Groucho Marx

The late, great American comedian, actor television star Julius Henry “Groucho” Marx sadly passed away on August 19 at Cedars Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles. After having been hospitalized for pneumonia on June 22, 1977. He was Born 2nd October 1890 in New York City. He is known as a master of quick wit and widely considered one of the best comedians of the modern era. His rapid-fire, often impromptu delivery of innuendo-laden patter earned him many admirers and imitators. He made 13 feature films with his siblings the Marx Brothers, of whom he was the third-born. He also had a successful solo career, most notably as the host of the radio and television game show You Bet Your Life.Julius took to the stage as a boy singer in 1905. Though he reputedly claimed that as a vaudevillian he was “hopelessly average,” it was merely a wisecrack. By 1909, Juius and his brothers became a vaudeville singing group. Billed as “The Four Nightingales”, Julius (Groucho), Milton (Gummo Marx), Arthur (Harpo Marx), and another boy singer, Lou Levy, traveled the U.S. vaudeville circuits to little fanfare.

The family moved to La Grange, Illinois, to play the Midwest. After a particularly dispiriting performance, Julius, Milton, and Arthur began cracking jokes onstage for their own amusement. Much to their surprise, the audience liked them better as comedians than as singers, so They modified the then-popular Gus Edwards comedy skit “School Days” and renamed it “Fun In Hi Skule”. For a time in vaudeville all the brothers performed using ethnic accents. Leonard, the oldest, developed the Italian accent he used as Chico Marx to convince some roving bullies that he was Italian, not Jewish. Arthur, the next oldest, donned a curly red wig and became “Patsy Brannigan”, a stereotypical Irish character. His discomfort speaking on stage led to his uncle Al Shean’s suggestion that he stop speaking altogether and play the role in mime and Julius Marx developed a fast-talking wise-guy character that became his trademark.

Groucho Marx made 26 movies, 13 of them with his brothers Chico and Harpo and developed a routine as a wise-cracking hustler with a distinctive chicken-walking lope, an exaggerated greasepaint mustache and eyebrows, and an ever-present cigar, all of which were carried over from his days in vaudeville, improvising insults to stuffy dowagers (often played by Margaret Dumont) and anyone else who stood in his way. As the Marx Brothers, he and his brothers starred in a series of popular stage shows and movies.Their first movie was a silent film made in 1921 & A decade later, the team made some of their Broadway hits into movies, including The Coconauts and Animal Crackers. Other successful films were Monkey Business, Horse Feathers, Duck Soup, and A Night at the Opera. Amazingly off-camera, Harpo and Chico were difficult to recognize by their fans without their wigs and costumes, and it was almost impossible to recognize Groucho without his trademark eye-glasses, fake eyebrows and mustache.

Marx also worked as a radio comedian and show host. One of his earliest stints was in a short-lived series in 1932 Flywheel, Shyster, and Flywheel, co-starring Chico. In 1947, he was chosen to host a radio quiz program You Bet Your Life. Filmed before a live audience, the television show consisted of Marx interviewing the contestants and ad libbing jokes, before playing a brief quiz. The show was responsible for many memorable catchphrases ” Groucho also made a supposed response to a contestant who had nine children, which brought the house down. In response to Marx asking in disbelief why she had so many children, the contestant replied, “I love my husband.” To this, Marx responded, “I love my cigar, too, but I take it out of my mouth once in a while.” and it remains one of the most often quoted “Groucho-isms”. Throughout his career he introduced a number of memorable songs in films, including “Hooray for Captain Spaulding” and “Hello, I Must Be Going”, in Animal Crackers, “Whatever It Is, I’m Against It”, “Everyone Says I Love You” and “Lydia the Tattooed Lady”. Frank Sinatra, who once quipped that the only thing he could do better than Marx was sing, also made a film with Marx and Jane Russell in 1951 entitled Double Dynamite.

Following his death Marx was cremated and the ashes were interred in the Eden Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles. His mausoleum marker bears only his stage name, a Star of David, and the years of his birth and death. The Marx Brothers, continue to remain popular due to their quick fire wit, bizarre humour and comic timing which has also nspired many comics after them.

Regine Chassagne (Arcade Fire)

Regine Chassagne, musician with Arcade Fire was born 19 August 1977. Arcade Fire are based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, consisting of husband and wife Win Butler and Régine Chassagne, along with Will Butler, Richard Reed Parry, Tim Kingsbury, Jeremy Gara, and Sarah Neufeld. The band came to prominence in 2004 with the release of their critically acclaimed debut album Funeral.

Arcade Fire have won numerous awards, including the 2011 Grammy for Album of the Year (they hold the distinction of being the only musical group to have won their first and only Grammy in that category), the 2011 Juno Award for Album of the Year, and the 2011 Brit Award for Best International Album for their third studio album, The Suburbs, released in 2010 to critical acclaim and commercial success. They also won the 2008 meteor Music Award for Best International Album and the 2008 Juno Award for Alternative Album of the Year for their second studio album, Neon Bible. They have also received nominations for the Best Alternative Music Album Grammy for all three of their studio albums.

