World Blood Donor day takes place annually on 14 June to celebrate the birth of Austrian Biologist, physician and Scientist Karl Landsteiner who was born on 14 June in 1868. Karl Landsteiner was the first person to distinguish the main blood groups in 1900, having developed the modern system of classification of blood groups from his identification of the presence of agglutinins in the blood, and identified the Rhesus factor with Alexander S. Wiener in 1937. These discoveries enabled physicians to safely transfuse blood without endangering the patient’s life. He also discovered the polio virus in 1909 With Constantin Levaditi and Erwin Popper. Following his revolutionary discoveries He received the Aronson Prize in 1926 and In 1930, he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He was posthumously awarded the Lasker Award in 1946, and has been described as the father of transfusion medicine.
The aim of World Blood donor Day is to raise awareness of the need for safe blood and blood products, and to thank blood donors for their voluntary, life-saving gifts of blood which helps save millions of lives every year. The transfusion of blood can help patients suffering from life-threatening conditions live longer and with higher quality of life, and supports complex medical and surgical procedures. It also has an essential, life-saving role in maternal and perinatal care. Access to safe and sufficient blood and blood products can help reduce rates of death and disability due to severe bleeding during delivery and after childbirth. In many countries, there is not an adequate supply of safe blood, and blood services face the challenge of making sufficient blood available, while also ensuring its quality and safety. An adequate supply can only be assured through regular donations by voluntary unpaid blood donors. The WHO’s goal is for all countries to obtain all their blood supplies from voluntary unpaid donors by 2020. It emphasizes thanking of blood donors who save lives every day through their blood donations and inspires more people all over the world to donate blood voluntarily and regularly with the slogan “Give freely, give often. Blood donation matters.” Many lives (including mine) have been saved thanks to blood transfusions.
Activities include special events, meetings, publication of relevant stories on media, scientific conferences, publication of articles on national, regional and international scientific journals, and other activities that would help in encouraging the title of this year’s World Blood Donor Day. The host country for World Blood Donor Day 2015 was China through its blood center in Shanghai, Shanghai Blood Centre, also the WHO Collaborating Center for Blood Transfusion Services. The focus of the WBDD 2014 campaign was “Safe blood for saving mothers”. The goal of the campaign was to increase awareness about why timely access to safe blood and blood products is essential for all countries, as part of a comprehensive approach to prevent maternal deaths. According to the World Health Organization, 800 women die every day from pregnancy and childbirth-related complications. Severe bleeding is the cause of 34% of maternal deaths in Africa, 31% in Asia and 21% in Latin America and the Caribbean. The global host for the WBDD 2014 event was Sri Lanka. Through its national blood transfusion service, Sri Lanka promotes voluntary unpaid donation to increase access to safe and sufficient blood and blood products.
The host country for World Blood Donor Day 2013 was France. Through its national blood service, the Etablissement Français du Sang (EFS), France has been promoting voluntary non-remunerated blood donation since the 1950s. The focus for the WBDD 2013 campaign – which marked the 10th anniversary of World Blood Donor Day – was blood donation as a gift that saves lives. The WHO encouraged all countries to highlight stories from people whose lives have been saved through blood donation, as a way of motivating regular blood donors to continue giving blood and people in good health who have never given blood, particularly young people, to begin doing so. The 2012 campaign focused on the idea that any person can become a hero by giving blood. Blood cannot yet be manufactured artificially, so voluntary blood donation remains vital for healthcare worldwide. Many anonymous blood donors save lives every day through their blood donations.
World Blood Donor Day is one of eight official global public health campaigns marked by the World Health Organization (WHO), along with World Health Day, World Tuberculosis Day, World Immunization Week, World Malaria Day, World No Tobacco Day, World Hepatitis Day, and World AIDS Day.
International Steampunk day takes place annually on 14 June. Steampunk is a retrofuturistic subgenre of science fiction or science fantasy that incorporates technology and aesthetic designs inspired by 19th-century industrial steam-powered machinery. Although its literary origins are sometimes associated with the cyberpunk genre, steampunk works are often set in an alternative history of the 19th century British Victorian era or the American “Wild West”, in a future during which steam power has maintained mainstream usage, or in a fantasy world that similarly employs steam power. However, steampunk and neo-Victorian are different in that the neo-Victorian movement does not extrapolate on technology while technology is a key aspect of steampunk.
Steampunk most recognizably features anachronistic technologies or retrofuturistic inventions as people in the 19th century might have envisioned them, and is likewise rooted in the era’s perspective on fashion, culture, architectural style, and art Such technologies may include fictional machines like those found in the works of H. G. Wells and Jules Verne. Other examples of steampunk contain alternative-history-style presentations of such technology as steam cannons, lighter-than-air airships, analog computers, or such digital mechanical computers as Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine.
