The film Jaws was released 20 June 1975 it was inspired by the novel by Peter Benchley who was himself inspired by reports of several great white sharks caught in the 1960s off Long Island and Block Island by the Montauk charterboat captain Frank Mundus. Steven Spielberg initially found many of the characters unsympathetic and wanted the shark to win. Book critics such as Michael A. Rogers of Rolling Stone shared the sentiment however the book struck a chord with readers. Benchley also co-wrote the screenplay with Carl Gottlieb (along with the uncredited Howard Sackler and John Milius, who provided the first draft of a monologue about the USS Indianapolis) for the Spielberg film released in 1975. Benchley made a cameo appearance as a news reporter on the beach. The film, starring Roy Scheider, Robert Shaw, and Richard Dreyfuss, was released in the summer season, with editing by Verna Fields, score by John Williams and directed by Steven Spielberg who was credited with infusing the film with such an air of understated menace that he was hailed as the heir apparent to “Master of Suspense” Alfred Hitchcock. Jaws became the first film to gross over $100 million in United States and grossed over $470 million worldwide.
The film takes place in Amity Island, Where the grisly remains of a young woman who went swimming in the ocean are discovered. The medical examiner rules the death a shark attack which leads Police Chief Martin Brody to close the beaches. However Mayor Larry Vaughn overrules him, fearing it will ruin the town’s summer economy. The coroner now concurs with the mayor’s theory that the girl was killed in a boating accident. Brody reluctantly accepts their conclusion until another fatal shark attack occurs shortly after. A bounty is then placed on the shark, resulting in an amateur shark-hunting frenzy. Local professional shark hunter Quint offers his services for $10,000. Meanwhile, consulting oceanographer Matt Hooper examines the first victim’s remains and confirms the death was from a shark attack.
When local fishermen catch a large tiger shark, the mayor proclaims the beaches safe. However no human remains are found inside it. Hooper and Brody find a half-sunken vessel while searching the night waters in Hooper’s boat. Underwater, Hooper retrieves a sizable great white shark’s tooth embedded in the submerged hull. He drops it after finding a partial corpse. Vaughn discounts Brody and Hooper’s claims that a huge great white shark is responsible and refuses to close the beaches, for the Fourth of July weekend, when tourists pack the beaches.
Following a juvenile prank, the real shark enters a nearby estuary, killing a boater and Brody finally convinces a devastated Vaughn to hire Quint. Quint, Brody, and Hooper set out on Quint’s boat, the Orca, to hunt the shark. While Brody lays down a chum line, Quint waits for an opportunity to hook the shark which suddenly appears before disappearing beneath the waves. However the Great White returns later and damages the boat which starts sinking so they make for shore but the engine gives up. So Hooper dons scuba gear and enters the water in a shark-proof cage, intending to lethally inject the shark with strychnine using a hypodermic spear. The shark demolishes the cage before attacking the boat directly, killing Quint. Trapped on the sinking vessel, Brody is left to deal with the shark
The film spawned three sequels, none of which matched the success of the original critically or commercially, two video games, Jaws in 1987 and Jaws Unleashed in 2006 and was also adapted into a theme park attraction at Universal Studios Florida (in Orlando, Florida and Hollywood), and two musicals: JAWS The Musical!, which premiered in the summer of 2004 at the Minnesota Fringe Festival; and Giant Killer Shark: The Musical, which premiered in the summer of 2006 at the Toronto Fringe Festival.
The State Opening of Parliament for the 2017-18 session occurred on Wednesday 21 June 2017. It marked the formal start of the parliamentary year and featured the Queen’s Speech which set out the government’s agenda for the coming session, outlining proposed policies and legislation. This year Prime Minister Theresa May’s position is incredibly precarious after having lost her party’s majority in the 8 June general election. So May announced a deal with the homophobic, anti-abortion, climate-change deniers of the Democratic Unionists Party in order to get her Majority and an audience with the Queen. However the Democratic Unionists Party have since denied the existence of such a deal
State Opening happens on the first day of a new parliamentary session or shortly after a general election and is the main ceremonial event of the parliamentary calendar, attracting large crowds and a significant television and online audience. It begins with the Queen’s procession from Buckingham Palace to Westminster, escorted by the Household Cavalry. The Queen arrives at Sovereign’s Entrance and proceeds to the Robing Room. Wearing the Imperial State Crown and the Robe of State, she leads the Royal Procession through the Royal Gallery, packed with 600 guests, to the chamber of the House of Lords. It is the only regular occasion when the three constituent parts of Parliament – the Sovereign, the House of Lords and the House of Commons – meet.
