World Pediatric Bone and Joint (PB&J) Day

World Pediatric Bone and Joint (PB&J) Day takes place annually on October 19th. Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends people be under pediatric care up to the age of 21.A medical doctor who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician, or paediatrician. The word pediatrics and its cognates mean “healer of children”; they derive from two Greek words: παῖς (pais “child”) and ἰατρός (iatros “doctor, healer”). Pediatricians work both in hospitals, particularly those working in its subspecialties such as neonatology, and as primary care physicians.

The root of Pediatric medicine can be traced back to ancient Greece where Hippocrates, Aristotle, Celsus, Soranus, and Galen understood the differences in growing and maturing organisms that necessitated different treatment Celsus stated: Ex toto non sic pueri ut viri curari debent ( “In general, boys should not be treated in the same way as men.”). Some of the oldest traces of pediatrics exist in Ancient India where children’s doctors were called kumara bhrtya. Sushruta Samhita an ayurvedic text, composed during the sixth century BC contains the text about pediatrics. Another ayurvedic text from this period is Kashyapa Samhita. A second century AD manuscript by the Greek physician and gynecologist Soranus of Ephesus dealt with neonatal pediatrics. Byzantine physicians Oribasius, Aëtius of Amida, Alexander Trallianus, and Paulus Aegineta contributed to the field. The Byzantines also built brephotrophia (crêches). Islamic writers served as a bridge for Greco-Roman and Byzantine medicine and added ideas of their own, especially Haly Abbas, Serapion, Avicenna, and Averroes. The Persian philosopher and physician al-Razi (865–925) published a monograph on pediatrics titled Diseases in Children as well as the first definite description of smallpox as a clinical entity. Among the first books about pediatrics was Libellus [Opusculum] de aegritudinibus et remediis infantium 1472 (“Little Book on Children Diseases and Treatment”), by the Italian pediatrician Paolo Bagellardo. In sequence came Bartholomäus Metlinger’s Ein Regiment der Jungerkinder 1473, Cornelius Roelans (1450–1525) no title Buchlein, or Latin compendium, 1483, and Heinrich von Louffenburg (1391–1460) Versehung des Leibs written in 1429 (published 1491), together form the Pediatric Incunabula, four great medical treatises on children’s physiology and pathology.

The Swedish physician Nils Rosén von Rosenstein (1706–1773) is considered to be the founder of modern pediatrics as a medical specialty, his book The diseases of children, and their remedies (1764) is considered to be “the first modern textbook on the subject”. Pediatrics as a specialized field of medicine continued to develop in the mid-19th century; German physician Abraham Jacobi (1830–1919) is known as the father of American pediatrics because of his many contributions to the field. He received his medical training in Germany and later practiced in New York City.

The first generally accepted pediatric hospital is the Hôpital des Enfants Malades (French: Hospital for Sick Children), which opened in Paris in June 1802 on the site of a previous orphanage. From its beginning, this famous hospital accepted patients up to the age of fifteen years, and it continues to this day as the pediatric division of the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, created in 1920 by merging with the physically contiguous Necker Hospital, founded in 1778. In other European countries, the Charité (a hospital founded in 1710) in Berlin established a separate Pediatric Pavilion in 1830, followed by similar institutions at Sankt Petersburg in 1834, and at Vienna and Breslau (now Wrocław), both in 1837. In 1852 Britain’s first pediatric hospital, the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street was founded by Charles West. The first Children’s hospital in Scotland opened in 1860 in Edinburgh. In the US, the first similar institutions were the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, which opened in 1855, and then Boston Children’s Hospital (1869). Subspecialties in pediatrics were created at the Harriet Lane Home at Johns Hopkins by Edwards A. Park.

The purpose of World Pediatric and Joint day is to increase awareness concerning certain bone and joint related conditions in growing children and young adults, and highlight the measures which can be taken to prevent these conditions. The most common muscoskeletal injuries are fractures, growth plate injuries, overuse, apophyseal pain and infections.