Steampunk may also incorporate additional elements from the genres of fantasy, horror, historical fiction, alternate history, or other branches of speculative fiction, making it often a hybrid genre. The first known appearance of the term steampunk was in 1987, though it now retroactively refers to many works of fiction created as far back as the 1950s or earlier. A popular subgenre is Japanese steampunk, consisting of steampunk-themed manga and anime, with steampunk elements having appeared in mainstream manga since the 1940s. Steampunk also refers to any of the artistic styles, clothing fashions, or subcultures that have developed from the aesthetics of steampunk fiction, Victorian-era fiction, art nouveau design, and films from the mid-20th century. Various modern utilitarian objects have been modded by individual artisans into a pseudo-Victorian mechanical “steampunk” style, and a number of visual and musical artists have been described as steampunk.
Steampunk is influenced by and often adopts the style of the 19th-century science fiction novels of Jules Verne, H. G. Wells, Mary Shelley, and Edward S. Ellis’s The Steam Man of the Prairies.[Several more modern works of art and fiction significant to the development of the genre were produced before the genre had a name. Titus Alone (1959), by Mervyn Peake, is widely regarded by scholars as the first novel in the genre proper, while others point to Michael Moorcock’s 1971 novel The Warlord of the Air, which was heavily influenced by Peake’s work. The film Brazil (1985) was an important early cinematic influence that helped codify the aesthetics of the genre. The Adventures of Luther Arkwright was an early (1970s) comic version of the Moorcock-style mover between timestreams. In fine art, Remedios Varo’s paintings combine elements of Victorian dress, fantasy, and technofantasy imagery. In television, the steampunk ethos first appeared in the television series The Wild Wild West (1965–69), which inspired the later film.
Although many works now considered seminal to the genre were published in the 1960s and 1970s, the term steampunk originated in the late 1980s as a tongue-in-cheek variant of cyberpunk. It was coined by science fiction author K. W. Jeter, who was trying to find a general term for works by Tim Powers (The Anubis Gates, 1983), James Blaylock (Homunculus, 1986), and himself (Morlock Night, 1979, and Infernal Devices, 1987)—all of which took place in a 19th-century (usually Victorian) setting and imitated conventions of such actual Victorian speculative fiction as H. G. Wells’ The Time Machine.
While Jeter’s Morlock Night and Infernal Devices, Powers’ The Anubis Gates, and Blaylock’s Lord Kelvin’s Machine were the first novels to which Jeter’s neologism would be applied, the three authors gave the term little thought at the time. They were far from the first modern science fiction writers to speculate on the development of steam-based technology or alternative histories. Keith Laumer’s Worlds of the Imperium (1962) and Ronald W. Clark’s Queen Victoria’s Bomb (1967) apply modern speculation to past-age technology and society. Michael Moorcock’s Warlord of the Air (1971) is another early example. Professor Finbarr Calamitous quote is relevant here; “SteamPunk: Colonizing the Past so we can dream the future”. Harry Harrison’s novel A Transatlantic Tunnel, Hurrah! (1973) portrays a British Empire of an alternative year 1973, full of atomic locomotives, coal-powered flying boats, ornate submarines, and Victorian dialogue. The Adventures of Luther Arkwright (mid-1970s) was one of the first steampunk comics. In February 1980, Richard A. Lupoff and Steve Stiles published the first “chapter” of their 10-part comic strip The Adventures of Professor Thintwhistle and His Incredible Aether Flyer.
Sewing Machine Day takes place annually on 13 June. It commemorates the date of 13 June 1790 when cabinet-maker and inventor Thomas Saint received a patent for the design of the worlds first Sewing Machine to sew fabric and other materials together with thread.
The origins of the sewing machine date back to 1755 when Charles Fredrick Weisenthal, a German-born engineer working in England was awarded the first British patent for a mechanical device to aid the art of sewing, increase efficiency and decrease the amount of manual sewing work performed in clothing companies. Weisenthal’s device consisted of a double pointed needle with an eye at one end.
In 1790 cabinet-maker and inventor Thomas Saint received a patent for his improved design which was designed for leather work and canvas material and featured An awl in front of the eye pointed needle to make a hole in preparation for the thread. It is likely that Saint had a working model but there is no evidence of one; he was a skilled cabinet maker and his device included many practically functional features: an overhanging arm, a feed mechanism (adequate for short lengths of leather), a vertical needle bar, and a looper.
