Vitamin C Day

Vitamin C Day takes place annually on April 4th It was founded in 2003 to inform people and spread knowledge concerning the health benefits of vitamin C which is widely recognized for warding off colds. Vitamin C is also clinically proven to be beneficial in other areas of health, too.

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement. It is used to prevent and treat scurvy. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters. It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. It also functions as an antioxidant. Evidence does not support its use for the prevention of the common cold. There is, however, some evidence that regular use may shorten the length of colds It is unclear whether supplementation affects the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, or dementia. Although A recent study suggested that people with cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, had lower vitamin C concentrations compared to people with normal cognition.

Vitamin C was discovered in 1912, isolated in 1928, and in 1933, was the first vitamin to be chemically produced. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. Vitamin C is available as an inexpensive generic and over-the-counter medication. Partly for its discovery, Albert Szent-Györgyi and Walter Norman Haworth were awarded the 1937 Nobel Prizes in Physiology and Medicine and Chemistry, respectively. Foods containing vitamin C include citrus fruits, kiwifruit, guava, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, bell peppers and strawberries. Prolonged storage or cooking may reduce vitamin C content in food

Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for certain animals including humans. The term vitamin C encompasses several vitamers that have vitamin C activity in animals. Ascorbate salts such as sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate are used in some dietary supplements. These release ascorbate upon digestion which helps digest food. Vitamin C functions as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions in animals (and humans) that mediate a variety of essential biological functions,

A deficiency of vitamin C can also cause The disease Scurvy, wherein Collagen by the body becomes too unstable to perform its functions which including wound healing and collagen synthesis. In addition several other enzymes in the body do not operate correctly without Vitamin C.Scurvy is characterized by spots on and bleeding under the skin, spongy gums, ‘corkscrew’ hair growth, and poor wound healing. Vitamin C also acts as an antioxidant (a reducing agent).

More International and National events happening 4 April

  • Victims of Violence Wholly Day takes place annually on 4 April To mark the anniversary of Dr. Martin Luther King’s assassination. 
  • School Librarian Day is celebrated on April 04, 2020. It honors all school librarians who serve young students so well in the local school libraries. 
  • International carrot day takes place annually on 4 April  it was founded 2003 to spread knowledge about the carrot and its health benefits

World Autism Awareness Day

World Autism Awareness Day takes place annually on 2 April. Every year, autism organizations around the world celebrate the day with unique fundraising and awareness-raising events. April is also Autism Awareness Month.

Autism is a lifelong developmental disability that manifests itself during the first three years of life. It results from a neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain, mostly affecting children and adults in many countries irrespective of gender, race or socio-economic status. It is characterized by impairments in social interaction, problems with verbal and non-verbal communication and restricted, repetitive behaviour, interests and activities. However because of this difference many autistic people show incredible abilities in other areas, such as Art and Maths, where repetitive patterns often occur.

The rate of autism in all regions of the world is high and it has a tremendous impact on children, their families, communities and societies. It can bring significant economic hardships to families, given the lack of health resources often found in developing countries. The stigmatization and discrimination associated with these illnesses also remain substantial obstacles to diagnosis and treatment. The absence of autism spectrum disorders and other mental disorders among children from lists of the leading causes of death has contributed to their long-term neglect by both public policy-makers in developing countries, as well as donors.

The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities entered into force in May 2008. Its purpose is to promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities, and to promote respect for their inherent dignity. It is a solid tool to foster an inclusive and caring society for all and to ensure that all children and adults with autism can lead full and meaningful lives.The United Nations General Assembly unanimously declared 2 April as World Autism Awareness Day to highlight the need to help improve the lives of children and adults who suffer from the disorder.

National Oatmeal Nut Waffle day🧇

National Oatmeal Nut Waffles Day Takes place annually on March 11th.
A waffle is a batter-based or dough-based cake cooked in a waffle iron patterned to give a distinctive size, shape and surface impression. There are many variations based on the type of iron and recipe used. Waffles have been around for centuries, and there are many varieties of them around the world including Oatmeal Nut Waffles. These are a healthier version of the classic waffle and include Whole grain oats and chopped nuts being mixed into a waffle recipe. Many spices, fruit, nuts, or nut butters Can also be added to the ingredients to give more flavour.