The House of Lords official known as ‘Black Rod’ is sent to summon the Commons. The doors to the Commons chamber are shut in his face: a practice dating back to the Civil War, symbolising the Commons’ independence from the monarchy. Black Rod strikes the door three times before it is opened. Members of the House of Commons then follow Black Rod and the Commons Speaker to the Lords chamber, standing at the opposite end to the Throne, known as the Bar of the House, to listen to the speech.
The Queen’s Speech is then delivered by the Queen from the Throne in the House of Lords. Although the Queen reads the Speech, it is written by the government. It contains an outline of its policies and proposed legislation for the new parliamentary session. This year the Queen’s Speech was reduced to little more than a press conference and this is seen as a snub to the current government
When the Queen leaves, a new parliamentary session starts and Parliament gets back to work. Members of both Houses debate the content of the speech and agree an ‘Address in Reply to Her Majesty’s Gracious Speech’. Each House continues the debate over the planned legislative programme for several days, looking at different subject areas. The Queen’s Speech is voted on by the Commons, but rarely in the Lords. Traditions surrounding State Opening and the delivery of a speech by the monarch can be traced back as far as the 16th century. The current ceremony dates from the opening of the rebuilt Palace of Westminster in 1852 after the fire of 1834.
This year The Queen’s speech focussed on Britain leaving the European Union. HM Queen Elizabeth II Stressed the government’s priority to work with Parliament, administrations, business and others In order to secure the best possible deal as the country leaves the European Union, and build the widest possible consensus on the country’s future outside the European Union. A bill will be introduced to repeal the European Communities Act and provide certainty for individuals and businesses. This will be complemented by legislation to ensure that the United Kingdom makes a success of Brexit, establishing new national policies on immigration, international sanctions, nuclear safeguards, agriculture, and fisheries.
The Queen also stated that The government will try to maintain a deep and special partnership with European allies and to forge new trading relationships across the globe. New bills on trade and customs will help to implement an independent trade policy, and support will be given to help British businesses export to markets around the world. The speech also outlined the Governments intention to strengthen the economy so that it supports the creation of jobs and generates the tax revenues needed to invest in the National Health Service, schools, and other public services and the Government will continue to improve the public finances, while keeping taxes low and spread prosperity and opportunity across the country through a new modern, industrial strategy and attract investment in infrastructure to support economic growth.
Legislation will be introduced to ensure the United Kingdom remains a world leader in new industries, including electric cars and commercial satellites. The speech also outlined the Government’s commitment to ensure that every child has the opportunity to attend a good school and that all schools are fairly funded and to ensure people have the skills including technical education, they need for the high-skilled, high-wage jobs of the future, The National Living Wage will be increased so that people who are on the lowest pay, benefit from the same improvements in earnings as higher paid workers. protections in the modern workplace will also be maintained. Efforts to improve gender pay gap and discrimination against people on the basis of their race, faith, gender, disability or sexual orientation have also been promised and Reforms will be introduced to protect the victims of domestic violence and abuse and ensure that mental health is prioritised in the National Health Service in England.
The sppech also mentioned Proposals to ban unfair tenant fees, promote fairness and transparency in the housing market, and to ensure more homes are built and improve social care. According to the speech Efforts to ensure fairer markets for consumers, including measures to help tackle unfair practices in the energy market to help reduce energy bills will also be introduced. The speech also said that building a more united country, strengthening the social, economic and cultural bonds between England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales would be a priority. The Queen also stated that the Government will work in cooperation with devolved administrations, and parties in Northern Ireland to support the return of devolved government and will also ensure that the United Kingdom retains its world-class regime protecting personal data, with proposals for a new digital charter to ensure that the United Kingdom is the safest place to be onlin. Legislation will also be introduced to modernise the courts system and to help reduce motor insurance premiums.
The Government has said that they will launch a full public inquiry into the tragic fire at Grenfell Tower to ascertain the causes, and ensure that the appropriate lessons are learnt And will also introduce an independent public advocate, who will act for bereaved families after a public disaster and support them at public inquests. The speech stated that In the light of the terrorist attacks in Manchester and London the government’s counter-terrorism strategy would be reviewed to ensure that the police and security services have all the powers they need.
The Government has also said in the speech that it will invest in the Armed Forces, and meet the NATO commitment to spend at least two per cent of national income on defence, The Government intends to introduce proposals to ensure that critical national infrastructure is protected to safeguard national security and will also establish a commission for countering extremism and removing extremist ideology in all its forms, both across society and on the internet. the Government also said that they would ensure that the United Kingdom’s leading role on the world stage is maintained and enhanced as it leaves the European Union and that they would continue to drive international efforts that increase global security and project British values around the world. The Government has also said that it would work to find sustainable political solutions to conflicts across the Middle East and would tackle the threat of terrorism at source by continuing the United Kingdom’s leading role in international military action to destroy Daesh in Iraq and Syria. The Government has also said it Would reform the international system to improve the United Kingdom’s ability to tackle mass migration, alleviate poverty, and end modern slavery and would continue to support international action against climate change, including the implementation of the Paris Agreement.