Thomas Saint’s sewing machine used the chain stitch method, in which the machine uses a single thread to make simple stitches in the fabric. A stitching awl would pierce the material and a forked point rod would carry the thread through the hole where it would be hooked underneath and moved to the next stitching place, where the cycle would be repeated, locking the stitch. Saint’s machine was designed to aid the manufacture of various leather goods, including saddles and bridles, but it was also capable of working with canvas, and was used for sewing ship sails. Although his machine was very advanced for the era, the concept would need steady improvement over the coming decades before it could become a practical proposition.
In 1874, a sewing machine manufacturer, William Newton Wilson, found Saint’s drawings in the London Patent Office, made adjustments to the looper, and built a working machine, currently owned by the London Science Museum. In 1804, a sewing machine was built by the Englishmen Thomas Stone and James Henderson, and a machine for embroidering was constructed by John Duncan in Scotland. An Austrian tailor, Josef Madersperger, began developing his first sewing machine in 1807 and presented his first working machine in 1814. Having received financial support from his government, the Austrian tailor worked on the development of his machine until 1839, when he built a machine imitating the weaving process using the chain stitch.
The first practical and widely used sewing machine was invented by Barthélemy Thimonnier, a French tailor, in 1829. His machine sewed straight seams using chain stitch like Saint’s model, and in 1830, he signed a contract with Auguste Ferrand, a mining engineer, who made the requisite drawings and submitted a patent application. The patent for his machine was issued on 17 July 1830, and in the same year, he opened (with partners) the first machine-based clothing manufacturing company in the world to create army uniforms for the French Army. However, the factory was burned down, reportedly by workers fearful of losing their livelihood following the issuing of the patent.
His machine was made of wood and uses a barbed needle which passes downward through the cloth to grab the thread and pull it up to form a loop to be locked by the next loop. The first American lockstitch sewing machine was invented by Walter Hunt in 1832. His machine used an eye-pointed needle (with the eye and the point on the same end) carrying the upper thread and a falling shuttle carrying the lower thread. The curved needle moved through the fabric horizontally, leaving the loop as it withdrew. The shuttle passed through the loop, interlocking the thread. The feed let the machine down, requiring the machine to be stopped frequently and reset up. Hunt eventually lost interest in his machine and sold individual machines without bothering to patent his invention, and only patenting it at a late date of 1854. In 1842, John Greenough patented the first sewing machine in the United States. The British partners Newton and Archibold introduced the eye-pointed needle and the use of two pressing surfaces to keep the pieces of fabric in position, in 1841.
The first machine to combine all the disparate elements of the previous half-century of innovation into the modern sewing machine was the device built by English inventor John Fisher in 1844, thus a little earlier than the very similar machines built by Isaac Merritt Singer in 1851, and the lesser known Elias Howe, in 1845. However, due to the botched filing of Fisher’s patent at the Patent Office, he did not receive due recognition for the modern sewing machine in the legal disputations of priority with Singer, and it was Singer who won the benefits of the patent. Since then the sewing machine has greatly improved the efficiency and productivity of the clothing industry.
Now modern Home sewing machines are designed for one person to sew individual items while using a single stitch type. In a modern sewing machine the fabric easily glides in and out of the machine without the inconvenience of needles and thimbles and other such tools used in hand sewing, automating the process of stitching and saving time. Industrial sewing machines, by contrast to domestic machines, are larger, faster, and more varied in their size, cost, appearance, and task.
World gin day takes place annually on 13 June. World Gin Day was founded by Neil Houston in 2009, to bring his friends together to drink gin in Birmingham! In 2010 the event moved to a little gin bar called Graphic in Soho, London. The day has since evolved into a truly global celebration with events running in over 30 countries around the world, reaching over 200 million people including Gin Monkey!
Gin is a distilled alcoholic drink that derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries (Juniperus communis). Gin is one of the broadest categories of spirits, all of various origins, styles, and flavour profiles, that revolve around juniper as a common ingredient. Gin began its life as a medicinal liquor and monks in Italy were swiftly followed by other monks and alchemists across Europe, particularly Southern France, Flanders and the Netherlands – where gin is often incorrectly believed to have been invented, to provide aqua vita from distillates of grapes and grains. It then became an object of commerce in the spirits industry. Gin emerged in England after the introduction of the jenever, a Dutch and Belgian liquor which originally had been a medicine. Although this development had been taking place since early 17th century, gin became widespread after the William of Orange-led 1688 Glorious Revolution and subsequent import restrictions on French brandy.
