World day to combat desertification and drought

The World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought takes place each June 17. The purpose of the world Day to combat desertification and drought is to educate people concerning the causes of drought and highlight ways to prevent desertification and recover from drought. Each annual celebration has a different theme. Desertification is a type of land degradation in which relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife. It is caused by a variety of factors, such as through climate change and through the overexploitation of soil through human activities. When deserts appear automatically over the natural course of a planet’s life cycle, then it can be called a natural phenomenon; however, when deserts emerge due to the rampant and unchecked depletion of nutrients in soil that are essential for it to remain arable, then a virtual “soil death” can be spoken of, which traces its cause back to human overexploitation. Desertification is a significant global ecological and environmental problem. Desertification is defined as “the process of fertile land transforming into desert typically as a result of deforestation, drought or improper/ inappropriate agriculture”. Desertification Is defined by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) as “land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities.

The world’s most noted deserts were formed by natural processes interacting over long intervals of time. During most of these times, deserts have grown and shrunk independent of human activities. Paleodeserts are large sand seas now inactive because they are stabilized by vegetation, some extending beyond the present margins of core deserts, such as the Sahara, the largest hot desert. The immediate cause of desertification is the loss of most vegetation. This is driven by a number of factors, such as drought, climatic shifts, tillage for agriculture, overgrazing and deforestation for fuel or construction materials. Vegetation plays a major role in determining the biological composition of the soil. Studies have shown that, in many environments, the rate of erosion and runoff decreases exponentially with increased vegetation cover. Unprotected, dry soil surfaces blow away with the wind or are washed away by flash floods, leaving infertile lower soil layers that bake in the sun and become an unproductive hard the controlled movement of herds of livestock, mimicking herds of grazing wildlife, may help to reverse desertification.

Desertification has played a significant role in human history, contributing to the collapse of several large empires, such as Carthage, Greece, and the Roman Empire, as well as causing displacement of local populations. Historical evidence shows that the serious and extensive land deterioration occurring several centuries ago in arid regions had three epicenters: the Mediterranean, the Mesopotamian Valley, and the Loess Plateau of China, where population was dense. At least 90% of the inhabitants of drylands live in developing nations, where they also suffer from poor economic and social conditions. This situation is exacerbated by land degradation because of the reduction in productivity, the precariousness of living conditions and the difficulty of access to resources and opportunities. A downward spiral is created in many underdeveloped countries by overgrazing, land exhaustion and overdrafting of groundwater in many of the marginally productive world regions due to overpopulation pressures to exploit marginal drylands for farming. Decision-makers are understandably averse to invest in arid zones with low potential. This absence of investment contributes to the marginalisation of these zones. When unfavourable agro-climatic conditions are combined with an absence of infrastructure and access to markets, as well as poorly adapted production techniques and an underfed and undereducated population, most such zones are excluded from development. Desertification often causes rural lands to become unable to support the same sized populations that previously lived there. This results in mass migrations out of rural areas and into urban areas, particularly in Africa. These migrations into the cities often cause large numbers of unemployed people, who end up living in slums.

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development declares that “we are determined to protect the planet from degradation, including through sustainable consumption and production, sustainably managing its natural resources and taking urgent action on climate change, so that it can support the needs of the present and future generations”. Specifically, SDG Goal 15: Life on Land states the resolve of the United Nations and the SDG signatory nations to halt and reverse land degradationTechniques and countermeasures exist for mitigating or reversing the effects of desertification. One controversial solution is to manager population growth. Another way of mitigating Desertification is to adopt sustainable agricultural practices. However the costs of adopting these sometimes exceed the financial benefits for individual farmers, even while they are socially and environmentally beneficial. Another issue is a lack of political will, and lack of funding to support land reclamation and anti-desertification programs.

Desertification is recognized as a major threat to biodiversity. Some countries have developed Biodiversity Action Plans to counter its effects, particularly in relation to the protection of endangered flora and fauna. Reforestation can help stop one root cause of desertification and is not just treat of the symptoms. In many places deforestation and desertification are contributing to extreme poverty and many organisations focus on educating the local population about the dangers of deforestation and sometimes employ them to grow seedlings, which they transfer to severely deforested areas during the rainy season. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations launched the FAO Drylands Restoration Initiative in 2012 to draw together knowledge and experience on dryland restoratio In 2015, FAO published global guidelines for the restoration of degraded forests and landscapes in drylands, in collaboration with the Turkish Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs and the Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Age.

