was chief designer at Austro-Daimler in Austria. His designs were focused on compact street cars and race cars. Austro-Daimler was so strongly tied to the local royalty that the Austrian double-headed eagle became the trademark of the company. Ferry Porsche learned to drive when he was only 10 years old. At age 12 he drove a real race car, the Austro-Daimler Sascha, which had just won its class at Targa Florio, Sicily, in 1922 and also attended school at Wiener Neustadt and Stuttgart, concentrating on mathematics. In 1923, the family moved to Stuttgart, due to senior Ferdinand Porsche’s unrest about the squandering financial destiny of Austro-Daimler. He joined the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft at Stuttgart-Untertürkheim (where the design department from the whole company was concentrated). Soon, he achieved the position of technical director. Meanwhile, Ferry Porsche received consent from the company to stay at the plant together with his father because of his increasing interest in design issues.

Ferdinand Porsche senior enjoyed success particularly with his racing cars . His personal preference for designing compact cars differed to Daimler-Benz, who were in favor of more luxurious models. So he left and worked temporarily as the technical director of Steyr AG in Austria and then decided to open a consulting office of automobile design, in Stuttgart which had become a important part of Germany’s automobile industry and was therefor an ideal location for the new Porsche design company and soon Porsche GmbH was founded. Despite Germany’s financial crisis during the 1930′s Porsche managed to obtained contracts from important German automotive firms, such as Wanderer, Auto Union, Zwickau, Zündapp and Some of these projects had historical impact, such as the mid-engine Auto Union Silver Arrow race cars, which were designed by Porsche. During the 1930′s German racing cars were promoted.

Daimler-Benz constructed a racing car & In 1933 Ferry Porsche also constructed a rival Porsche race cars, which had a 4.5 litre V-16 engine and an aluminum framework. In 1934, Auto Union was created, and the senior Porsche became the chief designer and they too designed racing cars. Both racing teams, Daimler-Benz and Auto Union soon became bitter rival on the Race Track during the 1930′s. In 1938, when his father moved to the new Volkswagen plant at Wolfsburg, Ferry became deputy manager of the Stuttgart bureau and relocated the design departments to Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen. Ferdinand Porsche’s old yearning had been to create a small compact & affordable car for the German family. So Work began at Stuttgart and the car became known as the Kdf-Wagen or Volkswagen (people’s car). During World War II Porsche seemed to develop a relatively “amicable” relationship with Adolf Hitler and Even though the relationship seemed mutual, in reality it was one-sided and The Porsche family was, in fact, somewhat pacifist and did not agree with Nazi ideals and may have even assisted Jewish employees including Adolf Rosenberger, without whose financial backing Porsche GmbH would not have existed, to escape Germany.

After World War II both Porsche’s father and son as well as Anton Piëch were arrested as war criminals and a bail of 500,000 francs was officially asked for each of the Porsche’s. It could be afforded only for Ferry Porsche who moved then to Austria, in July 1946. His father was taken instead to a harsh medieval prison at Dijon, upon release he attempted to return to Stuttgart but he was barred by the forces of occupation. Then in July 1946, he brought all the structure of the company to Gmünd/Carinthia, Austria & obtained two contracts for automobile design. One was for the construction of racecars for the Cisitalia racing team. The other was for the design of their own car, which later became known as the Porsche 356. , Ferry Porsche started producing Grand Prix racing cars again. The new model was called the Porsche 360 Cisitalia, and It had a supercharged mid-mounted engine displacing 1.5 liters and four-wheel drive. Ferdinand Porsche also designed the Porsche 356, based on the compact Volkswagen. The 356 had an air-cooled, rear-mounted, 4-cylinder engine producing 35 hp. Despite the car’s compact size, it proved very popular and by 1965 had sold nearly 78,000 units, which was helped by Ferdinand Porsche’s mottos to produce automobiles which had to be reliable and of high-quality sports cars, of a high utilitarian value. Porsche ‘s most recognized involvement in car races began at 24 Hours of Le Mans, on June 1951, when an improved version of the 356 debuted on this track and won in its category. On successive years, Porsche ‘s winning contribution to Le Mans is regarded as fundamental for the own existence of the circuit. Later, in 1959, Porsche won for first time an event of the World Sportscar Championship, at Targa Florio, while a Porsche 917 would achieve the first Le Mans win finally in 1970.