Gin today is produced in subtly different ways, from a wide range of herbal ingredients, giving rise to a number of distinct styles and brands. After juniper, gin tends to be flavoured with botanical/herbal, spice, floral or fruit-flavours or often a combination. It is most commonly consumed mixed with tonic water. Gin is also often used as a base spirit to produce flavoured gin-based liqueurs such as, for example, Sloe gin, traditionally by the addition of fruit, flavourings and sugar.
Random Acts of Light Day takes place annually on 13 June. Random Acts of Light is a movement to bring light to people who are dealing with a blood cancer and feeling overwhelmed in the darkness that can come with a cancer diagnosis,. The first Random Acts of Light Day took place 13 June 2017 sponsored by the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society® (LLS), the largest voluntary health agency dedicated to blood cancer research and patient support.
There are many types of Blood cancers including leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma and there are many different symptoms. The most common symptoms include: Unexplained weight loss, Unexplained bruising or bleeding, Lumps or swellings, Drenching night sweats, Persistent, recurrent or severe infections, Unexplained fever (38°C or above), Unexplained rash or itchy skin, Bone, joint or abdominal pain, Tiredness that doesn’t improve with rest or sleep, Breathlessness and Unusually pale complexion (pallor)
This year The Queen’s Official Birthday took place On Saturday 12 June, Normally The Queen Celebrates her official birthday with the pageantry and splendour of Trooping the Colour, which is usually held on the Mall outside Buckingham Palace. However this year due to Coronavirus restrictions The Queen celebrated her official birthday with a military parade at Windsor Castle, for which Scots Guards trooped through the Quadrangle of the royal residence, with the Duke of Kent accompanying the Queen.
The monarch’s official birthday has been celebrated in the United Kingdom since 1748, during the reign of King George II. Queen Elizabeth II’s Official Birthday was originally celebrated on the second Thursday of June, the same day that her father, King George VI, celebrated his Official Birthday during his reign. However, this was changed in 1959, seven years after she became Queen, and her Official Birthday has since then been celebrated on the second Saturday of June. The date of the king or queen’s birthday is determined throughout the British Empire, and later the Commonwealth of Nations, either by Royal Proclamations issued by the sovereign or viceroy, or by statute laws passed by the local parliament. Most Commonwealth realms also release a Queen’s Birthday Honours list to coincide with the event
The World Day Against Child Labour takes place annually on 12 June. The purpose of the event is to raise awareness and create a worldwide movement against child labour in any of its forms and to provide an opportunity to gain further support from individual governments and local authorities, as well as that of the International Labour Organisation social partners, civil society and others, in the campaign to tackle child labour. The World Day against Child Labour was first launched in 2002 spurred by ratifications of ILO Convention on the minimum age for employment and ILO Convention No. 182 on the worst forms of child labour.
Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful. This practice is considered exploitative by many international organisations. Legislation across the world prohibit child labour. These laws do not consider all work by children as child labour; exceptions include work by child artists, family duties, supervised training, certain categories of work such as those by Amish children, some forms of child work common among indigenous American children, and others.
Child labour has existed to varying extents, through most of history. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, many children aged 5–14 from poorer families still worked in Europe, the United States and various colonies of European powers. These children mainly worked in agriculture, home-based assembly operations, factories, mining and in services such as news boys. Some worked night shifts lasting 12 hours. With the rise of household income, availability of schools and passage of child labour laws, the incidence rates of child labour fell.
In developing countries, with high poverty and poor schooling opportunities, child labour is still prevalent. In 2010, sub-saharan Africa had the highest incidence rates of child labour, with several African nations witnessing over 50 percent of children aged 5–14 working. Worldwide agriculture is the largest employer of child labour. The Vast majority of child labour is found in rural settings and informal urban economy; children are predominantly employed by their parents, rather than factories. Poverty and lack of schools are considered as the primary cause of child labour. Globally the incidence of child labour decreased from 25% to 10% between 1960 and 2003, according to the World Bank. Nevertheless, the total number of child labourers remains high, with UNICEF and ILO acknowledging an estimated 168 million children aged 5–17 worldwide, were involved in child labour in 2013.
The International Labour Organization (ILO), is the United Nations body which regulates the world of work. They launched the World Day Against Child Labour in 2002 in order to bring attention and join efforts to fight against child labour. This day brings together governments, local authorities, civil society and international, workers and employers organizations to point out the child labour problem and define the guidelines to help child labourers.