The band’s work has also been twice named as a short list nominee for the Polaris Music Prize in 2007 for Neon Bible and in 2011 for The Suburbs, winning the award for The Suburbs.The band plays guitar, drums, bass guitar, piano, violin, viola, cello, double bass,xylophone, glockenspiel, keyboard, French horn, accordion, harp, mandolin, and hurdy-gurdy, and take most of these instruments on tour; the multi-instrumentalist band members switch duties throughout shows.

John Deacon (Queen)

John Deacon, the Bass Player with Rock Band Queen was born on 19th August 1951. Deacon grew up in Oadby, Leicestershire, playing bass in a local band, The Opposition, before moving to study electronics at Chelsea College, London. He joined Queen in 1971 on the strength of his musical and electronic skills, particularly the home-made Deacy Amp which guitarist Brian May used to create guitar orchestras throughout Queen’s career. Queen consisted of Freddie Mercury (lead vocals, piano), Brian May (guitar, vocals), John Deacon (bass guitar, guitars), and Roger Taylor (drums, vocals). Queen’s earliest works were influenced by progressive rock, but the band gradually ventured into more conventional and radio-friendly works, incorporating more diverse and innovative styles in their music. .

Before joining Queen, Brian May and Roger Taylor had been playing together in a band named Smile with bassist Tim Staffell. Freddie Mercury (then known as Farrokh/Freddie Bulsara) was a fan of Smile, and encouraged them to experiment with more elaborate stage and recording techniques after Staffell’s departure in 1970. Mercury himself joined the band shortly thereafter, changed the name of the band to “Queen”, and adopted his familiar stage name. John Deacon was recruited prior to recording their eponymous debut album (1973). Queen enjoyed success in the UK with their debut and its follow-up, Queen II (1974).

However it was the release of the albums Sheer Heart Attack (1974) and A Night at the Opera (1975) that gained the band international success. The latter featured “Bohemian Rhapsody”, which stayed at number one in the UK Singles Chart for nine weeks; it charted at number one in several other territories, and gave the band their first top ten hit on the US Billboard Hot 100. Fro Sheer Heart Attack, onwards, Deacon wrote at least one song per album, several of which became hits. As well as bass, Deacon played some guitar and keyboards on Queen’s studio work, but was the only member never to sing on their records

Their 1977 album, News of the World, contained two of rock’s most recognisable anthems, “We Will Rock You” and “We Are the Champions”. Among some of Queen’s other popular songs, are Killer Queen”, “Bohemian Rhapsody”, “Good Old Fashioned Lover Boy”, “We Are the Champions”, “Somebody To Love” and “Don’t Stop Me Now”, “Seven Seas of Rhye”, “Bicycle Race”, “Crazy Little Thing Called Love” and “Play the Game”. Queen have performed an estimated 700 concerts in countries around the world and by the early 1980s they were one of the biggest stadium rock bands in the world, A notable aspect of Queen concerts was the large scale involved.

By the early 1980s, Queen were one of the biggest stadium rock bands in the world, and their performance at Live Aid is regarded as one of the greatest in rock history. Sadly though in 1991, Freddie Mercury tragically died of bronchopneumonia, a complication of AIDS, and Deacon retired in 1997. Since then, May and Taylor have infrequently performed together, including a collaboration with Paul Rodgers under the name Queen + Paul Rodgers which ended in May 2009.The band have released a total of 18 number one albums, 18 number one singles, and 10 number one DVDs. Estimates of their album sales generally range from 150 million to 300 million albums, making them one of the world’s best-selling music artists. They received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the British Phonographic Industry in 1990, and were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2001.

Ian Gillan (Deep Purple)

English rock vocalist and songwriter Ian Gillan was born 19 August 1945 . He was the lead singer and lyricist for Deep Purple.Initially influenced by Elvis Presley, Gillan fronted several groups in the mid sixties, most notably Episode Six, but first found widespread commercial success after joining Deep Purple in 1969. Deep Purple were formed in Hertford in 1968. The band is considered to be among the pioneers of heavy metal and modern hard rock, although their musical approach changed over the years. Originally formed as a progressive rock band, the band shifted to a heavier sound in 1970. Deep Purple, together with Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath, have been referred to as the “unholy trinity of British hard rock and heavy metal in the early to mid-seventies”. They were listed in the 1975 Guinness Book of World Records as “the globe’s loudest band” for a 1972 concert at London’s Rainbow Theatre,and have sold over 100 million albums worldwide.