At the demand of Porsche’s fans, the company began planning a successor to the 356. The project was originally called Porsche 901 and The first units were manufactured in 1962. However, Peugeot pushed legally for a change of the name, due to its registered trademark on automobile names with a zero amid two numbers. The model was renamed Porsche 911. Over time, it has evolved, but still kept the general shape and architecture since the beginning with a rear mounted high performance engine. It has sold about 600,000 units. After his father’s death in 1951 Ferry became general manager, the chairman of the board of management and In 1972, he decided to transform the Porsche Company into a public concern. In 1989, Ferdinand Porsche stepped down from the chairmanship and became honorary chairman of the supervisory board and remained in that position until his death In 1998 and Ferdinand Alexander Porsche took his place as general manager. when Ferdinand Porsche retired definitively from the activity, returning to his cherished Austrian farm at Zell am See. one of his last visited events was the launching of a new model, the Porsche 911 Carrera Cabriolet. It was based on the old 356, with a water-cooled engine of 6-cylinders and 300 hp. He also assisted in the celebration of the 30 years of the Porsche 911 which took place at Stuttgart and Ludwigsburg. He was buried there at the Schüttgut church.

Stirling Moss OBE FIE

Former English race car driver Stirling Moss OBE FIE (Fellow of the Institute of Engineers) , was born September 17th 1929 . Moss was a pioneer in the British Formula One racing scene and placed second in the Drivers’ Championship four times in a row from 1955 to 1958 and won 212 of the 529 races he entered, including 16 Formula One Grands Prix.Moss’s first Formula One win was in 1955 at his home race, the British Grand Prix at Aintree. His Mercedes-Benz W196 led home a 1–2–3–4 win for the German marque. This victory made Moss the first British driver to win the British Grand Prix. It was the first race where he finished in front of Juan Manuel Fangio, his teammate, friend, mentor, and arch rival at Mercedes.One of his best remembered drives was in the 1955 Mille Miglia, which he won in the record time of 10 hours 7 minutes 48 seconds, finishing almost half an hour ahead of teammate Fangio in second place

In 1957 Moss won on the longest circuit to ever hold a Grand Prix, the daunting 25 km (16 mi) Pescara Circuit, again demonstrating his skills at high speed, long distance driving. He beat Fangio, who started on pole, by a little over 3 minutes over the course of a gruelling 3 hour event. In the 1960 Formula One season, Moss took the top step of the podium at Monaco, winning in Rob Walker’s Coventry-Climax-powered Lotus 18. For the 1961 F1 season, which was run under the new 1.5-litre rules, Enzo Ferrari rolled out his state-of-the-art “sharknose” Ferrari 156 with an all-new V6. Moss was stuck with an underpowered Climax-engined Lotus, but managed to win the 1961 Monaco Grand Prix by 3.6 seconds (beating the 156s of Richie Ginther, Wolfgang von Trips, and Phil Hill).