The Fête de la Musique, also known as Make Music Day or World Music Day, is celebrated annually on June 21, around the world. Music is an important art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. The common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the “color” of a musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping; there are solely instrumental pieces, solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment) and pieces that combine singing and instruments. The word derives from Greek μουσική (mousike; “art of the Muses”). Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as “the harmony of the spheres” and “it is music to my ears” suggest that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, saying, for example, “There is no noise, only sound.”
The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. Indeed, throughout history, some new forms or styles of music have been criticized as “not being music”, including Beethoven’s Grosse Fuge string quartet in 1825, early jazz in the beginning of the 1900s and hardcore punk in the 1980s. There are many types of music, including popular music, traditional music, art music, music written for religious ceremonies and work songs such as chanteys. Music ranges from strictly organized compositions–such as Classical music symphonies from the 1700s and 1800s, through to spontaneously played improvisational music such as jazz, and avant-garde styles of chance-based contemporary music from the 20th and 21st centuries.
Music can be divided into genres (e.g., country music) and genres can be further divided into subgenres (e.g., country blues and pop country are two of the many country subgenres), although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to personal interpretation, and occasionally controversial. For example, it can be hard to draw the line between some early 1980s hard rock and heavy metal. Within the arts, music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art or as an auditory art. Music may be played or sung and heard live at a rock concert or orchestra performance, heard live as part of a dramatic work (a music theater show or opera), or it may be recorded and listened to on a radio, MP3 player, CD player, smartphone or as film score or TV show.
In many cultures, music is an important part of people’s way of life, as it plays a key role in religious rituals, rite of passage ceremonies (e.g., graduation and marriage), social activities (e.g., dancing) and cultural activities ranging from amateur karaoke singing to playing in an amateur funk band or singing in a community choir. People may make music as a hobby, like a teen playing cello in a youth orchestra, or work as a professional musician or singer. The music industry includes the individuals who create new songs and musical pieces (such as songwriters and composers), individuals who perform music (which include orchestra, jazz band and rock band musicians, singers and conductors), individuals who record music (music producers and sound engineers), individuals who organize concert tours, and individuals who sell recordings and sheet music and scores to customeors
The concept of an all-day musical celebration on the days of the solstice, was originated by American musician Joel Cohen, who spent two seasons as a producer of musical radio programs for the French National Radio (France Musique). The idea was adapted as a national celebration each June 21 in France and made official by the French Minister of Culture, Jack Lang. The festival later became celebrated in 120 countries around the world.
October 1981, Maurice Fleuret became Director of Music and Dance at Minister of Culture Jack Lang’s request, and discovered, in a 1982 study on the cultural habits of the French, that five million people, one child out of two, played a musical instrument, he began to dream of a way to bring people out on the streets. It first took place in 1982 in Paris as the Fête de la Musique. Since then he festival has become an international phenomenon, celebrated on the same day in more than 700 cities in 120 countries, including Germany, Italy, Greece, Russia, Australia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico, Canada, the United States, and Japan.
The purpose Of Fête de la Musique is to promote music in two ways with both professional musicians and amateur musicians being encouraged to perform in the streets, under the slogan “Faites de la musique” (“make music”, a homophone of Fête de la Musique). Many free concerts are also organized, to make all genres of music accessible to the public. in order to organize an official event it must be approved by the official Fête de la Musique organization in Paris and must be free to the public, with all performers donating their time for no fee. However despite there being a large tolerance about the performance of music by the general public of amateurs in public areas after usual hours, noise restrictions apply, and some establishments are forbidden to open and broadcast music out of their doors without prior authorization.
World Humanist Day is a Humanist holiday celebrated annually around the world on the June solstice, around June 21st As a way of spreading awareness of Humanism as a philosophical life stance and means to effect change in the world. It is also seen as a time for Humanists to gather socially and promote the positive values of Humanism. The holiday developed during the 1980s after several chapters of the American Humanist Association (AHA) began to celebrate it. At the time, the date on which it was celebrated varied from chapter to chapter, with selections such as the founding date of the IHEU, or International Humanist and Ethical Union. From the late 1980s to the early 1990s, the AHA and IHEU passed resolutions declaring World Humanist Day to be on the summer solstice.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism, empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition. The meaning of the term humanism differs between intellectual movements. The term was coined by theologian Friedrich Niethammer at the beginning of the 19th century. Generally, however, humanism refers to a perspective that affirms some notion of human freedom and progress. In modern times, humanist movements are typically aligned with secularism, and today humanism typically refers to a non-theistic life stance centred on human agency and looking to science rather than revelation from a supernatural source to understand the world
The manner in which World Humanist Day is celebrated varies considerably among local Humanist groups, reflecting the individuality and non-dogmatism of Humanism as a whole. Whilst the event might be a simple gathering, such as a dinner or picnic, with ample time for both socialising and reflection, the method of celebration is down to the individual. Some groups actually develop intricate social rituals, music, and proceedings which highlight the metaphoric symbolism of the solstice and the light (knowledge) which brings us out of darkness (ignorance).