Oatmeal is also low in fat and is a good source of Iron and fibre. This can have many health Benefits, as a serving of oatmeal daily can lower cholesterol and may reduce the risk of heart disease. Eating a diet high in fibre may also help reduce the risk of cancer.

World Plumbing Day 2020

World plumbing day takes place annually on 11 March. It was established by the WOrld Plumbing Council in 2010 as a means of highlighting the important role plumbing plays in the health, safety and sustainability of our community.

Plumbing refers to any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids.  Heating and cooling (HVAC), waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing, however the use of plumbing is not limited to these applications. The word plumbing is derived from the Latin for lead, plumbum, as the first effective pipes used in the Roman era were lead pipes. In the periodic table lead is also Pb. In the developed world, plumbing infrastructure is critical to public health and sanitation. Boilermakers and pipefitters are not plumbers although they work with piping as part of their trade and their work can include some plumbing.

Alexander Fleming

Scottish biologist, pharmacologist and botanist Alexander Fleming sadly died 11 March 1955. He was born on 6 August 1881 at Lochfield, a farm near Darvel, in Ayrshire, Scotland. He was the third of the four children of farmer Hugh Fleming (1816–1888) from his second marriage to Grace Stirling Morton (1848–1928), the daughter of a neighbouring farmer. Hugh Fleming had four surviving children from his first marriage. He was 59 at the time of his second marriage, and died when Alexander (known as Alec) was seven.Fleming went to Loudoun Moor School and Darvel School, and earned a two-year scholarship to Kilmarnock Academy before moving to London, where he attended the Royal Polytechnic Institution. After working in a shipping office for four years, the twenty-year-old Fleming inherited some money from an uncle, John Fleming. His elder brother, Tom, was already a physician and suggested to his younger sibling that he follow the same career.

So in 1903, the younger Alexander enrolled at St Mary’s Hospital Medical School in Paddington; he qualified with an MBBS degree from the school with distinction in 1906. Fleming had been a private in the London Scottish Regiment of the Volunteer Force since 1900, and had been a member of the rifle club at the medical school. The captain of the club, wishing to retain Fleming in the team suggested that he join the research department at St Mary’s, where he became assistant bacteriologist to Sir Almroth Wright, a pioneer in vaccine therapy and immunology. In 1908, he gained a BSc degree with Gold Medal in Bacteriology, and became a lecturer at St Mary’s until 1914. On 23 December 1915, Fleming married a trained nurse, Sarah Marion McElroy of Killala, County Mayo, Ireland. Fleming served throughout World War I as a captain in the Royal Army Medical Corps, and was Mentioned in Dispatches. He and many of his colleagues worked in battlefield hospitals at the Western Front in France.

Following World War I in 1918 he returned to St Mary’s Hospital, where he actively searched for anti-bacterial agents, having witnessed the death of many soldiers from sepsis resulting from infected wounds. Antiseptics killed the patients’ immunological defences more effectively than they killed the invading bacteria. In an article he submitted for the medical journal The Lancet during World War I, Fleming described an ingenious experiment, which he was able to conduct as a result of his own glass blowing skills, in which he explained why antiseptics were killing more soldiers than infection itself during World War I. Antiseptics worked well on the surface, but deep wounds tended to shelter anaerobic bacteria from the antiseptic agent, and antiseptics seemed to remove beneficial agents produced that protected the patients in these cases at least as well as they removed bacteria, and did nothing to remove the bacteria that were out of reach. Sir Almroth Wrightstrongly supported Fleming’s findings, but despite this, most army physicians over the course of the war continued to use antiseptics even in cases where this worsened the condition of the patients..

By 1927, Fleming was investigating the properties of staphylococci. He was already well-known from his earlier work, and had developed a reputation as a brilliant researcher, but his laboratory was often untidy. On 3 September 1928, Fleming returned to his laboratory having spent August on holiday with his family. Before leaving, he had stacked all his cultures of staphylococci on a bench in a corner of his laboratory. On returning, Fleming noticed that one culture was contaminated with a fungus, and that the colonies of staphylococci that had immediately surrounded it had been destroyed, whereas other colonies farther away were normal. Fleming showed the contaminated culture to his former assistant Merlin Price, who reminded him, “That’s how you discovered lysozyme.”Fleming grew the mould in a pure culture and found that it produced a substance that killed a number of disease-causing bacteria. He identified the mould as being from the Penicillium genus, and, after some months of calling it “mould juice”, named the substance it released penicillin on 7 March 1929. The laboratory in which Fleming discovered and tested penicillin is preserved as the Alexander Fleming Laboratory Museum in St. Mary’s Hospital, Paddington.