Currently, one of the major methods that has been finding success in this battle with desertification is China’s “Great Green Wall.” This plan was proposed in the late 70’s, and has become a major ecological engineering project involving the planting of nearly 66,000,000,000 tress planted in China’s great green wall. It’s success depends upon providing enough water, Fixating and hyper-fertilizing soil. Fixating the soil is often done through the use of shelter belts, woodlots and windbreaks. Windbreaks are made from trees and bushes and are used to reduce soil erosion and evapotranspirati. Due to lack of water some soils can become consolidated rather than porous (as in the case of sandy soils. techniques such as zaï or tillage are then used to still allow the planting of crop

Another technique that is useful is contour trenching. This involves the digging of 150m long, 1m deep trenches in the soil. The trenches are made parallel to the height lines of the landscape, preventing the water from flowing within the trenches and causing erosion. Stone walls are placed around the trenches to prevent the trenches from closing up again. The method was invented by Peter Westerveld. Enriching of the soil and restoration of its fertility is often done by plants. Of these, leguminous plants which extract nitrogen from the air and fix it in the soil, and food crops/trees as grains, barley, beans and dates are the most important. Sand fences can also be used to control drifting of soil and sand erosion. Some research centra (such as Bel-Air Research Center IRD/ISRA/UCAD) are also experimenting with the inoculation of tree species with mycorrhiza in arid zones. The mycorrhiza are basically fungi attaching themselves to the roots of the plants. They create a symbiotic relation with the trees, increasing the surface area of the tree’s roots greatly (allowing the tree to gather much more nutrients from the soil.

As there are many different types of deserts, there are also different methods to stop desertification. For instance the salt-flats in the Rub’ al Khali desert in Saudi-Arabia are one of the most promising desert areas for seawater agriculture and could be revitalized without the use of freshwater or much energy. Farmer-managed natural regeneration (FMNR) is another technique that has produced successful results for desert reclamation. Since 1980, this method to reforest degraded landscape has been applied with some success in Niger. This simple and low-cost method has enabled farmers to regenerate some 30,000 square kilometers in Niger. The process involves enabling native sprouting tree growth through selective pruning of shrub shoots. The residue from pruned trees can be used to provide mulching for fields thus increasing soil water retention and reducing evaporation. Additionally, properly spaced and pruned trees can increase crop yields. The Humbo Assisted Regeneration Project which uses FMNR techniques in Ethiopia has received money from The World Bank’s BioCarbon Fund, which supports projects that sequester or conserve carbon in forests or agricultural ecosystems.


More International and National Holidays and events happening on 17 June

  • National Apple Strudel Day
  • National Cherry Tart Day
  • National Eat Your Vegetables Day
  • Stewart’s Root Beer Day
  • Work@Home Father’s Day

National Beer Day (UK)

The United Kingdom’s National Beer Day takes place annually on 15 June in Britain. It was introduced by beer sommelier, writer and drinks educator Jane Peyton in 2015. The main focus of the day is the National Cheers To Beer that takes place at 7 pm when people also sing the Cheers To Beer anthem co-written by Jane Peyton.

Beer is the world’s oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drink; it is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea. The production of beer is called brewing, which involves the fermentation of sugars, mainly derived from cereal grain starches—most commonly from malted barley, although wheat, maize (corn), and rice are widely used. Most beer is flavoured with hops, which add bitterness and act as a natural preservative, though other flavourings such as herbs or fruit may occasionally be included. The fermentation process causes a natural carbonation effect, although this is often removed during processing, and replaced with forced carbonation. Some of humanity’s earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, and “The Hymn to Ninkasi”, a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people.