Despite this World Humanist Day has not yet become a fully celebrated holiday in all Humanist organizations, although many of them are beginning to recognize it and plan events and activities around the holiday. International Humanist and Ethical Union lists several different ways that national and local Humanist groups celebrate World Humanist Day. For example, the Dutch Humanist Association broadcast short films about World Humanist Day on Dutch TV in 2012. In 2013, the first National Humanist Day will be organized in The Netherlands. The Humanist Association of Ireland held poetry readings in the park to celebrate the day. The Humanists of Florida Association suggested that groups hold Introduction to Humanism classes on World Humanist Day.
imageGo Skateboarding Day (GSD) is an official annual holiday conceived by the International Association of Skateboard Companies (IASC) to promote skateboarding, which is celebrated on June 21. This year (2015) it will be on fathers day. The event was conceived in 2004 by the International Association of Skateboard Companies (IASC) to help make skateboarding more accessible to the world through various events held in major cities around the world. In 2006, more than 350 events took place in 32 countries around the world, and, the following year, the IASC received Special Congressional Recognition from US Congresswoman Loretta Sanchez for its work in promoting the sport of skateboarding and encouraging young people to get outside and enjoy the sport. This holiday is celebrated by millions of skaters around the world. 5boro Skateboards founder/owner, Steve Rodriguez, started Go Skateboarding Day in NYC. It was originally titled the All City Skate Jam. Now GSD accrues thousands of participants in each year all over the world. GSD NYC is considered one of the largest single gatherings of skateboarders in the world and is now considered an official holiday.
In the west country of the UK, Erik Ellington, Spencer Hamilton, Dee Ostrander and Lizard King joined Bristol locals such as Korahn Gayle, Josh Arnott, Paul Carter, and Dave Snaddon to celebrate Go Skateboarding Day in 2014: Thousands of skaters that showed up to Hollenbeck Skate Plaza, LA. North Florida’s Hemming Plaza hosts an annual Go Skate Day celebration.Nike sponsored a large Go Skateboarding Day event in Cologne. The charity organistation Skatistan has been celebrating Go Skateboarding Day in Afghanistan since 2009. In 2014, their events also spread to Cambodia and South Africa, and more than 150 students came along with their families and friends to join street parades in Kabul and over 200 attended celebrations in Mazar-e-Sharif. Vans hold an annual celebration of Go Skate Day in Singapore. In 2014, hundreds of skaters showed up at Sommerset Skate Park for the event. Hundreds of skateboarders joined in to celebrate Go Skateboarding Day in Lima, Peru
Unfortunately Some skaters celebrating Go Skateboarding Day have had conflicts with the law in the past. One of the more notable incidents involved skaters Matt McCormack, Skylar Nalls, Robbie Brindley, Casey Canterbury and several other friends in Hot Springs, Arkansas where they were involved in an incident with police and were arrested. Baird and the involved skaters contend that the police used excessive force, while the police maintain that the officer was enforcing a city ordinance.
The International Day of Yoga (World Yoga Day) is held annually on June 21. It was declared as the International Day of Yoga by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 2014. Yoga, is a physical, mental and spiritual practice having its origin over 6000 years ago in India aims to integrate the body and the mind. The declaration of this day came after the call for the adoption of 21 June as International Day of Yoga by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi during his address to UN General Assembly on September 27, 2014 wherein he stated:
“Yoga is an invaluable gift of India’s ancient tradition. It embodies unity of mind and body; thought and action; restraint and fulfilment; harmony between man and nature; a holistic approach to health and well-being. It is not about exercise but to discover the sense of oneness within yourself, the world and the nature. By changing our lifestyle and creating consciousness, it can help us deal with climate change. Let us work towards adopting an International Yoga Day.” In suggesting June 21, which is the Summer Solstice, as the International Day of Yoga, Narendra Modi had said that the date is the longest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere and has special significance in many parts of the world.”