Growth plates are the weakest seams in a child’s skeleton and are the most susceptible to injury. All growing children have growth plates in their bones and are at risk for growth plate injuries until the soft tissue is eventually replaced with solid bone. Growth plate injuries “can have devastating effects on the overall growth of children.” Any injury or impact, such as twisting an ankle or knee, can cause harm to the growth plate. The Ligaments surrounding a child’s joint are not very strong and may not be able to fully stabilize a fracture. Treatment for growth plate injuries depends on several factors such as which bone is injured, the type of fracture, the age of the child, and other associated injuries and circumstances. Injured growth plates should be casted, immobilized, and then rested. If the injury is severe enough, surgical intervention may be needed.

Overuse is a pediatric musculoskeletal injury and is caused by too much participation in sports. Little league elbow is an example of overuse syndrome that affects the growth plate on the inside elbow of the throwing arm in a baseball player. It can do serious damage to the growth plate in the arm due to repetitive use and excessive throwing. This is the reason for strict limits on how many pitches or innings a young pitcher is allowed to throw. Physicians recommend rest coupled with rehabilitation to allow the bones to heal but sometimes surgery is necessary to reattach the growth plate to the bone.

Apophyseal pain is common in the pediatric population, especially during periods of rapid growth and while youth are very active. The apophysis is the site of tendon attachment prior to skeletal maturity. Dr. Spellmon recommends rest, ice, anti-inflammatories, and rehab to treat apophyseal overuse injuries, and immobilization, rest, and rehab for an avulsion injury. However, with an avulsion fracture, depending on the severity, surgical intervention may be necessary.

Several different types of bacteria live on the skin and are considered normal skin flora. If skin is broken it allows bacteria to enter the bloodstream.” While children are still growing there is an abundant supply of blood to the bone and sometimes bacteria seed in the bone and cause an infection. This bone infection is called osteomyelitis and typically requires a hospital stay with IV antibiotics followed by oral antibiotics. In addition, labs, radiographs, and a clinical exam are typically followed until all are normalized.

Pediatric musculoskeletal injuries, May also be exacerbated by obesity developed during childhood. World Pediatric Bone and Joint Day highlights obesity, screening, and prevention. The day also looks at symptoms, treatment and economic impact. When not diagnosed early and managed appropriately, Pediatric muscoskeletal injuries can result in long-term disabling conditions, chronic pain and disability later in life. Many of these conditions can be prevented by measures taken to lessen the chance of occurrence. Raising awareness of these conditions in young people may allow them to live healthier lives, free from pain and conditions such as osteoporosis and arthritis that may surface later in life.

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World Menopause Day

World Menopause Day takes place annually on 18 October. World Menopause day is a worldwide awareness call for women who face health issues when approaching, during and beyond the menopause. It was founded by the The International Menopause Society (IMS) a UK based charity which was created in 1978 in Jerusalem during the second Menopause Congress. The aims of the IMS are “to promote knowledge, study and research on all aspects of aging in men and women; to organize, prepare, hold and participate in international meetings and congresses on menopause and climacteric; and to encourage the interchange of research plans and experience between individual members.” The International Menopause Society currently has members in 62 countries. In addition to organizing congresses, symposia, and workshops, the IMS owns its own journal: Climacteric, the Journal of Adult Women’s Health and Medicine, published by Informa Healthcare. The IMS has three sub-organs: CAMS, the Council of Affiliated Menopause Societies, the WSSM, the World School for the Study of the Menopause and the CPP, the Council of Past Presidents.