Deep Purple have had several line-up changes and an eight-year hiatus (1976–1984). The 1968–1976 line-ups are commonly labelled Mark I, II, III and IV. Their second and most commercially successful line-up consisted of Ian Gillan (vocals), Jon Lord (keyboards, backing vocals), Roger Glover (bass), Ian Paice (drums), and Ritchie Blackmore (guitar). This line-up was active from 1969 to 1973, and was revived from 1984 to 1989, and again from 1992 to 1993. The band achieved more modest success in the intervening periods between 1968 and 1969 with the line-up including Rod Evans (lead vocals) and Nick Simper (bass, backing vocals), between 1974 and 1976 (Tommy Bolin replacing Blackmore in 1975) with the line-up including David Coverdale (lead vocals) and Glenn Hughes (bass, vocals), and between 1989 and 1992 with the line-up including Joe Lynn Turner (vocals). The band’s line-up (currently including Ian Gillan, and guitarist Steve Morse from 1994) has been much more stable in recent years, although keyboardist Jon Lord’s retirement from the band in 2002 (being succeeded by Don Airey) left Ian Paice as the only original Deep Purple member still in the band.

After an almost non-stop workload, during which time he recorded six albums in four years, and problematic relationships with other band members, particularly guitarist Ritchie Blackmore, Gillan resigned from the band in June 1973, having given a lengthy notice period to their managers. After a short time away from the music business, he resumed his music career with solo bands the Ian Gillan Band and Gillan, before a year-long stint as the vocalist for Black Sabbath. He rejoined a reformed Deep Purple in 1984, but was fired in 1989. He rejoined the band for a second time in 1992 for their twenty-fifth anniversary, and following the recruitment of guitarist Steve Morse in 1994, has helped transform the group into a regular touring outfit, which he has fronted ever since.

In addition to his main work—performing with Deep Purple and other bands during the 1970s and 1980s—he sang the role of Jesus in the original recording of Andrew Lloyd Webber’s rock opera Jesus Christ Superstar, performed in the charity supergroup Rock Aid Armenia, and engaged in a number of business investments and ventures, including a hotel, a motorcycle manufacturer, and music recording facilities at Kingsway Studios. More recently, he has performed solo concerts concurrently with his latter career in Deep Purple, and his work and affinity with Armenia, combined with his continued friendship with Tony Iommi since his brief time in Black Sabbath, has led to him to form the supergroup WhoCares with Iommi. His solo career outside of Deep Purple was given a comprehensive overview with the Gillan’s Inn box set in 2006.

Deep Purple were ranked number 22 on VH1’s Greatest Artists of Hard Rock programme and a poll on British radio station Planet Rock ranked them 5th among the “most influential bands ever”. The band received the Legend Award at the 2008 World Music Awards. Deep Purple (specifically Blackmore, Lord, Paice, Gillan, Glover, Evans, Coverdale and Hughes) were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2016.

Ginger Baker

Best known as the founder of the rock band Cream, the English drummer Peter Edward “Ginger” Baker was born 19 August 1939 in Lewisham, south London. His mother worked in a tobacco shop; his father, Frederick Louvain Formidable Baker, was a bricklayer and Lance Corporal in the Royal Corps of Signals in WWII who died in the 1943 Dodecanese Campain Baker began playing drums at age 15 around 1954as an outlet for his restless energy. In the 1960’s he took lessons from Phil Seamen one of the leading British jazz drummers of the post-war era. He joined Blues Incorporated, where he met bassist and future Cream bandmate Jack Bruce. The two clashed often, but would be rhythm section partners again in the R&B/blues/ jazz group The Graham Bond Organisation.

In 1966 Baker co-founded the band Cream with guitarist Eric Clapton Jack Bruce. Cream played A fusion of blues, psychedelic rock and hard rock, Baker’s drumming attracted attention for his style, showmanship, and use of two bass drums instead of the conventional one. In his early days, he performed lengthy drum solos, most notably in the Cream song “Toad”, one of the earliest recorded examples in rock music. Cream released four albums in a little over two years before breaking up in 1968.

After Cream Split Baker then joined the short-lived “supergroup” Blind Faith, composed of Clapton, bassist Ric Grech, and Steve Winwood, who was nine years younger than Baker, on keyboards and vocals. They only released one album before breaking up. In 1970 Baker formed, toured and recorded with fusion rock group Ginger Baker’s Air Force. Ginger Baker’s Air Force, Baker spent several years in the 1970s living and recording in Africa, often with Fela Kuti, in pursuit of his long-time interest in African music. Baker lived in Nigeria from 1970 until 1976. He sat in for Fela Kuti during recording sessions in 1971 released by Regal Zonophone as Live! (1971) Fela also appeared with Ginger Baker on Stratavarious (1972) alongside Bobby Gass, a pseudonym for Bobby Tench from the Jeff Beck Group. Stratavarious was later re-issued as part of the compilation Do What You Like.