From the perspective of yoga, the Summer Solstice marks the transition to Dakshinayana. The first full moon after Summer Solstice is known as Guru Poornima. According to Sadhguru Jaggi Vasudev, in the yogic lore, the first transmission of yoga by Shiva, the first Guru, is said to have begun on this day. Dakshinayana is also considered a time when there is natural support for those pursuing spiritual practices. Govind Gurbani Yog Guru / Vice President of Rajasthan Swasthya Yog Parisad Jaipur India informed that on 21 June fifty thousand followers of Yoga will perform Yoga in Rajasthan.This initiative found support from many global leaders. At first, the Prime Minister of Nepal Sushil Koirala supported the proposal of Modi. More than 177 countries including USA, Canada, China and Egypt have supported this move, including 175 nations co-sponsoring the resolution. It had the “highest number of co-sponsors ever for any UNGA Resolution of such nature.”On Dec 11, 2014, the 193-member U.N. General Assembly approved by consensus a resolution establishing June 21 as ‘International Day of Yoga’. The resolution also saw a record number of 177 countries co-sponsoring it.
Prior to the 2014 UN resolution declaring June 21 as International Day of Yoga, formal and informal groups of yoga teachers and enthusiasts celebrated World Yoga Day on dates other than 21 June in support of various causes. In December 2011, international humanitarian and meditation and yoga Guru Sri Sri Ravi Shankar and other yoga gurus, supported the cause from the delegation of the Yoga Portuguese Confederation and together gave a call to the UN to declare June 21 as World Yoga Day.
The two-day conference titled ‘Yoga: A Science for World Peace’ was organized by The Art of Living and SVYASA Yoga University, Bengaluru, jointly with Yoga Portuguese Confederation of Lisbon, Portugal on 4th and 5 December 2011, at The Art of living International Centre. On that day, under the leadership of Sri Sri Ravi Shankar a proclamation was signed for having UN and UNESCO declare the 21 June as ‘World Yoga Day’ at Art of Living international Centre at Bangalore, India. HH Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, Founder, The Art of Living; HH Shri Swami Bala Gangadharanath of Adi Chun Chun Giri Mutt; HH Swami Paramátmánanda, General Secretary of the Hindu Dharma Acharya Sabha; BKS Iyengar, Ramamani Iyengar Memorial Yoga Institute, Pune; HH Swami Ramdev, Patañjali Yogpeeth, Haridvar; HH Dr. Nagendra, Vivekánanda Yoga University, Bengaluru; HH Jagat Guru Amrta Súryánanda Mahá Ráj, President of Yoga Portuguese Confederation; HH Subodh Tiwari, Keivalyadhama Yoga Institute; Dr. D.R Kaarthikeyan, Advisor: Law-Human Responsibilities-Corporate Affairs and Dr. Ramesh Bijlani, Aurobindo Ashram, New Delhi were present for the conference.
To Emphasize the importance of yoga, Sri Sri Ravi Shankar said, “Yoga makes you like a child again. When there is yoga and vedanta, there is no lack, impurity, ignorance and injustice. We need to take yoga to the doorstep of everyone and free the world of misery.” According to Jagat Guru Amrta Suryananda, “The idea to celebrate World Yoga Day originated 10 years ago. But this was the first time yoga gurus from India were endorsing it in large numbers, said Jagat Guru Amrta Suryananda Maha Raja, president of the yoga portuguese confederation.,” even before the collective call for such a day by Indian Yoga Gurus in 2011. Following the adoption of the UN Resolution, Sri Sri Ravi Shankar lauded the efforts of Narendra Modi, stating that “It is very difficult for any philosophy, religion or culture to survive without state patronage. Yoga has existed so far almost like an orphan. Now, official recognition by the UN would further spread the benefit of yoga to the entire world.”
National Aboriginal Day (French: Journée nationale des Autochtones) is a day recognising and celebrating the cultures and contributions of the First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada. The day was first celebrated in 1996, after it was proclaimed that year by then Governor General of Canada Roméo LeBlanc, to be celebrated on 21 June annually. The date was chosen as the statutory holiday for many reasons-including its cultural significance as the Summer solstice, and the fact that it is a day on which many Aboriginal groups traditionally celebrate their heritage.The day of recognition came about after a series of calls for such a celebration. In 1982, the National Indian Brotherhood (now the Assembly of First Nations) called for the creation of a National Aboriginal Solidarity Day to be celebrated on 21 June.
in 1995, the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples recommended that a National First Peoples Day be designated. Also in that same year, a national conference of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people chaired by Elijah Harper, titled The Sacred Assembly, called for a national holiday to celebrate the contributions of Aboriginal peoples to Canada. 21 June often coincides with the summer solstice. National Aboriginal Day is now part of a series of Celebrate Canada days, beginning with National Aboriginal Day and followed by the National Holiday of Quebec on 24 June, Canadian Multiculturalism Day on 27 June, and concluding with Canada Day on 1 July. In 2001, members of the 14th Legislative Assembly passed the National Aboriginal Day Act making the Northwest Territories the first jurisdiction in Canada to recognise this day as a formal statutory holiday.