The Society’s official journal, Climacteric, the Journal of Adult Women’s Health and Medicine, was founded in 1998 and is listed in Index Medicus/MEDLINE. The editors-in-Chief are Anna Fenton (New Zealand), and Nick Panay (United Kingdom). It publishes international, original, peer-reviewed research on all aspects of aging in men and women, especially during the menopause and climacteric. The content of the journal covers the whole range of subject areas relevant to climacteric studies and adult women’s health and medicine, including underlying endocrinological changes, treatment of the symptoms of the menopause and other age-related changes, hormone replacement therapies, alternative therapies, effective life-style modifications, non-hormonal midlife changes, and the counselling and education of perimenopausal and postmenopausal patients. Menopause Live is another weekly service offered via email by the International Menopause Society. It offers recently published commentaries on scientific papers that may be of interest to members of the IMS.

Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women’s lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children. Menopause typically occurs between 49 and 52 years of age.Medical professionals often define menopause as having occurred when a woman has not had any vaginal bleeding for a year.It may also be defined by a decrease in hormone production by the ovaries. In those who have had surgery to remove their uterus but still have ovaries, menopause may be viewed to have occurred at the time of the surgery or when their hormone levels fell.Following the removal of the uterus, symptoms typically occur earlier, at an average of 45 years of age.

In the years before menopause, a woman’s periods typically become irregular, which means that periods may be longer or shorter in duration or be lighter or heavier in the amount of flow. During this time, women often experience hot flashes; these typically last from 30 seconds to ten minutes and may be associated with shivering, sweating, and reddening of the skin. Hot flashes often stop occurring after a year or two. Other symptoms may include vaginal dryness, trouble sleeping, and mood changes. The severity of symptoms varies between women. While menopause is often thought to be linked to an increase in heart disease, this primarily occurs due to increasing age and does not have a direct relationship with menopause. In some women, problems that were present like endometriosis or painful periods will improve after menopause.

Menopause is usually a natural change.It can occur earlier in those who smoke tobacco.Other causes include surgery that removes both ovaries or some types of chemotherapy. At the physiological level, menopause happens because of a decrease in the ovaries’ production of the hormones estrogen and progesterone.While typically not needed, a diagnosis of menopause can be confirmed by measuring hormone levels in the blood or urine. Menopause is the opposite of menarche, the time when a girl’s periods start.

Specific treatment is not usually needed.Some symptoms, however, may be improved with treatment. With respect to hot flashes, avoiding smoking, caffeine, and alcohol is often recommended.Sleeping in a cool room and using a fan may help.The following medications may help: menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), clonidine, gabapentin, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.Exercise may help with sleeping problems. While MHT was once routinely prescribed, it is now only recommended in those with significant symptoms, as there are concerns about side effects. High-quality evidence for the effectiveness of alternative medicine has not been found.There is tentative evidence for phytoestrogens.

In observation of World Menopause Day , the IMS and the member national societies of CAMS distribute materials and organize activities to inform women about menopause, its management and the impact of estrogen loss. Since it is not always possible for local societies to arrange activities for this specific day, the IMS has now designated October as World Menopause Month. Local societies can also collaborate with other organizations working in the field of adult women’s health, such as societies for osteoporosis and breast cancer, to organize joint events. World Menopause Month can also be a call to implement policies that support research and treatment in the area of menopausal health. Our Menopause World is published on a monthly basis and sent via e-mail to members of the Society. It aims to share news from the world of menopause and promote the current initiatives of the Society. Members are encouraged to submit their own articles for inclusion to share news of events and activities from their part of the world.

World Trauma Day

World Trauma Day is celebrated annually on October, 17th. The purpose of World Trauma day is to highlight the increasing rate of accidents and injuries causing death and disability across the world and the need to prevent them. World Trauma Day was created in New Delhi in 2011 , in collaboration withThe Trauma Society of South Africa (which has the highest road mortality rate in the world with 40 deaths per day) joining the year after. Its purpose was to set a day aside to consider the impact, prevention and treatment of traumatic injuries and deaths.