Sadly though, I n 1962, Moss was badly injured in a crash at Goodwood in a Lotus in the Glover Trophy. The accident put him in a coma for one month and partially paralyzed the left side of his body for six months. He recovered but decided to retire from racing after a private test session in a Lotus 19 the next year. He would compete in as many as 62 races in a single year and drove 84 different makes of car over the course of his racing career, including Lotus, Vanwall, Maserati, Jaguar, Ferrari and Porsche. Like many drivers of the era, he competed in several formulae—very often on the same day and was as gifted at the wheel of a sports car as he was in a Grand Prix car. For three consecutive years (1958–1960) he won the gruelling 1,000 km (620 mi) race at Germany’s Nürburgring, the first two years in an Aston Martin (where he won almost single-handedly) and the third in the memorable Tipo 61 “birdcage” Maserati, co-driving with young American prospect Dan Gurney. Moss was also a competent rally driver and is one of only three people to have won a Coupe d’Or (Gold Cup) for three consecutive penalty-free runs on the Alpine Rally (Coupe des Alpes). In addition, he finished second in the 1952 Monte Carlo Rally driving a Sunbeam-Talbot 90 with co-driver John Cooper. He retired in 1962 after a crash left him in a coma for a month, as afterwards he felt unable to continue driving at a professional level. In spite of this early retirement he has remained a well-known figure.

Bentley

English Engineer Walter Owen Bentley, MBE was born 16 September 1888. in Hampstead, London, His father was retired businessman Alfred Bentley, and mother was Emily, née Waterhouse. He was as privately educated at Clifton College in Bristol from 1902 until 1905, when at the age of 16 he left to start work as an apprentice engineer with the Great Northern Railway at Doncaster in Yorkshire for five years . Here he learnt to design complex railway machinery and gained practical experience in the technical procedures to cast, manufacture, and build it. After completing his apprenticeship he left Great Northern in 1910 and began racing Quadrant, Rex, and Indian motorcycles. He competed in two Isle of Man Tourist Trophy races, on a Rex in 1909 and as a member of Indian’s factory team in 1910

After studying theoretical engineering at King’s College London, he took employment with the National Motor Cab Company, where his several duties included overseeing the maintenance of the fleet’s 250 Unics. He was fascinated by the cabbies’ ingenuity at fiddling the meters. In 1912 he joined his brother, H. M. (Horace Millner) Bentley, in a company called “Bentley and Bentley” that sold French DFP cars. To improve performance Bentley designed Aluminium Alloy pistons and a modified crankshaft for the engines which went onto break several records at Brooklands in 1913 and 1914. During World War I Bentley used aluminium alloy pistons in military applications to benefit the national interest: as they improved power output and ran cooler, allowing higher compression ratios and higher engine speeds. He was Commissioned in the Royal Naval Air Service, and shared his knowledge and experience with various manufacturers. The company’s first aero engine, named the Eagle, was designed with pistons of aluminium instead of cast-iron or steel and the same innovation was also used in all Sunbeam’s aero engines. The Navy gave him a team to design his own aero engine at the Humber factory in Coventry. Designated the BR1, Bentley Rotary 1, And The bigger BR2 followed in early 1918. In recognition, Bentley was awarded the MBE. the Royal Commission on Awards to Inventors also awarded him £8,000.

After the war, in early 1919, W. O. and his brother founded Bentley Motors Limited in Cricklewood and turned his aero engines business into one of car production. In a group that included Frank Burgess (Humber) and Harry Varley (Vauxhall), they designed a high quality sporting tourer for production under the name Bentley Motors and Engine designer Clive Gallop helped develop their 3,000 cubic centimetres (180 cu in) straight-4 engine. The 3-litre engine ran for the first time in New Street Mews, Baker Street, London. W.O.’s first complete Bentley 3 Litre car began road tests in January 1920 and the first production version arrived in 1921. W.O.’s motto was “To build a good car, a fast car, the best in class.” His cars raced in hill climbs and at Brooklands, and the lone 3 Litre entered by the company in the 1922 Indianapolis 500 mile race and driven by Douglas Hawkes finished thirteenth at an average speed of 74.95 mph. In 1922 Bentley entered a team of his new 3-litre modified and race-prepared cars in the 1922 Tourist Trophy driving himself in Bentley III. Jean Chassagne (later himself a ‘Bentley Boy’) on a 1921 Grand Prix Sunbeam winning outright. Bentleys set many records at the Le Mans 24-hour races, with “Bentley Boy” Woolf Barnato winning three times. In 1923 Bentley attended the inaugural Le Mans race, he saw John Duff and Frank Clement’s private entry take fourth place. ABentley 3 Litre won at Le Mans in 1924. However neither of the two Bentleys entered in the 1925 race finished it, but subsequent models won again in 1927, 1928, 1929, and 1930, Prompting. Ettore Bugatti to comment that W.O. made “the fastest lorries in the world 