Joey Kramer,the American drummer and percussionist with Rock Band Aerosmith, was Born 21st june 1950. sometimes referred to as “The Bad Boys from Boston” and “America’s Greatest Rock and Roll Band.” The band was formed in Boston, Massachusetts in 1970. Guitarist Joe Perry and bassist Tom Hamilton, originally in a band together called the Jam Band, met up with singer Steven Tyler, drummer Joey Kramer, and guitarist Ray Tabano, and formed Aerosmith.
In 1971, Tabano was replaced by Brad Whitford, and the band began developing a following in Boston, Their style, which is rooted in blues-based hard rock, has come to also incorporate elements of pop, heavy metal, and rhythm and blues, and has inspired many subsequent rock artists. They were signed to Columbia Records in 1972, and released a string of multi-platinum albums, beginning with their 1973 eponymous debut album, followed by their 1974 album Get Your Wings. In 1975, the band broke into the mainstream with the album Toys in the Attic, and their 1976 follow-up Rocks cemented their status as hard rock superstars.The band released two more albums, toured extensively, and charted a string of Hot 100 singles. By the end of the 1970s, they were among the most popular hard rock bands in the world and developed a loyal following of fans, often referred to as the “Blue Army”. However, drug addiction and internal conflict took their toll on the band, which resulted in the departures of Perry and Whitford in 1979 and 1981, respectively; they were replaced by Jimmy Crespo and Rick Dufay. The band did not fare well between 1980 and 1984, releasing a lone album, Rock in a Hard Place, which went gold but failed to match their previous successes.
Perry and Whitford returned in 1984 and the band signed a new deal with Geffen Records. After a comeback tour, the band recorded Done with Mirrors, which won some critical praise but failed to come close to commercial expectations. It was not until the band sobered up and released 1987′s Permanent Vacation that they regained the level of popularity they had experienced in the 1970s. Throughout the late 1980s and 1990s, the band scored several hits including “dude,looks like a lady”and “love in an elvator“, and won numerous awards for music from the multi-platinum albums Pump, Get a Grip, and Nine Lives. The band also became a pop culture phenomenon with popular music videos and notable appearances in television, film, and video games. Their comeback has been described as one of the most remarkable and spectacular in rock ‘n’ roll history. Additional albums followed in 2001 and 2004.
After 42 years of performing, the band continues to tour and record music. The latest album, Music from Another Dimension, was released in, 2012. Aerosmith is the best-selling American rock band of all time, having sold more than 150 million albums worldwide,including 66.5 million albums in the United States alone. They also hold the record for the most gold and multi-platinum albums by an American group. The band has scored 21 Top 40 hits on the Billboard Hot 100, nine number-one Mainstream Rock hits, four Grammy Awards, and ten MTV Video Music Awards. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2001, and were included among both Rolling Stone’s and VH1′s lists of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.
imageEnglish novelist and screenwriter Ian Russell McEwan CBE FRSA FRSL was born 21 June 1948 in Aldershot, Hampshire. He spent much of his childhood in East Asia (including Singapore), Germany and North Africa (including Libya), where his father was posted. His family returned to England when he was twelve. He was educated at Woolverstone Hall School; the University of Sussex, receiving his degree in English literature in 1970; and the University of East Anglia, where he undertook a master’s degree in creative writing.McEwan began his career writing sparse, Gothic short stories. The Cement Garden (1978) and The Comfort of Strangers (1981) were his first two novels, and earned him the nickname “Ian Macabre”. McEwan’s first published work was a collection of short stories, First Love, Last Rites (1975), which won the Somerset Maugham Award in 1976. He achieved notoriety in 1979 when the BBC suspended production of his play Solid Geometry because of its supposed obscenity.His second collection of short stories, In Between the Sheets, was published in 1978. The Cement Garden (1978) and The Comfort of Strangers (1981) were his two earliest novels, both of which were adapted into films. The nature of these works caused him to be nicknamed “Ian Macabre”.
These were followed by Child in Time (1987), winner of the 1987 Whitbread Novel Award; The Innocent (1990); and Black Dogs (1992). McEwan has also written two children’s books, Rose Blanche (1985) and The Daydreamer (1994). In 1997, he published Enduring Love,about the relationship between a science writer and a stalker, was popular with critics, although it was not shortlisted for the Booker Prize, however it was adapted into a film in 2004. He won the Man Booker Prize with Amsterdam (1998). In 2001, he published Atonement, which was adapted into an Oscar-winning film starring Keira Knightley and James McAvoy and directed by Joe Wright. Time magazine named it the best novel of 2002, and it was shortlisted for the Booker Prize. This was followed by Saturday (2005), which follows an especially eventful day in the life of a successful neurosurgeon. Saturday won the James Tait Black Memorial Prize for 2005, and his novel On Chesil Beach (2007) was shortlisted for the 2007 Booker Prize. It was followed by Solar (2010), Sweet Tooth (2012), and The Children Act (2015). In 2011, he was awarded the Jerusalem Prize.