In 1974 Baker formed Baker Gurvitz Army in 1974 and recorded three albums with them before the band broke up in 1976. In the early 1980s, Baker joined Hawkwind for an album and tour, and in the mid-1980s was part of John Lydon’s Public Image Ltd., the latter leading to occasional collaborations with bassist/producer Bill Laswell. In 1992 Baker played with the hard-rock group Masters of Reality with bassist Googe and singer/guitarist Chris Goss on the album Sunrise on the Sufferbus. In 1994, he formed The Ginger Baker Trio with bassist Charlie Haden and guitarist Bill Frisell. He also joined BBM, a short-lived power trio with the line-up of Baker, Jack Bruce and Irish blues rock guitarist Gary Moore. In 2005, Baker reunited with Eric Clapton and Bruce for a series of Cream concerts at the Royal Albert Hall and Madison Square Garden. The London concerts were recorded and released as Royal Albert Hall London May 2–3–5–6 2005. Baker’s autobiography Hellraiser was published in 2009 and Throughout 2013 and 2014, Baker toured with the Ginger Baker Jazz Confusion, a quartet comprising Baker, saxophonist Pee Wee Ellis, bassist Alec Dankworth and percussionist Abass Dodoo.In 2014, Baker released a new jazz album. Why?, featuring the Ginger Baker Jazz Baker

In 2016, Baker was diagnosed with “serious heart issues” and cancelled all future gigs until further notice. In 2016, Baker underwent pioneering treatment for his heart condition. A heart operation was done in July 2016 with Baker reported to be on the road to recovery. In 2012, the documentary film Beware of Mr. Baker of Ginger Baker’s life by Jay Bulger had its world premiere at South By Southwest in Austin, Texas where it won the grand jury award for best documentary feature. It received its UK premiere on BBC One on 7 July 2015 as part of the channel’s Imagine series. Among Baker’s other collaborations are his work with Gary Moore, Masters of Reality, Public Image Ltd, Atomic Rooster, Bill Laswell, jazz bassist Charlie Haden, jazz guitarist Bill Frisell, and another personally led effort, Ginger Baker’s Energy.

Elvis Presley

Often referred to as the “King of Rock and Roll” or simply “the King”, Elvis Presley suddenly died in August 1977 at the age of 42 after years of Prescription drug abuse and poor diet which had severely compromised his health.

He was born 8th January, 1935 in Tupelo, Mississippi. At the age of 13 Presley moved to Memphis, Tennessee, with his family and began his career there in 1954, working with Sun Records owner Sam Phillips, who wanted to bring the sound of African American music to a wider audience. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was one of the originators of rockabilly, an uptempo, backbeat-driven fusion of country and rhythm and blues. Presley’s rise to national attention in 1956 transformed the field of popular music and had a huge effect on the broader scope of popular culture.

Presley’s first RCA single, “Heartbreak Hotel“, was released in January 1956, and was a number one hit. He became the leading figure of the newly popular sound of rock and roll with a series of network television appearances and chart-topping records. His energized interpretations of songs, many from African American sources, and his uninhibited performance style made him enormously popular—and controversial. In November 1956, he made his film debut in Love Me Tender. He was Conscripted into military service in 1958, and relaunched his recording career two years later with some of his most commercially successful work.

He staged few concerts however, and guided by Colonel Tom Parker, he proceeded to devote much of the 1960s to making Hollywood movies and soundtrack albums, most of them critically derided. In 1968, after seven years away from the stage, he returned to live performance in a celebrated comeback television special that led to an extended Las Vegas concert residency and a string of profitable tours. In 1973 Presley staged the first concert broadcast globally via satellite, Aloha from Hawaii, seen by approximately 1.5 billion viewers.

Presley is regarded as one of the most important figures of 20th-century popular culture. He had a versatile voice and unusually wide success encompassing many genres, including country, pop ballads, gospel, and blues. He is the best-selling solo artist in the history of popular music. Nominated for 14 competitive Grammys, he won three, and received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36. He has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame, and is regarded As the catalyst for the cultural revolution that was rock and roll, he was central not only to defining it as a musical genre but in making it a touchstone of youth culture and rebellious attitude. His name, image, and voice are instantly recognizable around the globe, and in In polls and surveys, he is recognized as one of the most important popular music artists and influential Americans.

“Elvis Presley is the greatest cultural force in the twentieth century”, said composer and conductor Leonard Bernstein. “He introduced the beat to everything and he changed everything—music, language, clothes. It’s a whole new social revolution—the sixties came from it.” Bob Dylan described the sensation of first hearing Presley as “like busting out of jail”. A New York Times editorial on the 25th anniversary of Presley’s death observed, “All the talentless impersonators and appalling black velvet paintings on display can make him seem little more than a perverse and distant memory. But before Elvis was camp, he was its opposite: a genuine cultural force. … Elvis’s breakthroughs are underappreciated because in this rock-and-roll age, his hard-rocking music and sultry style have triumphed so completely.” Not only Presley’s achievements, but his failings as well, are seen by some cultural observers as adding to the power of his legacy.

Elvis Presley remains a supreme figure in American life, one whose presence, no matter how banal or predictable, brooks no real comparisons, The cultural range of his music has expanded to the point where it includes not only the hits of the day, but also patriotic recitals, pure country gospel, and really dirty blues. Elvis emerged as a great artist, a great rocker, a great purveyor of schlock, a great heart throb, a great bore, a great symbol of potency, a great ham, a great nice person, and a great American.