Trauma refers to “any injury caused to the body”. The injury may be caused due to many reasons like road accidents, fires, burns, falls, acts of violence and crimes against the vulnerable population including women, children and elderly. trauma is any injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death. There are many causes of major trauma, blunt and penetrating, including falls, motor vehicle collisions, stabbing wounds, and gunshot wounds. Depending on the severity of injury, quickness of management and transportation to an appropriate medical facility (called a trauma center) may be necessary to prevent loss of life or limb. The initial assessment is critical, and involves a physical evaluation and also may include the use of imaging tools to determine the types of injuries accurately and to formulate a course of treatment.

Injuries may be caused by any combination of external forces that act physically against the body. The leading causes of traumatic death are blunt trauma, motor vehicle collisions, and falls, followed by penetrating trauma such as stab wounds or impaled objects. Subsets of blunt trauma are both the number one and two causes of traumatic death. injuries are classified as either intentional such as suicide, or unintentional, such as a motor vehicle collision. Intentional injury is a common cause of traumas. Penetrating trauma is caused when a foreign body such as a bullet or a knife enters the body tissue, creating an open wound. In the United States, most deaths caused by penetrating trauma occur in urban areas and 80% of these deaths are caused by firearms.. Blast injury is a complex cause of trauma because it commonly includes both blunt and penetrating trauma, and also may be accompanied by a burn injury. Trauma also may be associated with a particular activity, such as an occupational or sports injury.

Amongst all the causes, Road Traffic Accident (RTA) is the leading cause of trauma across the world. Many injuries may lead to temporary or permanent disability while others may even cause death. Every year, about 5 million people die from injuries across the world. In India alone, it is estimated that one million people die and 20 million are hospitalized every year due to injuries.

According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), about 1,37,000 people died in road accidents in India in 2013. The burden of disease due to trauma is increasing at an alarming rate. This not only increases the morbidity and mortality rate, but also affects the national productivity on account of younger population being mainly involved in road accidents. Therefore, we should all take the required precautions in order to prevent any injuries. Road designing plays an important role in preventing trauma. But the rate of injuries due to trauma cannot only be reduced by adequate road designing. It is the duty of every citizen of every country to act responsibly. Remember, prevention is always better than cure. Trauma is no accident. It can be easily prevented by staying alert. So, help yourself as well as others by acting responsibly.

World Anaesthesia Day

World Anesthesia Day Is celebrated annually on October 16. It commemorates the first successful demonstration of ether anesthesia on October 16, 1846, by Boston dentist William Thomas Green Morton Who  gave the correct dose of diethyl ether to medical students at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Morton, who was unaware of Long’s previous work, was invited to the Massachusetts General Hospital to demonstrate his new technique for painless surgery. After Morton had induced anesthesia, surgeon John Collins Warren removed a tumor from the neck of Edward Gilbert Abbott. This occurred in the surgical amphitheater now called the Ether Dome. The previously skeptical Warren was impressed and stated, “Gentlemen, this is no humbug.” In a letter to Morton shortly thereafter, physician and writer Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. proposed naming the state produced “anesthesia”, and the procedure an “anesthetic”.

At first Morton tried to hide the actual nature of his anesthetic substance, referring to it as Letheon. He received a US patent for his substance, but news of the successful anesthetic spread quickly by late 1846. Respected surgeons in Europe including Liston, Dieffenbach, Pirogov, and Syme quickly undertook numerous operations with ether. An American-born physician, Boott, encouraged London dentist James Robinson to perform a dental procedure on a Miss Lonsdale. This was the first case of an operator-anesthetist. On the same day, 19 December 1846, in Dumfries Royal Infirmary, Scotland, a Dr. Scott used ether for a surgical procedure.The first use of anesthesia in the Southern Hemisphere took place in Launceston, Tasmania, that same year. However Drawbacks with ether such as excessive vomiting and its explosive flammability led to its replacement in England with chloroform.Nevertheless this ranks as one of the most significant events in the history of medicine and took place at the Massachusetts General Hospital, home of the Harvard School of Medicine. The discovery made it possible for patients to obtain the benefits of surgical treatment without the pain associated with an operation. The date (16 October) is now globally recognised as World Anaesthesia Day in respect of the importance of this event.

Anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek “without sensation”) is a state of controlled, temporary loss of sensation or awareness that is induced for medical purposes. It may include analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain), paralysis (muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), or unconsciousness. A patient under the effects of anesthetic drugs is referred to as being anesthetized. Anesthesia enables the painless performance of medical procedures that would otherwise cause severe or intolerable pain to an unanesthetized patient. Three broad categories of anaesthesia exist:

  • General anesthesia which suppresses central nervous system activity and results in unconsciousness and total lack of sensation.
  • Sedation suppresses the central nervous system to a lesser degree, inhibiting both anxiety and creation of long-term memories without resulting in unconsciousness.
  • Regional anesthesia and local anesthesia, block transmission of nerve impulses from a specific part of the body, causing loss of sensation in the targeted body part only.

Depending on the situation, this may be used either on its own (in which case the patient remains conscious), or in combination with general anaesthesia or sedation. There are two broad forms:

  • Peripheral blockade inhibits sensory perception in an isolated part of the body, such as numbing a tooth for dental work, or using a nerve block to inhibit sensation in an entire limb.
  • Central, or neuraxial, blockade administers the anesthetic in the region of the central nervous system itself, suppressing incoming sensation from nerves outside the area of the block. Examples include epidural anaesthesia and spinal anaesthesia.

In preparing for a medical procedure, the health care provider giving anesthesia chooses and determines the doses of one or more drugs to achieve the types and degree of anesthesia characteristics appropriate for the type of procedure and the particular patient. The types of drugs used include general anesthetics, local anesthetics, hypnotics, sedatives, neuromuscular-blocking drugs, narcotics, and analgesics. There are both major and minor risks of anesthesia. Examples of major risks include death, heart attack and pulmonary embolism whereas minor risks can include postoperative nausea and vomiting and hospital readmission. The likelihood of a complication occurring is proportional to the relative risk of a variety of factors related to the patient’s health, the complexity of the surgery being performed and the type of anesthetic used. Of these factors, the person’s health prior to surgery (stratified by the ASA physical status classification system) has the greatest bearing on the probability of a complication occurring. Patients typically wake within minutes of an anesthetic being terminated and regain their senses within hours. One exception is a condition called long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction, characterized by persistent confusion lasting weeks or months, which is more common in those undergoing cardiac surgery and in the elderly.

World Food Day

World Food Day is celebrated every year around the world on 16 October in honor of the date of the founding of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 1945. The day is celebrated widely by many other organisations concerned with food security, including the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development. The World Food Day theme for 2014 is Family Farming: “Feeding the world, caring for the earth” World Food Day (WFD) was established by FAO’s Member Countries at the Organization’s 20th General Conference in November 1945. The Hungarian Delegation, led by the former Hungarian Minister of Agriculture and Food Dr. Pál Romány, played an active role at the 20th Session of the FAO Conference and suggested the idea of celebrating the WFD worldwide.

It has since been observed every year in more than 150 countries, raising awareness of the issues behind poverty and hunger. Since 1981, World Food Day has adopted a different theme each year in order to highlight areas needed for action and provide a common focus. Past themes have included agriculture, biodiversity food security, rural youth, poverty, fishermen, trees, the environment, water and sustainable food supplies. Most of the themes have revolved around agriculture because only investment in agriculture, from both the Private and Public sector, together with support for education and health – will turn this situation around. In spite of the importance of agriculture as the driving force in the economies of many developing countries, it is frequently starved of investment, and particular, foreign aid to agriculture has shown marked declines over the past 20 years.