He investigated its positive anti-bacterial effect on many organisms, and noticed that it affected bacteria such as staphylococci and many other Gram-positive pathogens that cause scarlet fever, pneumonia, meningitis and diphtheria, but not typhoid fever orparatyphoid fever, which are caused by Gram-negative bacteria, for which he was seeking a cure at the time. It also affected Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which causes gonorrhoea although this bacterium is Gram-negative. Fleming published his discovery in 1929, in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology, but little attention was paid to his article. Fleming continued his investigations, but found that cultivating penicillium was quite difficult, and that after having grown the mould, it was even more difficult to isolate the antibiotic agent.

Fleming thought that the difficulty in producing Penicillin in quantity, Plus the slow action, Meant it would not be effective in treating infection and it would not last long enough in the human body (in vivo) to kill bacteria effectively. Many clinical tests were inconclusive, probably because it had been used as a surface antiseptic. Diring the 1930s, Fleming’s trials occasionally showed more promise and he continued, until 1940, to try to interest a chemist skilled enough to further refine usable penicillin. Fleming finally abandoned penicillin. However not long after, Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain took up researching and mass-producing it at the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford, using funds from the U.S. and British governments. They discovered how to isolate and concentrate penicillin. Shortly after the team published its first results in 1940, Fleming telephoned Howard Florey, Chain’s head of department, to say that he would be visiting wit him the next few days.

Scientist Norman Heatley suggested transferring the active ingredient of penicillin back into water by changing its acidity. This produced enough of the drug to begin testing on animals. There were many more people involved in the Oxford team, and at one point the entire Dunn School was involved in its production.After the team had developed a method of purifying penicillin to an effective first stable form in 1940, several clinical trials ensued, and their amazing success inspired the team to develop methods for mass production and mass distribution in 1945. Fleming was modest about his part in the development of penicillin, describing his fame as the “Fleming Myth” and he praised Florey and Chain for transforming the laboratory curiosity into a practical drug. Fleming was the first to discover the properties of the active substance, giving him the privilege of naming it: penicillin. He also kept, grew, and distributed the original mould for twelve years, and continued until 1940 to try to get help from any chemist who had enough skill to make penicillin. But Sir Henry Harris said in 1998:”Without Fleming, no Chain; without Chain, no Florey; without Florey, no Heatley; without Heatley, no penicillin.

Fleming also wrote many articles on bacteriology, immunology, and chemotherapy. His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the antibiotic substance penicillin from the mould Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Floreyand Ernst Boris Chain. On 1999, Time magazine named Fleming one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century, stating:It was a discovery that would change the course of history. The active ingredient in that mould, which Fleming named penicillin, turned out to be an infection-fighting agent of enormous potency. When it was finally recognized for what it was, the most efficacious life-saving drug in the world, penicillin would alter forever the treatment of bacterial infections. By the middle of the century, Fleming’s discovery had spawned a huge pharmaceutical industry, churning out synthetic penicillins to help against diseases like syphilis, gangrene and tuberculosis.

Frankenstein

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley’s classic science fiction novel, Frankenstein; or The modern Prometheus, was published 11 March 1818 It contains elements of the Gothic novel and the Romantic movement and is also considered to be one of the earliest examples of science Fiction due to the use of modern experiments in the laboratory” to achieve fantastic results. It has had a considerable influence across literature and popular culture and spawned a complete genre of horror stories, films, and Television adaptations.

Frankenstein, starts with Captain Robert Walton, a failed writer who sets out to explore the North Pole and expand his scientific knowledge in hopes of achieving fame. During the voyage the crew spots a dog sled mastered by a gigantic figure. A few hours later, the crew rescues a nearly frozen and emaciated man named Victor Frankenstein. Frankenstein has been in pursuit of the gigantic man observed by Walton’s crew. As Frankenstein starts to recover from his exertion he recounts a story of his life to Walton.