McEwan has also written a number of produced screenplays, a stage play, children’s fiction, an oratorio and a libretto titled For You with music composed by Michael Berkeley.cSolar was published in 2010. In June 2008 at the Hay Festival, McEwan gave a surprise reading of this work-in-progress. The novel includes “a scientist who hopes to save the planet” from the threat of climate change, with inspiration for the novel coming from a Cape Farewell expedition McEwan made in 2005 in which “artists and scientists…spent several weeks aboard a ship near the north pole discussing environmental concerns”. McEwan noted “The novel’s protagonist Michael Beard has been awarded a Nobel prize for his pioneering work on physics, and has discovered that winning the coveted prize has interfered with his work”. McEwan’s twelfth novel, Sweet Tooth, is historical in nature and set in the 1970s,and was published in 2012.McEwan’s next novel, The Children Act, is about high court judges.
In 2006 he was accused of plagiarism; specifically that a passage in Atonement (2001) closely echoed a passage from a memoir, No Time for Romance, published in 1977 by Lucilla Andrews. McEwan acknowledged using the book as a source for his work. McEwan had included a brief note at the end of Atonement, referring to Andrews’s autobiography, among several other works. His debut novel The Cement Garden, also had key elements of the plot of which closely mirrored some of those of Our Mother’s House, a 1963 novel by British author Julian Gloag, which had also been made into a film. McEwan denied charges of plagiarism, claiming he was unaware of the earlier work. Several authors defended him, including John Updike, Martin Amis, Margaret Atwood, Thomas Keneally, Kazuo Ishiguro, Zadie Smith, and Thomas Pynchon.
McEwan has been nominated for the Man Booker prize six times to date, winning the Prize for Amsterdam in 1998. His other nominations were for The Comfort of Strangers (1981, Shortlisted), Black Dogs (1992, Shortlisted), Atonement (2001, Shortlisted), Saturday (2005, Longlisted), and On Chesil Beach (2007, Shortlisted). McEwan also received nominations for the Man Booker International Prize in 2005 and 2007. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was awarded the Shakespeare Prize by the Alfred Toepfer Foundation, Hamburg, in 1999. He is also a Distinguished Supporter of the British Humanist Association. He was awarded a CBE in 2000.
In 2005, he was awarded Dickinson College’s Harold and Ethel L. Stellfox Visiting Scholar and Writers Program Award, in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. In 2008, McEwan was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Literature by University College London, where he used to teach English literature. In 2008, The Times named McEwan among their list of “The 50 greatest British writers since 1945”.In 2010, McEwan received the Peggy V. Helmerich Distinguished Author Award. The Helmerich Award is presented annually by the Tulsa Library Trust.mOn 20 February 2011, he was awarded the Jerusalem Prize for the Freedom of the Individual in Society, which caused some controversy. In 2012 the University of Sussex presented McEwan with its 50th Anniversary Gold Medal in recognition of his contributions to literature.In 2014, the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas paid $2 million for McEwan’s literary archives.
Midsummer, also known as St John’s Day, is the period of time centered upon the summer solstice, and more specifically the Northern European celebrations that accompany the actual solstice or take place on a day between June 19 and June 25 and the preceding evening. The exact dates vary between different cultures. The Christian Church designated June 24 as the feast day of the early Christian martyr St John the Baptist, and the observance of St John’s Day begins the evening before, known as St John’s Eve. These are commemorated by many Christian denominations. In Sweden the Midsummer is such an important festivity that there have been serious discussions to make the Midsummer’s Eve into the National Day of Sweden, instead of June 6. It may also be referred to as St. Hans Day.
European midsummer-related holidays, traditions, and celebrations are pre-Christian in origin. They are particularly important in geographic Northern Europe – Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania – but is also very strongly observed in Poland, Russia, Belarus, Germany, Netherlands, Flanders , Ireland, parts of the United Kingdom (Cornwall especially), France, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Spain, Ukraine, other parts of Europe, and elsewhere – such as Canada, the United States, Puerto Rico, and also in the Southern Hemisphere (mostly in Brazil, Argentina and Australia), where this imported European celebration would be more appropriately called “Midwinter”.
Midsummer is also sometimes referred to by some Neopagans as Litha, stemming from Bede’s De temporum ratione which provides Anglo-Saxon names for the months roughly corresponding to June and July as se Ærra Liþa and se Æfterra Liþa (the “early Litha month” and the “later Litha month”) with an intercalary month of Liþa appearing after se Æfterra Liþa on leap years. The fire festival or Litha – Summer solstice – is a tradition for many neopagans.