According to ILO’s data, hundreds of millions of girls and boys throughout the world are still involved in work that deprives them from receiving adequate education, health, leisure and basic freedoms, violating their human rights. Of these children, more than half are exposed to the worst forms of child labour, including work in hazardous environments, slavery, or other forms of forced labour, illicit activities such as drug trafficking and prostitution, as well as involvement in armed conflict.
International Falafel day takes place 12 June. Falafel refers to a deep-fried ball, or a flat or doughnut-shaped patty, made from ground chickpeas, fava beans, or both. Herbs, spices, and onion relatives are commonly added to the dough. IThe first International Falafel Day took place 12 June 2012. Falafel is a Levantine and Egyptian dish that most likely originated in Egypt, but is commonly eaten throughout Western Asia. The fritters are now found around the world as part of vegetarian cuisine, and as a form of street food. Falafel balls are commonly served in a pita, which acts as a pocket, or wrapped in a flatbread known as taboon. Falafel also frequently refers to a wrapped sandwich prepared with falafel balls laid over a bed of salad or pickled vegetables and drizzled with hot sauce or a tahini sauce. Falafel balls may also be eaten alone as a snack, or served as part of an assortment of appetizers known as a meze. The goal of International Falafel Day Is to connect the world through Falafel”
Orlando United day
The inaugural Orlando United Day took place on 12 June 2017 with the intention honoring the memory of the 49 victims killed and supporting the survivors of the Pulse nightclub tragedy. The Pulse Nightclub shootings took place 12 June 2016 when a 29-year-old security guard named Omar Mateen, killed 49 people and wounded 53 others in a mass shooting inside Pulse, a gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida, United States which was hosting a “Latin Night,” at the time and most of the victims were Hispanic. It is the deadliest incident of violence against LGBT people in U.S. history and the deadliest terrorist attack in the U.S. since the September 11 attacks in 2001. At the time, it was the deadliest mass shooting by a single shooter in U.S. history, being surpassed by the Las Vegas shooting a year later. By June 2018, the FBI had declined to classify the incident as an anti-gay hate crime, as evidence suggested that Mateen had scouted several different targets before choosing Pulse, and that he did not know it was a gay nightclub.
an Emergency call was made shortly after the shooting began, in which Mateen swore allegiance to the leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, and said the U.S. killing of Abu Waheeb in Iraq the previous month “triggered” the shooting. He later told a negotiator he was “out here right now” because of the American-led interventions in Iraq and in Syria and that the negotiator should tell the United States to stop the bombing. The incident was deemed a terrorist attack by FBI investigators. Orlando Police Department officers shot and killed him after a three-hour standoff.
Peanut Butter Cookie Day takes place annually on 12 June. Peanut Butter can trace its roots back to the time of the Aztecs and the Incas who were making a paste of peanuts at least 3,500 years ago, but the modern version is claimed by several inventive types, including Dr. John Kellogg, and its popularity became assured by its appearance at the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair. The Peanut Butter Cookie is even harder to track, but George Washington Carver became a much-sought-after speaker between 1916 and 1933. One of his most frequent topics: the many uses of the peanut.
LITTLE LEAGUE GIRLS BASEBALL DAY
Little League Girls Baseball Day commemorates the occasion of 12 June 1950 when A girl plays an entire season with a team in New York, until the Little League organization institutes a ban on girls in Little League. The ban stays on the books until 1974, when the National Organization for Women (NOW) backs Maria Pepe in a discrimination lawsuit in which the New Jersey Superior Court decides that Little League must allow girls to try out.
Loving Day takes place annually on 12 June to commemorate the date of 12 June 1967 when Mildred and Richard Loving were were sentenced to a year in prison for marrying each other, a violation of Virginia’s Racial Integrity Act of 1924, because she is black and he is white. They bring suit, and the U.S. Supreme Court makes a unanimous decision in Loving v. Virginia that the Virginia law is unconstitutional, ending all race-based restriction on marriage in the U.S.
National Jerky Day
National Jerky Day takes place annually on 12 June. It was launched 12 June 2012 by Jack Link’s Beef Jerky. Jerky is lean trimmed meat that has been cut into strips and dried (dehydrated) to prevent spoilage. Normally, this drying includes the addition of salt to prevent bacteria grow before the meat has finished the dehydrating process. The word “jerky” is derived from the Quechua word ch’arki which means “dried, salted meat” however its use is wide-spread, especially in the Andes Mountains of South America, as a staple of travelers. Related to, but not the same as Pemmican, which includes other dried ingredients, like berries, which is a travel food of many North American tribes
All that is needed to produce basic “jerky” is a low-temperature drying method, and salt to inhibit bacterial growth. Modern manufactured jerky is often marinated, prepared with a seasoned spice rub or liquid,or or smoked with low heat (usually under 70 °C/160 °F). Also common in store bough jerky is the use of sweeteners such as brown sugar. Jerky is ready-to-eat, needs no additional preparation and can be stored for months without refrigeration. To ensure maximum shelf life a proper protein to moisture content is required in the final cured product.