He was Born into a wealthy Geneva family, where he and his brothers, Ernest and William, were encouraged to seek a greater understanding of the world through science. As a young boy, Victor became obsessed with studying outdated theories on simulating natural wonders. When Victor is five years old, his parents adopt an orphan, Elizabeth Lavenza, with whom Victor later falls in love. Sadly Weeks before he leaves for the University of Ingolstadt in Germany, his mother dies of scarlet fever, creating further impetus towards his experiments. At university, he excels at chemistry and other sciences, soon developing a secret technique to impart life to non-living matter using electricity, and he creates a grotesque but sentient being from the parts of other recently deceased people scavenged from Morgues. Because of the difficulty in replicating the minute parts of the human body, Victor is forced to make the Creature roughly eight feet tall. As a result, the beautiful creation of his dreams is instead hideous, with yellow eyes and skin that barely conceals the muscle tissue and blood vessels underneath. Repulsed by his work, Victor flees. Saddened by the rejection, the Creature disappears. Victoria falls ill and is nursed back to health by his childhood friend, Henry Clerval. After a four-month recovery, he returns home when he learns of the murder of his brother William. Justine, William’s nanny, is hanged for the crime after William’s locket is found in her pocket. Upon arriving in Geneva, Victor sees the Monster at the crime scene, But he doubts anyone would believe the Creature was responsible.

Ravaged by grief and guilt, Victor retreats into the mountains. The Monster locates him, pleading for Victor to hear his tale. Now intelligent and articulate, the Creature tells how encounters with people led to his fear of them and drives him into the woods. While living near a cottage, he grew fond of the family living there. The Creature learned to speak by listening to them and he taught himself to read after discovering a lost satchel of books. When he saw his reflection in a pool, he realized his physical appearance was hideous. Despite this, he approached the family in hopes of becoming their friend, but they were frightened and fled their home. The Creature then burned the cottage in a fit of rage.The Monster then demands that Victor create a female companion like himself, arguing that as a living being, he has a right to happiness. The Creature promises he and his mate will vanish into the South American wilderness, never to reappear, if Victor grants his request.

Fearing for the safety of his family, Victor reluctantly agrees. Clerval accompanies him to England, but they separate in Scotland. Victor begins to suspect that the Monster is following him. Working on the female creature on the Orkney Islands, he is plagued by premonitions of disaster, and has serious misgivings about creating a mate for the Creature which might lead to the breeding of a race that could plague mankind. So He destroys the female enraging the creature who nearly kills him. The Monster then vows to disrupt Victor and Elizabeth on their upcoming wedding night. He then kills Clerval and Victor is subsequently imprisoned for Clerval’s murder and suffers another mental breakdown in prison. After being acquitted, he returns home with his father.

In Geneva, Victor prepares to marry Elizabeth and confront the Monster. Wrongly believing the Creature threatened his life, the night before their wedding Victor asks Elizabeth to stay in her room while he looks for “the fiend”. While Victor searches the house and grounds, the Creature murders Elizabeth. From the window, Victor sees the Monster, who taunts Victor with Elizabeth’s corpse. Grief-stricken by the deaths of William, Justine, Clerval, and Elizabeth, Victor’s father dies. Seeking revenge, Victor Frankenstein pursues his creation to the North Pole, however this also ends in tragedy…..

NATIONAL REGISTERED DIETITIAN/ NUTRITIONIST DAY

National Registers Dietician Nutritionist day is observed annually on the second Wednesday in March, National Registered Dietitian Nutritionist Day celebrates the contributions of these medical professionals. A dietitian is an expert, human nutrition and the regulation of diet. A dietitian alters their patient’s nutrition based upon their medical condition and individual needs. Dietitians are regulated healthcare professionals licensed to assess, diagnose, and treat nutritional problems. A registered dietitian (RD) or registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) is a dietitian who meets all of a set of special academic and professional requirements, including the completion of a bachelor’s degree with an accredited nutrition curriculum, an internship at an approved health-care facility, foodservice organization, or community agency, and satisfactory performance on a registration exam Roughly half of all RDNs hold graduate degrees and many have certifications in specialized fields such as nutrition support, sports, pediatrics, renal, oncological, food-allergy, or gerontological nutrition. After learning about a patient’s health history, favorite foods, eating and exercise habits, the RD helps the person to set goals and to prioritize. Follow-up visits often focus on maintenance and monitoring progress.