Solstice celebrations still centered on the day of the astronomical summer solstice. Some choose to hold the rite on June 21, even when this is not the longest day of the year, and some celebrate June 24, the day of the solstice in Roman times. Although Midsummer is originally a pagan holiday, in Christianity it is associated with the nativity of John the Baptist, which is observed on the same day, June 24, in the Catholic, Orthodox and some Protestant churches. It is six months before Christmas because Luke 1:26 and Luke 1.36 imply that John the Baptist was born six months earlier than Jesus, although the Bible does not say at which time of the year this happened.In Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Quebec (Canada), the traditional Midsummer day, June 24, is a public holiday. So it was formerly also in Sweden and Finland, but in these countries it was, in the 1950s, moved to the Friday and Saturday between June 19-26. In Wicca, the longest day and shortest night of the year has not had a set date since the retirement of the 13-month Celtic calendar.
The celebration of Midsummer’s Eve (St. John’s Eve among Christians) was from ancient times a festival of the summer solstice. Bonfires were lit to protect against evil spirits which were believed to roam freely when the sun was turning southward again. In later years, witches were also thought to be on their way to meetings with other powerful beings. The solstice itself has remained a special moment of the annual cycle of the year since Neolithic times. it is customary for cultures following lunar calendars to place the beginning of the day on the previous eve at dusk at the moment when the Sun has set. In Sweden, Finland, Latvia and Estonia, Midsummer’s Eve is the greatest festival of the year, comparable only with Walpurgis Night, Christmas Eve, and New Year’s Eve.
Ancient Romans would hold a festival to honor the god Summanus on June 20. In the 7th century, Saint Eligius warned the recently converted inhabitants of Flanders against the age-old pagan solstice celebrations. According to the Vita by his companion Ouen, he’d say: “No Christian on the feast of Saint John or the solemnity of any other saint performs solestitia (summer solstice rites) or dancing or leaping or diabolical chants.” As Christianity entered pagan areas, midsummer celebrations came to be often borrowed and transferred into new Christian holidays, often resulting in celebrations that mixed Christian traditions with traditions derived from pagan Midsummer festivities. The 13th-century monk of Winchcomb, Gloucestershire, who compiled a book of sermons for the feast days, recorded how St. John’s Eve was celebrated in his time. Let us speak of the revels which are accustomed to be made on St. John’s Eve, of which there are three kinds. On St. John’s Eve in certain regions the boys collect bones and certain other rubbish, and burn them, and therefrom a smoke is produced on the air. They also make brands and go about the fields with the brands. Thirdly, the wheel which they roll. The fires, explained the monk of Winchcombe, were to drive away dragons, which were abroad on St. John’s Eve, poisoning springs and wells. The wheel that was rolled downhill On St John’s Day 1333 Petrarch watched women at Cologne rinsing their hands and arms in the Rhine “so that the threatening calamities of the coming year might be washed away by bathing in the river.
In Great Britain from the 13th century, Midsummer was celebrated on Midsummer Eve (St. John’s Eve, June 23) and St. Peter’s Eve (June 28) with the lighting of bonfires, feasting and merrymaking. In late 14th-century England, John Mirk of Lilleshall Abbey, Shropshire, gives the following description: “At first, men and women came to church with candles and other lights and prayed all night long. In the process of time, however, men left such devotion and used songs and dances and fell into lechery and gluttony turning the good, holy devotion into sin.” The church fathers decided to put a stop to these practices and ordained that people should fast on the evening before, and thus turned waking into fasting.
However many Midsummer festivities were frowned upon by the Reformed establishment. The Chester Midsummer Watch Parade, begun in 1498, was held at every Summer Solstice in years when the Chester Mystery Plays were not performed. Despite the cancellation of the plays in 1575, the parade continued; in 1599, however, the Lord Mayor ordered that the parades be banned and the costumes destroyed. The parade was permanently banned in 1675. However Traditional Midsummer bonfires are still lit on some high hills in Cornwall (see Carn Brea and Castle an Dinas on Castle Downs). This tradition was revived by the Old Cornwall Society in the early 20th century. Bonfires in Cornwall were once common as part of Golowan, which is now celebrated at Penzance, Cornwall. This week long festival normally starts on the Friday nearest St John’s Day. Golowan lasts several days and culminates in Mazey Day. This is a revival of the Feast of St John (Gol-Jowan) with fireworks and bonfires. In England Midsummer Day, is the feast of St. John the Baptist, and is one of the quarter days in England. In recent years on the Summer Solstice, English Heritage has run a “Managed Open Access” to Stonehenge for the Summer Solstice celebrations.