Many products which are sold as jerky consist of highly processed, chopped and formed meat rather than traditional sliced whole-muscle meat. These products may contain more fat, but moisture content, like the whole-muscle product, must meet a 0.75 to 1 moisture to protein ratio in the US Chemical preservatives can be used to prevent oxidative spoilage, but the moisture to protein ratio prevents microbial spoilage by low water activity. Some jerky products are very high in sugar and are therefore very sweet, unlike biltong, which rarely contains added sugars.
Crowded nest syndrome day
Crowded Nest Syndrome describes when adult children move back in with their parents following a divorce or other tumultuous event where the parent has lost their home. Crowded Nest syndrome day takes place annually 12 June. Crowded nest syndrome is the opposite of Empty nest syndrome. This describes a feeling of grief and loneliness parents may feel when their children leave home for the first time, such as to live on their own or to attend a college or university. It is not a clinical condition. Since young adults moving out from their families’ house is generally a normal and healthy event, the symptoms of empty nest syndrome often go unrecognized. This can result in depression and a loss of purpose for parents, since the departure of their children from “the nest” leads to adjustments in parents’ lives. Empty nest syndrome is especially common in full-time mothers. The first known Crowded Nest Awareness Day took place 12 June 2005. It was inspired by the Kathleen Shaputis book Crowded Nest Syndrome: Surviving the Return of Adult Children
World Art Nouveau Day takes place 10 June 2020. The first World Art Nouveau Day took place 10 June 2013 and was organized by The Museum of Applied Arts (Budapest) (IMM) in cooperation with Szecessziós Magazin (a Hungarian Magazine about Art Nouveau). The date of 10 June was selected to commemorate the anniversary of the death of two famous architects of the movement, Antoni Gaudí and Ödön Lechner. Activities like those organised on World Art Nouveau Day aim to create more awareness of Art Nouveau heritage among the public. The theme for Art Nouveau day 2020 is stained-glass.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, known in different languages by different names: Jugendstil in German, Stile Liberty in Italian, Modernismo catalán in Spanish, etc. In English it is also known as the Modern Style (not to be confused with Modernism and Modern architecture). The style was most popular between 1890 and 1910. It was a reaction against the academic art, eclecticism and historicism of 19th century architecture and decoration. It was often inspired by natural forms such as the sinuous curves of plants and flowers. Other characteristics of Art Nouveau were a sense of dynamism and movement, often given by asymmetry or whiplash lines, and the use of modern materials, particularly iron, glass, ceramics and later concrete, to create unusual forms and larger open spaces.
One major objective of Art Nouveau was to break down the traditional distinction between fine arts (especially painting and sculpture) and applied arts. It was most widely used in interior design, graphic arts, furniture, glass art, textiles, ceramics, jewelry and metal work. The style responded to leading 19-century theoreticians, such as French architect Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (1814–1879) and British art critic John Ruskin (1819–1900). In Britain, it was influenced by William Morris and the Arts and Crafts movement. German architects and designers sought a spiritually uplifting Gesamtkunstwerk (“total work of art”) that would unify the architecture, furnishings, and art in the interior in a common style, to uplift and inspire the residents.
The first Art Nouveau houses and interior decoration appeared in Brussels in the 1890s, in the architecture and interior design of houses designed by Paul Hankar, Henry van de Velde, and especially Victor Horta, whose Hôtel Tassel was completed in 1893. It moved quickly to Paris, where it was adapted by Hector Guimard, who saw Horta’s work in Brussels and applied the style for the entrances of the new Paris Métro. It reached its peak at the 1900 Paris International Exposition, which introduced the Art Nouveau work of artists such as Louis Tiffany. It appeared in graphic arts in the posters of Alphonse Mucha, and the glassware of René Lalique and Émile Gallé.