Most RDs work in the treatment and prevention of disease (administering medical nutrition therapy, as part of medical teams), often in hospitals, health-maintenance organizations, private practices, or other health-care facilities. In addition, many registered dietitians work in community and public-health settings, and/or in academia and research. A growing number of dietitians work in the food industry, journalism, sports nutrition, corporate wellness programs, and other non-traditional fields.

Registered Dietitian Nutritionists are experts in food and nutrition And
the main job of a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist is to provide the most advanced and current nutrition information available to their patients. Their training qualifies them to support a variety of patient needs. Whether they work in a hospital, school, long-term care facility or sports facility, RDNs provide patient care that may include meal planning, nutritional counseling, assessments, track progress, and more. Outside their core patient care, RDNs also promote wellness in public forums as well. RDNs put patient care first and continue their education throughout their careers. Their commitment helps patients’ to meet their health goals or understand their disease better.  

Rare Disease Day🦠

Rare Disease Day takes place on the last day of February. The purpose of Rare Disease Day is to raise the public awareness of rare diseases and improve access to treatment and medical representation for individuals with rare diseases and their families. It was established in 2008 because, according to European Organisation for Rare Diseases (EURORDIS), treatment for many rare diseases is insufficient, as are the social networks to support individuals with rare diseases and their families. In 2009 Rare Disease Day went global as National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) mobilized 200 rare disease patient advocacy organizations in the United States while organizations in China, Australia, Taiwan, and Latin America also lead efforts in their respective countries to coordinate activities and promote the day. leading rare disease patient advocacy organizations including the Global Genes Project have joined forces to promote Rare Disease Day.

The first Rare Disease Day was held on 29 February 2008 in numerous European nations and in Canada through the Canadian Organization for Rare Disorders, organized by EURORDIS. The date was chosen because February 29 is a “rare day,” and 2008 was the 25th anniversary of the passing of the Orphan Drug Act in the United States.bIndividuals observing Rare Disease Day took part in walks and press conferences to raise public awareness of rare diseases, organized fundraisers, and wrote en masse to government representatives; health-related non-profit organizations across numerous countries also held events, gatherings, and campaigns. The day also included an open session of the European Parliament specifically dedicated to discussing policy issues relating to rare diseases. The days leading up to Rare Disease Day included other policy-related events in numerous locations, such as a reception in the British Parliament where policymakers met with individuals with rare diseases to discuss issues such as “equal access and availability of prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation.”

In 2009 Rare Disease Day was observed for the first time in Panama, Colombia, Argentina, Australia, the People’s Republic of China, and the United States.In the United States, NORD signed on to coordinate Rare Disease Day on February 28 and collaborated with media partner The Discovery Channel and program partner Mystery Diagnosis,bas well about 180 other partners, to organize activities across the country for the observance of Rare Disease Day.vSeveral United States state governments issued proclamations regarding Rare Disease Day. In Europe, over 600 patient advocacy and support organizations, again coordinated by EURORDIS, also planned events. The theme for Rare Disease Day 2010 was “Patients and Researchers: Partners for Life”. The event saw the participation of a total of 46 countries participated in 2010. Newcomers from Eastern Europe were Latvia, Lithuania Slovenia and Georgia. 3 African countries joined the event as well. The Theme for Rare Disease Day 2011 was “Rare Diseases and Health Inequalities”, to focus on differences for rare disease patients between and within countries, and compared to other segments of society, in order to ensure equal access for patients to health care, social services and rights, and to orphan drugs and treatments. There are approximately 700 Rare diseases mentioned during the day Among those include Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, Ehlers Danlos syndrome, Tyrosinemia type 1, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Cystic fibrosis, NGLY-1 deficiency, spinal muscular atrophy, Retinitis pigmentosa and mycosis fungoides,

Rare Disease Day 2012 was the fifth to be observed and since 2012 was a leap year, this was the second time the day falls on the originally intended date (February 29, a Wednesday). Each year, the global planning committee, under the leadership of EURORDIS and with NORD as the US representative, selects a theme to be used around the world. For 2012, the theme was “Solidarity” and the slogan was “Rare But Strong Together”. Other members of the global planning committee include representatives from the national rare disease alliances in several European countries. Thousands of patient advocacy organizations also got involved, including more than 600 partners working with NORD in the US to promote Rare Disease Day.