Madonna

American singer-songwriter, actress, author, director, entrepreneur and philanthropist Madonna Louise Ciccone was born August 16, 1958 in Bay City, Michigan. In 1977 she moved to New York City to pursue a career in modern dance and performed in the music groups Breakfast Club and Emmy. In 1982, Madonna signed with Sire Records (an affiliate of Warner Bros. Records) and her debut single, “Everybody”, was released in 1982, and the second, “Burning Up”, in March 1983. Madonna Asked boyfriend John “Jellybean” Benitez, To help Produce her eponymous debut album, Madonna. Benitez remixed most of the tracks and produced “Holiday”, which was her third single and her first international top-ten hit. The album contained upbeat synthetic disco,and was released in 1983 containing the hits “Holiday”, “Borderline” and “Lucky Star”. Madonna’s look, style of dressing, performances, and her music videos influenced young girls and women. Her style became one of the female fashion trends of the 1980s. Created by stylist and jewelry designer Maripol, the look consisted of lace tops, skirts over capri pants, fishnet stockings, jewelry bearing the crucifix, bracelets, and bleached hair.

Madonna achieved global recognition after the release of her second studio album, Like a Virgin, in 1984 Containing The title track, “Like a Virgin”. However it attracted controversy and many organizations who complained that the song and its accompanying video promoted premarital sex and undermined family values, and moralists sought to have the song and video banned. Madonna was also criticized for her performance of “Like a Virgin” at the first 1984 MTV Video Music Awards (VMA) when She appeared on stage atop a giant wedding cake, wearing a wedding dress and white gloves. The performance is noted by MTV as an iconic moment in VMA history. The next hit was “Material Girl” with a video inspired by Marilyn Monroe’s performance of the song “Diamonds Are a Girl’s Best Friend” from the 1953 film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes.Madonna started dating actor Sean Penn. They married on her birthday in 1985.

In 1985 Madonna appeared as a club singer in The romantic drama Vision Quest, the soundtrack contained two new singles, “Crazy for You” and “Gambler”. She also played the title role in the 1985 comedy film Desperately Seeking Susan, containing the song “Into the Groove”. In 1985, Madonna embarked on The Virgin concert Tour, with the Beastie Boys as her opening act. She progressed from playing CBGB and the Mudd Club to playing large sporting arenas. She also released two more songs, “Angel” and “Dress You Up”. In July, Penthouse and Playboy magazines published a number of nude photos of Madonna, taken in New York in 1978. She had posed for the photographs as she needed money at the time, and was paid as little as $25 a session. The photographs were ultimately sold for up to $100,000. She referred to these events at the 1985 outdoor Live Aid charity concert, saying that she would not take her jacket off because “the media might hold it against me ten years from now.”

In June 1986, Madonna released her third studio album, True Blue, which was inspired by and dedicated to Sean Penn.and contained the songs “Live to Tell”, “Papa Don’t Preach” and “Open Your Heart”,”True Blue” and “La Isla Bonita”. Madonna also starred in the critically panned film Shanghai Surprise, for which she received her first Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Actress. She made also her theatrical debut in a production of David Rabe’s Goose and Tom-Tom; the film and play both co-starred Penn. In 1987 Madonna was featured in the film Who’s That Girl. She contributed four songs to its soundtrack, including “who’s that Girl?” and “Causing a Commotion”. In 1987 Madonna embarked on the Who’s That Girl World Tour. In 1987 she also released a remix album of past hits, titled You Can Dance. Madonna also filed for divorce from Penn in January 1989, citing irreconcilable differences.

In 1989, Madonna signed a deal with soft-drink manufacturer, Pepsi. In one of her Pepsi commercials, she debuted her song “Like a Prayer”. The corresponding music video featured many Catholic symbols such as stigmata and cross burning, and a dream of making love to a saint, leading the Vatican to condemn the video. Religious groups sought to ban the commercial and boycott Pepsi products. Pepsi revoked the commercial and canceled her sponsorship contract. “Like a Prayer” appeared on Madonna’s fourth studio album, Like a Prayer, which was co-written and co-produced by Patrick Leonard and Stephen Bray and contained the songs “Like a Prayer”, “Express Yourself”, “Cherish”, In 1990 Madonna starred as Breathless Mahoney in the film Dick Tracy with Warren Beatty playing the title role.Her performance led to a Saturn Award nomination for Best Actress. To accompany the film, she released the soundtrack album, I’m Breathless, which included songs inspired by the film’s 1930s setting. It also featured the songs “Vogue” and “Sooner or Later”, which earned songwriter Stephen Sondheim an Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1991. In 1990, Madonna embarked on her Blond Ambition World Tour, Which caused controversy and generated strong negative reaction from religious groups for her performance of “Like a Virgin”, during which two male dancers caressed her body before she simulated masturbation. The Laserdisc release of the tour won Madonna a Grammy Award in 1992 for Best Long Form Music Video. In 1990 Madonna released the Greatest-hits compilation album,”The Immaculate Collection” Including new songs, “Justify My Love” and “Rescue Me” The album was certified diamond by RIAA and sold over 30 million copies worldwide, becoming the best-selling compilation album by a solo artist in history. Madonna again courted controversy in the video for “Justify My Love” which featured scenes of sadomasochism, bondage, same-sex kissing, and brief nudity. In 1990 Madonna Pulled out of Jennifer Lynch’s film, Boxing Helena. Madonna had an eight-month relationship with rapper Vanilla Ice; he ended their relationship because of Madonna’s Sex book. Her first documentary film Truth or Dare (known as In Bed with Madonna outside North America)[86] was released in May 1991 and Chronicled her Blond Ambition World Tour.