Sadly Bentley Motors Ltd. encountered financial difficulties, And Kimberley diamond magnate Barney Barnato’s heir Woolf Barnato purchased the business’s assets and became chairman. W. O. continued his design work as Barnato’s employee. The racing version of the W.O.-designed six-cylinder Speed Six—the road car was introduced in 1928—proved to be the most successful Bentley in competition, and won Le Mans in 1929 and 1930. In 1929, a supercharged, “Blower” version of the 1927 4½ Litre was developed sadly though it was not a success. Although Barnato continued racing Bentleys with distinction, and even though the company sold a hundred of its 8 Litre model, which was launched as a grand car for the ultra-rich in October 1930 (Bugatti sold three of his equivalent model, the Royale), the Great Depression took its toll and By July 1931 Barnato’s financial support had dwindled, and Bentley Motors went into voluntary liquidation with a Receiver appointed to the company.

Rolls-Royce eventually bought the company in 1931 and production of the Bentley 8 Litre, which competed directly with the Rolls-Royce Phantom II, was terminated and production switched to Rolls-Royce premises in Derby and, postwar, Crewe. Rolls-Royce also acquired the Bentley showrooms in Cork Street, the service station at Kingsbury, the whole establishment at Cricklewood and Bentley himself and Barnato was invited to become a director of the new Rolls-Royce subsidiary, Bentley Motors (1931) Limited, Bentley also joined Rolls-Royce under a contract extending from 1 May 1932 to the end of April 1935 and Work began on The new Derby 3 1⁄2-litre. Although Bentley admired Rolls-Royce’s achievements he left Rolls-Royce at the end of April 1935 with a sense of freedom. Then after A Lagonda M45R Rapide with a Meadows engine won at Le Mans in June 1935 W. O. joined The Lagonda board of directors as technical director, with the majority of the Rolls-Royce racing department staff following him to Lagonda, including Frank Stark, Reg Ingham, Donald Bastow and Stewart Tresilian, who was Chief designer of the 4480 cc 180 Bhp V12 project launched in 1937 which could go from 7 to 105 mph in top gear and to rev to 5000 rpm. However Tresilian left in early 1938 for a Hawker Siddeley subsidiary and V12 development was abandoned.

During the Second World war W. O. worked on armaments at Lagonda. towards the end of the war he began work on a new straight-6 engine as Lagonda’s V12 was too extravagant, so he developed a modern 2580 cc dual overhead cam straight-6 engine producing 105Bhp. In 1947 production of the Lagonda 2.6 litre motorcar designed by Mr W. O. Bentley, was cancelled. However this Lagonda specification was bought by David Brown & Sons (Huddersfield) Limited, gear-wheel manufacturer, along with Aston Martin to gain Bentley’s engineering expertise, and placed The under the bonnet of The Aston Martin DB2 and was used until 1959. Bentley remained as an engineer at Aston Martin-Lagonda until moving to Armstrong Siddeley, where he designed another twin-overhead-cam 3-litre engine for the Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire before retiring.W. O. married three times. In 1914 he married Leonie Gore, the daughter of the ninth baronet, who tragically died in 1919 . He then married Poppy (Audrey Hutchinson) in 1920. a fun-loving society woman who disliked factories, whereas Bentley, a homely modest man loved to spend his time in the workshop and they divorced in 1931. He married Margaret Roberts Hutton née Murray in 1934 and she survived him. He had no children. Bentley died at Woking, Surrey, Friday 13 August 1971, shortly before his 83rd birthday, revered patron of The Bentley Drivers’ Club. His widow, Margaret, survived him and died in 1989.