The theme for 2017 and 2018 was research and many events took place around the globe, the tagline of the campaign was “with research, possibilities are limitless” – The theme aims to draw attention to the fact that more research is urgently needed to help patients.

Anosmia Awareness Day

Anosmia Awareness Day takes place each year on February 27 to spread awareness about Anosmia. Anosmia refers to the loss of the sense of smell, either total or partial. It may be caused by head injury, infection, or blockage of the nose. Creators of this event suggest that since there are fewer visible and practical difficulties associated with olfactory disorders than with visual or auditory impairments, the nature of olfactory dysfunction and its consequences for an individual’s safety and quality of life are not widely understood. Anosmia Awareness Day aims to expose this situation, push for the development of successful treatments, and inform the general public about the serious impact that anosmia can have on a person’s life. Anosmia sufferers have been shown to be susceptible to dangerous situations such as gas leaks, fires, hazardous chemical vapors, and ingesting spoiled food. Additionally, people with smell loss can also experience difficulty with eating due to the close relationship between smell and taste. Studies also indicate that some individuals develop depression in response to feelings of social isolation, fears regarding safety and personal odor management, and a diminished connection to pleasure, emotion, and memory.

Anosmia Awareness Day was first launched by Daniel Schein, an American man with olfactory dysfunction, on February 27, 2012. The event page that he created on Facebook established the date and the practice of wearing red to show support for the cause. Subsequently, smell and taste centers (like The Monell Center in Philadelphia, PA) and charities (like Fifth Sense in the United Kingdom) have thrown their support behind the event, linking it to research and educational initiatives aimed at patients, doctors, and the general public. Fifth Sense, a UK-based charity that provides support and information to people with smell and taste disorders, has connected Anosmia Awareness Day to its international online awareness and fundraising campaign called #LongLostSmell.

Animal Reiki Day

World Animal Reiki Day takes place annually on 5 February. It wasFounded by Kathleen Prasad after she rescued a dog named Dakota from an animal shelter, who becomes her beloved canine companion for over 16 years. Prasad practiced Reiki Massage on her dog Dakota, and saw a difference, this convinced her of the benefits of Reiki massage therapy for animals as well as people.

Reiki (霊気, is a form of alternative medicine called energy healing. Reiki practitioners use a technique called palm healing or hands-on healing through which a “universal energy” is said to be transferred through the palms of the practitioner to the patient in order to encourage emotional or physical healing. It was Developed in Japan in 1922 by Mikao Usui. The Japanese reiki is commonly written as レイキ in katakana syllabary or as 霊気 in shinjitai “new character form” kanji. It compounds the words rei (霊: “spirit, miraculous, divine”) and ki (気; qi: “gas, vital energy, breath of life, consciousness”).Ki is defined as “… spirits; one’s feelings, mood, frame of mind; temperament, temper, disposition, one’s nature, character; mind to do something, intention, will; care, attention, precaution” “feeling of mystery,””an atmosphere (feeling) of mystery”,,and “an ethereal atmosphere (that prevails in the sacred precincts of a shrine); (feel, sense) a spiritual (divine) presence.” Besides the usual Sino-Japanese pronunciation reiki, these kanji 霊気 have an alternate Japanese reading, namely ryōge, meaning “demon; ghost” (especially in spirit possession).

Chinese língqì 靈氣 is similar, this was first recorded in the (ca. 320 BCE) Neiye “Inward Training” section of the Guanzi, and describes Chi as either “a mysterious vital energy within the mind which is affected by mental agitation. A”spiritual influence or atmosphere”; intelligence; power of understanding, or a supernatural power or force, A spiritual influence, an ingenuousness or cleverness.”

However many consider Reiki a pseudoscience it is based on qi (“chi”), which practitioners say is a universal life force, although there is no empirical evidence that such a life force exists. Clinical research has not shown reiki to be effective as a treatment for any medical condition. There has been no proof of the effectiveness of reiki therapy compared to placebo nevertheless it has been adapted into varying cultural traditions across the world. An overview of reiki investigations found that studies reporting positive effects had methodological flaws. The American Cancer Society stated that reiki should not replace conventional cancer treatment, a sentiment echoed by Cancer Research UK and the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health.