In 1992, Madonna Starred in the film A League of Their Own as Mae Mordabito, a baseball player on an all-women’s team. She also recorded the film’s theme song, “This Used to Be My Playground”. She also founded her own entertainment company, Maverick in 1992, consisting of a record company (Maverick Records), a film production company (Maverick Films), and associated music publishing, television broadcasting, book publishing and merchandising divisions. The deal was a joint venture with Time Warner.The first release from the venture was Madonna’s book, titled Sex. It consisted of sexually provocative and explicit images, photographed by Steven Meisel. The book again caused controversy and received strong negative reaction from the media and the general public.she also released her fifth studio album, Erotica, containing The singles: “Deeper and Deeper”, “Bad Girl”, “Fever”, “Rain” and “Bye Bye Baby”. Madonna also featured in the 1993 erotic thriller, Body of Evidence, a film which contained scenes of sadomasochism and bondage and also starred in the film Dangerous Game, which was described as “angry and painful, and the pain feels real.” in 1993, Madonna embarked on The Girlie Show World Tour, in which she dressed as a whip-cracking dominatrix surrounded by topless dancers. In Puerto Rico she rubbed the island’s flag between her legs on stage, causing outrage among the audience. in 1994, she caused further controversy on the Late Show with David Letterman, using profanity that required censorship on television, and handing Letterman a pair of her panties and asking him to smell it. The releases of her sexually explicit films, albums and book, and the aggressive appearance on Letterman all made critics question Madonna as a sexual renegade.

She later released the ballad “I’ll Remember” in an attempt to tone down her provocative image, which was recorded for Alek Keshishian’s film With Honors. She made a subdued appearance with Letterman at an awards show and appeared on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. In 1994 Madonna released her sixth studio album, Bedtime Stories which Had a softer image to try to improve the public perception. It featured the songs, “Secret”, “Take a Bow”, “You’ll See”, “One More Chance”, and a cover of Marvin Gaye’s “I Want You”.Madonna started dating rapper Tupac Shakur, but it ended in 1994. Next year, the rapper revealed in a letter to the singer that he ended the relationship because she was white. She later became romantically involved with fitness trainer Carlos Leon. In 1996 Madonna starred in the musical Evita, Playing the title role of Eva Perón whom Madonna had always wanted to portray, so she asked director Alan Parker. She had vocal training and learned about the history of Argentina and Perón. During shooting she became ill several times due to the intense emotional effort required. After its release, Evita garnered critical appreciation and Madonna won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in Motion Picture Musical or Comedy for the role. She released three singles from the Evita soundtrack album, including “You Must Love Me” (which won an Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1997) and “Don’t Cry for Me Argentina”. Madonna was later presented with the Artist Achievement Award by Tony Bennett at the 1996 Billboard Music Awards.

PART TWO

On October 14, 1996, Madonna gave birth to Lourdes Maria Ciccone Leon, her daughter with Leon. However Her relationship with Carlos Leon ended 1997. After Lourdes’s birth, Madonna became involved in Eastern mysticism and Kabbalah. She was also introduced to Jewish mysticism by actress Sandra Bernhard in 1997. Madonna’s seventh album, Ray of Light, was released in 1998 and She collaborated with electronica producer William Orbit to create a sound that could blend dance music with pop and British rock. Techno and rave was happening in the 90s and had a lot of different forms Such as very experimental, hard stuff like Aphex Twin and party stuff like Fatboy Slim. Ray of Light was honored with four Grammy Awards—including Best Pop Album and Best Dance Recording—and was nominated for both Album of the Year and Record of the Year Rolling Stone listed it among “The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time”. It featured the songs, “Frozen” and “Ray of Light”. In 1999, Madonna recorded the single “Beautiful Stranger” for the film Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me, which earned her a Grammy Award for Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media. Madonna also starred in the 2000 film The Next Best Thing, and contributed two songs to the film’s soundtrack; “Time Stood Still” and a cover of Don McLean’s 1971 song “American Pie”.