World Spine Day

World Spine day takes place annually on 16 October. It is Organized by the World Federation of Chiropractic on behalf of the Global Alliance for Musculoskeletal Health. The aims of World Spine day are to Raise awareness about spinal health and spine disorders to individuals, communities, professionals and all stakeholders associated with spine care, To provide a forum for ongoing discussion about the burden of spinal disorders and the sharing of best practices and To promote an interdisciplinary, collaborative approach to easing the burden of spinal disorders. World Spine Day has become a focus in raising awareness of back pain and other spinal issues. With health professionals, exercise and rehabilitation experts, public health advocates, schoolchildren and patients all taking part.

The spine, The vertebral column or backbone is part of the axial skeleton. The vertebral column is the defining characteristic of a vertebrate in which the notochord (a flexible rod of uniform composition) found in all chordates has been replaced by a segmented series of bone: vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs. In a human’s vertebral column there are normally thirty-three vertebrae; the upper twenty-four are articulating and separated from each other by intervertebral discs, and the lower nine are fused in adults, five in the sacrum and four in the coccyx or tailbone. The articulating vertebrae are named according to their region of the spine. There are seven cervical vertebrae, twelve thoracic vertebrae and five lumbar vertebrae. The number of vertebrae in a region can vary but overall the number remains the same. The number of those in the cervical region however is only rarely changed.There are ligaments extending the length of the column at the front and the back, and in between the vertebrae joining the spinous processes, the transverse processes and the vertebral laminae.

The vertebral column houses the spinal canal, a cavity that encloses and protects the spinal cord. There are about 50,000 species of animals that have a vertebral column. In a human’s vertebral column there are normally thirty-three vertebrae; the upper twenty-four are articulating and separated from each other by intervertebral discs, and the lower nine are fused in adults, five in the sacrum and four in the coccyx or tailbone. The articulating vertebrae are named according to their region of the spine. There are seven cervical vertebrae, twelve thoracic vertebrae and five lumbar vertebrae. The number of vertebrae in a region can vary but overall the number remains the same. The number of those in the cervical region however is only rarely changed. There are ligaments extending the length of the column at the front and the back, and in between the vertebrae joining the spinous processes, the transverse processes and the vertebral laminae. The vertebral column surrounds the spinal cord which travels within the spinal canal, formed from a central hole within each vertebra.

The Spine is designed to protect The spinal cord which is an important part of the central nervous system that supplies nerves and receives information from the peripheral nervous system within the body. The spinal cord consists of grey and white matter and a central cavity, the central canal. Adjacent to each vertebra emerge spinal nerves. The spinal nerves provide sympathetic nervous supply to the body, with nerves emerging forming the sympathetic trunk and the splanchnic nerves. The spinal canal follows the different curves of the column; it is large and triangular in those parts of the column which enjoy the greatest freedom of movement, such as the cervical and lumbar regions; and is small and rounded in the thoracic region, where motion is more limited. The spinal cord terminates in the conus medullaris and cauda equina.

#LoveYourSpine will also be celebrated to highlight the importance of spinal health and wellbeing. Promotion of physical activity, good posture, responsible lifting and healthy working conditions will all feature as people are encouraged to look after their spines and stay active.

With an estimated one billion people worldwide suffering from back pain, it affects all age groups, from children to the elderly. It is the biggest single cause of disability on the planet, with one in four adults estimated to suffer from back pain during their lives. Prevention is therefore key and this year’s World Spine Day will be encouraging people to take steps to be kind to their spines. Populations in under-serviced parts of the world often have no access to conventional healthcare resources to care for spinal pain and disability. Often relying on traditional healers, even those who are seen in hospital are often only given anti-inflammatory medication. Dedicated spinal health professionals do not exist in many parts of the world, so education and self-help is key. Even in high-income countries, back pain afflicts many millions of people, resulting in an enormous impact on industry and the economy.