From Belgium and France, it spread to the rest of Europe, taking on different names and characteristics in each country (see Naming section below). It often appeared not only in capitals, but also in rapidly growing cities that wanted to establish artistic identities (Turin and Palermo in Italy; Glasgow in Scotland; Munich and Darmstadt in Germany), as well as in centres of independence movements (Helsinki in Finland, then part of the Russian Empire; Barcelona in Catalonia, Spain). By 1914, and with the beginning of the First World War, Art Nouveau was largely exhausted. In the 1920s, it was replaced as the dominant architectural and decorative art style by Art Deco and then Modernism. The Art Nouveau style began to receive more positive attention from critics in the late 1960s, with a major exhibition of the work of Hector Guimard at the Museum of Modern Art in 1970. The two biggest organisations in Europe coordinating the World Art Nouveau Day activities are the Art Nouveau European Route in Barcelona, and the Réseau Art Nouveau Network (RANN) in Brussels. In 2019 the event was supported by European Heritage Alliance.
More International and National events happening 10 June
Ballpoint Pen Day takes place annually o 10 June to commemorate the date of 10 June 1943 when the Brothers Laszlo and Gyorgy Biro patented the ballpoint pen
World Oceans Day takes place annually every 8 June. The purpose of World Oceans Day is to educate people concerning the importance of the worlds Oceans which provide us with many resources and services including oxygen, climate regulation, food sources, medicine, and more. World Oceans Day also provides an opportunity for people to take personal and community action to conserve the ocean and its resources. The event has been celebrated unofficially since its original proposal in 1992 by Canada’s International Centre for Ocean Development (ICOD) and the Ocean Institute of Canada (OIC) at the Earth Summit – UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The Brundtland Commission, i.e. the World Commission on Environment and Development, provided the inspiration for a global oceans day. The 1987 Brundtland Report noted that the ocean sector lacked a strong voice compared to other sectors. At the first World Oceans Day in 1992, the objectives were to move the oceans from the sidelines to the center of the intergovernmental and NGO discussions and policy and to strengthen the voice of ocean and coastal areas world wide. http://www.WorldOceansDay.org was launched, in 2008 to help promote the event and generate more involvement through dissemination of resources, ideas, and tools free for everyone to use to celebrate World .
The Ocean Project, working in partnership with leading organizations from all sectors, including the World Ocean Network, Association of Zoos and Aquariums, and many others in its network of 2,000 organizations, has been promoting World Oceans Day since 2002 and together with World Ocean Network led a three-year global petition movement to secure official UN recognition. to officially recognize 8 June as World Oceans Day. The UN General Assembly passed resolution in December 2008 officially recognizing the Day) World Oceans Day was officially recognized by the United Nations in 2008.
World Oceans Day events are celebrated on 8 June, the closest weekend, the week, and the month of June. The day is marked in a variety of ways, including launching new campaigns and initiatives, special events at aquariums and zoos, outdoor explorations, aquatic and beach cleanups, educational and conservation action programs, art contests, film festivals, and sustainable seafood events. Youth have been playing an increasingly important role since 2015, including the development in 2016 of a World Oceans Day Youth Advisory Council.
Each year focusses on a different theme for World Oceans day. Past themes for World Oceans Day have included “was “Oceans of Life: Pick your favorite * Protect your favorite” in 2010. This partnered with Dr. Seuss and the Census of Marine Life. In 2010 The Ocean Project and World Ocean Network recorded over 300 events, a 26% increase over 2009. Participation in the United States increased by 32% (with participation in 37 states, as compared to 25 states the previous year). 45 countries participated in World Oceans Day 2010, including Bangladesh, Belgium, French Polynesia, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, Malta, Malaysia, Venezuela, and Portugal. The theme for 2011 & 2012 was “Youth: the Next Wave for Change”. In 2013 and 2014 The theme was “Together we have the power to protect the ocean”In 2015 and 2016 the theme was “Healthy oceans, healthy planet” during these years nearly 1,000 events were held at aquariums, zoos, museums, recreational centers, youth clubs, schools, businesses, and countless individuals marked the day by doing something to keep our ocean healthy. Thousands took The Better Bag Challenge for World Oceans Day – promising to use reusable bags rather than disposable plastic bags for a year to help address the problem of marine debris. Action online increased significantly around World Oceans Day 2015. Millions were able to learn about the Day and ways to help through social media.