In 2000 Madonna Collaborated with French producer Mirwais Ahmadzaï, and released her eighth studio album, Music, which featured elements from the electronica-inspired Ray of Light era. “Music”, “Don’t Tell Me”, and “What It Feels Like for a Girl” The music video of “What It Feels Like for a Girl” depicted Madonna committing acts of crime and vandalism, and was banned by MTV and VH1. In 1998 She met director Guy Ritchie, who would become her second husband, and gave birth to their son Rocco John Ritchie on August 11, 2000 in Los Angeles. Rocco however Madonna suffered complications from the birth due to her experiencing placenta praevia. He was christened at Dornoch Cathedral in Dornoch, Scotland, on December 21, 2000. Madonna married Ritchie the following day at nearby Skibo Castle. In 2001 Madonna embarked on Her fifth concert tour, titled Drowned World Tour, Visiting cities in the U.S. and Europe She also released her second greatest-hits collection, titled GHV2, to coincide with the home video release of the tour. Madonna then starred in the film Swept Away, directed by Ritchie And appeared in London in the West End play Up For Grabs at the Wyndhams Theatre (billed as ‘Madonna Ritchie’) in 2002. She also released “Die Another Day”, the title song for the James Bond film Die Another Day, in which she had a cameo role. The song was nominated for both a Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song and a Golden Raspberry for Worst Song.

Following Die Another Day, Madonna collaborated with fashion photographer Steven Klein in 2003 for an exhibition installation named X-STaTIC Pro=CeSS in New York’s Deitch Projects gallery. It included photography from a photo shoot in W magazine, and seven video segments. Madonna also released her ninth studio album, American Life in 2003, which was based on her observations of American society. However the original music video was canceled as Madonna thought that the video, featuring violence and war imagery, would be deemed unpatriotic since America was then at war with Iraq. Madonna gave another provocative performance at the 2003 MTV Video Music Awards, while singing “Hollywood” with Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, and Missy Elliott. Madonna sparked controversy for kissing Spears and Aguilera suggestively during the performance. Madonna provided guest vocals on Spears’ single “Me Against the Music”. Followed by the release of Remixed & Revisited which contained remixed versions of songs from American Life and included “Your Honesty”,

Madonna also signed a contract with Callaway Arts & Entertainment to be the author of five children’s books. Including The English Roses, which was about four English schoolgirls and their envy and jealousy of each other. In 2004 Madonna and Maverick sued Warner Music Group and Time Warner, claiming that mis management of resources and poor bookkeeping had cost the company millions of dollars In return, Warner countersued alleging that Maverick had lost tens of millions of dollars by itself. The dispute was resolved when the Maverick shares, owned by Madonna and Ronnie Dashev, were purchased by Warner. Madonna and Dashev’s company became a wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Music. In 2004 Madonna embarked on the Re-Invention World Tour in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. Which became the subject of her documentary I’m Going to Tell You a Secret. Madonna was also inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame as one of its five founding members, along with The Beatles, Elvis Presley, Bob Marley, and U2. Rolling Stone ranked her at number 36 on its special issue of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. In 2005, Madonna performed a cover version of the John Lennon song “Imagine” at Tsunami Aid and also performed at the Live 8 benefit concert in London in July 2005. Madonna also released Her tenth studio album, Confessions on a Dance Floor, which won a Grammy Award for Best Electronic/Dance Album and featured the song, “Hung Up”, which went on to reach number one in 40 and 41 countries respectively, earning a place in Guinness World Record. The song contained a sample of ABBA’s “Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Midnight)”, ABBA songwriter Björn Ulvaeus remarked “It is a wonderful track—100 per cent solid pop music.” The second single was “Sorry”.

In 2006 Madonna embarked on the Confessions Tour again causing controversy by using religious symbols, such as the crucifix and Crown of Thorns, in the performance of “Live to Tell”. This caused the Russian Orthodox Church and the Federation of Jewish Communities of Russia to urge all their members to boycott her concert. the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) announced officially that Madonna had sold over 200 million copies of her albums. While on tour Madonna participated in the Raising Malawi initiative by partially funding an orphanage in and traveling to that country. While there, she decided to adopt a boy named David Banda in October 2006. The adoption caused more controversy, because Malawian law requires would-be parents to reside in Malawi for one year before adopting, which Madonna did not do. Madonna also launched A clothing line titled M by Madonna, in collaboration with Swedish clothing retailer H&M, Consisting of leather trench coats, sequined shift dresses, cream-colored calf-length pants, and matching cropped jackets. H&M said the collection reflected Madonna’s “timeless, unique and always glamorous style.”