Global Handwashing Day

Global Handwashing Day (GHD) is a global campaign which takes place annually on 15 October to raise awareness of the importance of handwashing with soap as a key approach to preventing the spread of diseases And to encourage people around the world to improve their handwashing habits by washing their hands with soap at critical moments throughout each day. Hand washing with soap is extremely effective and the most inexpensive way to prevent Diarrhea and Acute respiratory infections Pneumonia, a major ARI, is the number one cause of mortality among children under five years old, taking the life of an estimated 1.8 million children per year. Diarrhea and pneumonia together account for almost 3.5 million child deaths annually Handwashing with soap is estimated to reduce incidents of diarrhea by 30% and respiratory infections by 21% in children under the age of five.

The campaign was initiated to reduce childhood mortality rates and related respiratory and diarrheal diseases by introducing simple behavioral changes, such as handwashing with soap, and To Foster and support a general culture of handwashing with soap in all societies, the campaign also aims to Shine a spotlight on the state of handwashing in each country and raise awareness about the benefits of handwashing with soap which can help prevent fatal diseases and lower the mortality rate.

It is important to turn handwashing into a habit. Turning handwashing with soap before eating and after using the toilet into an ingrained habit can save more lives than any single vaccine or medical intervention, cutting deaths from diarrhea by almost half and deaths from acute Respiratory infections by one-quarter. Hand washing is usually integrated together with other sanitation interventions as part of water, sanitation and hygiene WASH programmes. The Global Handwashing Day helps raise awareness of the importance of washing with soap, but it also makes it fun for children to get involved. Proper hygiene requires that individuals know the importance of good hygiene and develop the habits to carry it out. Many people with ample incomes lack the important habits of timely handwashing with soap, and thereby unknowingly endanger themselves and others around them.Peer influence is significant to seeing increased handwashing among students. In a study conducted in Kenya, researchers found that students were significantly more likely to wash their hands when another student is present.[9] Peer influence is only successful, however, when students know that handwashing is a desirable action.

The Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap (PPPHW) established Global Handwashing Day in 2008 as a way to promote a global and local vision of handwashing with soap. Steering Committee members of the PPPHW includes Colgate-Palmolive; FHI 360; The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; Procter & Gamble; UNICEF; Unilever; University at Buffalo; USAID; the Water and Sanitation Programme at the World Bank; and the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council. Continued research on handwashing habits and practices is commissioned in conjunction with GHD. In 2011, Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget (SCA), sponsored a study to assess the handwashing habits of American and Canadian adults, finding that many were not using soap when washing their hands.

Each year, over 200 million people celebrate Global Handwashing Day. On 15 October 2014, Madhya Pradesh won the Guinness World Record for the most massive hand washing program involving 1,276,425 children in 51 different districts.Some groups choose to celebrate GHD on other dates than 15 October. In Ethiopia, 300 people celebrated Global Handwashing Day in Addis Ababa on 1 November in 2013. On 15 October 2015, Lupok Central Elementary School, Guiuan Eastern Samar, Philippines celebrated the Global Hand washing day by doing the proper hand washing before starting classes.

Global Handwashing Day was initiated by the Public Private Partnership for Handwashing (PPPHW) in August 2008 at the annual World Water Week in Stockholm, Swede. The date was appointed by the UN General Assembly. The year 2008 was also the International Year of Sanitation. The focus for Global Handwashing Day’s inaugural year in 2008 was school children and members pledged to get the maximum number of school children handwashing with soap in more than 70 countries. In India in 2008, cricket legend Sachin Tendulkar and his teammates joined an estimated 100 million schoolchildren around the country in lathering up for better health and hygiene as part of the first Global Handwashing Day. In 2014, Global Handwashing Day was used as an opportunity to fight Ebola. In Nigeria, for example, Concern Universal and Carex sponsored events featuring singer Sunny Neji. The founding bodies included: FHI360 (a nonprofit human development organization based in the US),[20] US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Procter & Gamble, UNICEF, Unilever, World Bank Water & Sanitation Program and the United States Agency for International Development