During World Oceans Day 2016, a strong focus was placed on youth engagement by The Ocean Project Who recognized the impact youth can have in ocean conservation, and provided youth with the resources and networks needed to have their voices heard. For World Oceans Day 2016, the World Oceans Day Youth Advisory Council was established. There are 11 members on the council all coming from different countries around the world. The new advisory council will help expand the reach and impact of World Oceans Day, on 8 June, and year-round. The Ocean Project also teamed up with Youth Ocean Conservation Summit and The Big Blue and You to create Sea Youth Rise Up, which brought seven youth ocean conservation leaders to NYC and Washington DC. The youth spoke about pressing ocean issues and solutions in a live google hangout at the New York Aquarium. A meeting was held in Washington DC to meet President Obama’s Council on Environmental Quality. Following the meeting the Northeast Canyons and Seamounts Marine National Monument, was formed becoming the United State’s first marine protected area in the Atlantic Ocean. In 2017 The theme was “Our Oceans, Our Future”
The theme for World oceans day 2018 was “Preventing plastic pollution and encouraging solutions for a healthy ocean”. The Ocean Project continues to expand the youth-focus of World Oceans Day by further expanding the Youth Advisory Council with the addition of 10 new members. The young minds help to shape and improve World Oceans Day as it grows through the years, providing new perspectives, ideas, and recommendations. Together with the Youth Advisory Council, The Ocean Project and its growing network of partners in 120 countries help rally the world each June and expand ocean conservation year-round.
The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO organized a full day dedicated to the critical role of the ocean for a healthy climate. The program brought together scientists, political decision-makers, civil society, and youth to develop strategies to reduce climate pollution. The UNEP report on microplastics in cosmetics was released. The study, entitled Plastic in Cosmetics: Are We Polluting the Environment Through our Personal Care: Plastic ingredients that contribute to marine microplastic litter is a compilation of currently available knowledge on the linkages between cosmetics and plastic pollution in the oceans.
The Economist in Lisbon, Portugal held its third World Ocean Summit just prior to World Oceans Day with the aim to set a new global agenda for the ocean economy. The Summit convened more than 250 leaders from various sectors and ignited a constructive dialogue on developing a blue economy in which economic opportunity is balanced by responsible investment in sustainability.
The US Department of State, Organised the annual Fishackathon event to make fishing more sustainable through a weekend of connection and coding. Coders volunteered their talents at institutions including aquariums and universities to develop new tools that help fishers work smarter, more safely, and more sustainably.
Jack Johnson celebrated with 5 Gyres and youth in the Bahamas, SpongeBob SquarePants went on a tour to zoos and aquariums across the US, Jeff Corwin and Jack Hanna made a splash on TV through a World Oceans Day campaign with Litton Entertainment, and the Octonauts were in many locations and highlighted in numerous publications around the planet to celebrate World Oceans Day.
This focused on raising awareness and promoting personal and community action in fun and positive ways, leading to a more aware, engaged, and sustainable society, and a healthier ocean. More than 700 events took place. In 2012 The Ocean Project launched a completely revamped site for World Oceans Day and There were over 500 events in 55 countries. The 2010 theme for World Oceans Day was “Oceans of Life: Pick your favorite * Protect your favorite.” It partnered with Dr. Seuss and the Census of Marine Life. In 2010 The Ocean Project and World Ocean Network recorded over 300 events, a 26% increase over 2009. Participation in the United States increased by 32% (with participation in 37 states, as compared to 25 states the previous year). 45 countries participated in World Oceans Day 2010, including Bangladesh, Belgium, French Polynesia, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, Malta, Malaysia, Venezuela, and Portugal.
World Oceans day was first officially recognized by the United Nations in 2009 and there were over 200 events worldwide. The (then) Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki Moon gave the following message:
World Oceans Day allows us to highlight the many ways in which oceans contribute to society. It is also an opportunity to recognize the considerable challenges we face in maintaining their capacity to regulate the global climate, supply essential ecosystem services and provide sustainable livelihoods and safe recreation.
Sadly human activities are taking a terrible toll on the world’s oceans and seas. Vulnerable marine ecosystems, such as corals, and important fisheries are being damaged by over-exploitation, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, destructive fishing practices, invasive alien species and marine pollution, especially from land-based sources. Increased sea temperatures, sea-level rise and ocean acidification caused by climate change pose a further threat to marine life, coastal and island communities and national economies. Oceans are also affected by criminal activity. Piracy and armed robbery against ships threaten the lives of seafarers and the safety of international shipping, which transports 90 per cent of the world’s goods. Smuggling of illegal drugs and the trafficking of persons by sea are further examples of how criminal activities threaten lives and the peace and security of the oceans.
Several international instruments drawn up under the auspices of the United Nations address these numerous challenges. At their centre lies the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. It provides the legal framework within which all activities in the oceans and seas must be carried out, and is the basis for international cooperation at all levels. In addition to aiming at universal participation, the world must do more to implement this Convention and to uphold the rule of law on the seas and oceans. The theme of World Oceans Day, “Our oceans, our responsibility”, emphasizes our individual and collective duty to protect the marine environment and carefully manage its resources. Safe, healthy and productive seas and oceans are integral to human well-being, economic security and sustainable development.