PART THREE

Madonna released the song “Hey You” for the Live Earth series of concerts. She also performed it at the London Live Earth concert. Madonna also produced and wrote I Am Because We Are, a documentary on the problems faced by Malawians which was directed by Nathan Rissman, who worked as Madonna’s gardener. She also directed her first film Filth and Wisdom which concerns three friends and their aspirations. In 2008, Madonna was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in her first year of eligibility. Madonna did not sing at the ceremony but asked fellow Hall of Fame inductees and Michigan natives The Stooges to perform her songs “Burning Up” and “Ray of Light”. In 2008 Madonna released her eleventh studio album, Hard Candy, Which had R&B and urban pop influences, and featured collaborations with Justin Timberlake, Timbaland, Pharrell Williams and Nate “Danja” Hills. It contained the song “4 Minutes” which became Madonna’s 37th top-ten hit and pushed Madonna past Elvis Presley as the artist with the most top-ten hits. At the 23rd Japan Gold Disc Awards, Madonna received her fifth Artist of the Year trophy from Recording Industry Association of Japan. Madonna also embarked on the Sticky & Sweet Tour; which became second highest-grossing tour of all time, behind The Rolling Stones’s A Bigger Bang Tour and remained the highest-grossing tour by a solo artist until Roger Waters’ The Wall Live in 2013. a book by Madonna’s brother Christopher “Life with My Sister Madonna,” was also published. In 2008 Madonna filed for divorce from Ritchie, citing irreconcilable differences. Madonna then decided to adopt a child from Malawi. The country’s High Court initially approved the adoption of Chifundo “Mercy” James; however, the application was rejected because Madonna was not a resident of the country. Madonna appealed, and on June 12, 2009, the Supreme Court of Malawi granted Madonna the right to adopt Mercy James.

In 2009 Madonna released her third greatest-hits album, Celebration, Containing the new songs “Celebration” and “Revolver” along with 34 hits. She also appeared at the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards, to pay tribute to deceased pop star Michael Jackson. In 2010 Madonna performed at the Hope for Haiti Now: A Global Benefit for Earth quake Relief concert and released Her third live album, Sticky & Sweet Tour. It also became her 20th top-ten album on the Oricon Albums Chart, breaking The Beatles’ record for the most top-ten album by an international act in Japan. An episode of The American television show Glee also featured eight cover versions of Madonna songs. Madonna then released the 1980’s inspired Material Girl clothing line, which she designed with her daughter, Lourdes and opened a series of fitness centers around the world named Hard Candy Fitness. Madonna and MG Icon also released the second fashion brand called Truth or Dare by Madonna to include footwear, underclothing, and accessories.

In 2011 Madonna directed her second feature film, W.E., a biographical film about the affair between King Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson. Co-written with Alek Keshishian it premiered at the 68th Venice International Film Festival in September 2011. Madonna contributed the ballad “Masterpiece” for the film’s soundtrack, which won her a Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song. In 2012 Madonna performed at Super Bowl XLVI halftime show,visualized by Cirque Du Soleil and Jamie King and featured special guests LMFAO, Nicki Minaj, M.I.A. and Cee Lo Green. Madonna also released Her twelfth studio album, MDNA and collaborated with various producers including William Orbit and Martin Solveig. The song “Give Me All Your Luvin’”, also featured guest vocals from Minaj. However The subsequent MDNA Tour, featured controversial subjects such as violence, firearms, human rights, nudity and politics. Madonna won Top Touring Artist, Top Dance Artist and Top Dance Album At the 2013 Billboard Music Awards, and was named the top-earning celebrity of the year by Forbes. Madonna’s also released her fourth live album, MDNA World Tour, in 2013. Madonna’s Raising Malawi organization had also built ten schools to educate 4,000 children in Malawi

In 2013 Madonna Released a 17-minute film called secretprojectrevolution Working with photographer Steven Klein. The BitTorrent company was selected by Madonna to release the film as part of a Madonna bundle which consisted of the 17-minute film, its stills, a Vice interview, and a message from Madonna With the film she launched the Art for Freedom initiative, which helped to promote “art and free speech as a means to address persecution and injustice across the globe”. The website for the project has had over 3,000 art related submissions since its inception, with Madonna regularly monitoring and enlisting other artists like David Blaine and Katy Perry as guest curators. Madonna released thirteenth studio album, Rebel Heart, in 2015 collaborating with Avicii, Diplo and Kanye West, and also embarked on the Rebel Heart Tour throughout North America, Europe and Asia and Australia. Madonna became embroiled in a legal battle with Ritchie, over the custody of their son Rocco. The dispute started when Rocco decided to continue living in England with Ritchie when the Rebel Heart Tour had visited there, while Madonna wanted him to return with her. Madonna eventually decided to withdraw her application for custody, and appealed for a mutual discussion about Rocco, between herself and Ritchie. During 2014 Madonna visited her hometown of Detroit and contributed funds to three of the city’s organizations, to help eliminate poverty. Extending her business ventures, the singer premiered MDNA Skin in 2014, a range of skin care products in Tokyo, Japan.In 2016 Billboard named Madonna its Woman of the Year. Her “blunt and brutally honest” speech at the ceremony received widespread coverage in the media.

Her upcoming projects include co-writing and directing a film adaptation of Andrew Sean Greer’s novel, The Impossible Lives of Greta Wells. Tentatively titled Loved, the film would portray the protagonist’s relationship with her gay twin brother Felix . In November 2016, Madonna, who actively supported Hillary Clinton during the 2016 U.S. presidential election, performed an impromptu acoustic concert at Washington Square Park in support of Clinton’s campaign. Upset that Donald Trump won the election, Madonna spoke out against him at the Women’s March on Washington, a day after his inauguration. In 2017, Madonna also adopted four-year-old twin sisters from Malawi named Esther and Stella.