Beer is sold in bottles and cans; it may also be available on draught, particularly in pubs and bars. The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. The strength of beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (abv), although it may vary between 0.5% and 20%, with some breweries creating examples of 40% abv and above. Beer forms part of the culture of beer-drinking nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling, and pub games such as bar billiards. The date was chosen because 15 June is also the date that Magna Carta was sealed in 1215 and ale is mentioned in clause 35 of Magna Carta, which states:

Let there be throughout our kingdom a single measure for wine and a single measure for ale and a single measure for corn, namely ‘the London quarter

Ale, along with bread, was an important source of nutrition in the medieval world, particularly small beer, also known as table beer or mild beer, which was highly nutritious, contained just enough alcohol to act as a preservative, and provided hydration without intoxicating effects. Small beer would have been consumed daily by almost everyone, including children, in the medieval world, with higher-alcohol ales served for recreational purposes. The lower cost for proprietors combined with the lower taxes levied on small beer led to the selling of beer labeled “strong beer” that had actually been diluted with small be. In medieval times, ale may have been safer to drink than most water (the germ theory of disease was unheard of, and the sterilizing properties of boiling unknown); however, there is no period evidence that people were aware of this nor that they chose to drink ale for this reason. The alcohol, hops and fruit used to preserve some ales may have contributed to their lower load of pathogens, when compared to water. However, ale was largely safer due to the hours of boiling required in production, not the alcoholic content of the finished beverage.

Brewing ale in the Middle Ages was a local industry primarily pursued by women. Brewsters, or alewives, would brew in the home for both domestic consumption and small scale commercial sale. Brewsters provided a substantial supplemental income for families; however, only in select few cases, as was the case for widows, was brewing considered the primary income of the household. The word ale is related to the Old English alu or ealu, aloth and ealoth in the genitive and dative. It is believed to stem from Proto-Indo-European root *alu-, through Proto-Germanic *aluth- This is a cognate of Old Saxon alo, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Icelandic and Old Norse öl/øl, Finnish olut, Estonian õlu, Old Bulgarian olu cider, Slovenian ol, Old Prussian alu, Lithuanian alus, Latvian alus. Ale is typically fermented at temperatures between 15 and 24 °C (60 and 75 °F). At temperatures above 24 °C (75 °F) the yeast can produce significant amounts of esters and other secondary flavour and aroma products, and the result is often a beer with slightly “fruity” compounds resembling those found in fruits such as, but not limited to: apple, pear, pineapple, banana, plum, cherry, or prune.

There are many Varieties of ale including Brown ales which tend to be lightly hopped, and fairly mildly flavoured, often with a nutty taste. In the south of England they are dark brown, around 3-3.5% alcohol and quite sweet; in the north they are red-brown, 4.5-5% and drier. English brown ales first appeared in the early 1900s, with Manns Brown Ale and Newcastle Brown Ale as the best-known examples. The style became popular with homebrewers in North America in the early 1980s; Pete’s Wicked Ale is an example, similar to the English original but substantially hoppier. Pale ale was a term used for beers made from malt dried with coke which was first used for roasting malt in 1642, but it wasn’t until around 1703 that the term pale ale was first used.

By 1784 advertisements were appearing in the Calcutta Gazette for “light and excellent” pale ale[citation needed]. By 1830 onward the expressions bitter and pale ale were synonymous.[citation needed]. Breweries would tend to designate beers as pale ale, though customers would commonly refer to the same beers as bitter. It is thought that customers used the term bitter to differentiate these pale ales from other less noticeably hopped beers such as porter and mild. By the mid to late 20th century, while brewers were still labelling bottled beers as pale ale, they had begun identifying cask beers as bitter, except those from Burton on Trent, which tend to be referred to as pale ales regardless of the method of dispatch.

IPA Was created During the nineteenth century, when beers from the Bow Brewery in England were exported to India, among them a pale ale which was able to ferment further during the lengthy voyage and became highly regarded among its consumers in India. Normally Most beers would spoil during a long voyage so To avoid this, extra hops were added as a natural preservative. This beer was the first of a style of export ale that became known as India Pale Ale or IPA. It was appreciated in India for its light and refreshing character, which was ideal in the hot climate of that country.

Developed in hope of winning the younger people away from drinking lager in favour of cask ales, it is quite similar to pale ale yet there are some notable differences—it is paler, brewed with lager or low temperature ale malts and it is served at colder temperatures. The strength of golden ales varies from 3.5% to 5.3%. Scotch Ales are a malty, strong ale, amber-to-dark red in colour. The malt may be slightly caramelised to impart toffee notes; generally, Scottish beers tend to be rather sweeter, darker and less hoppy than English ones. The classic styles are Light, Heavy and Export, also referred to as 60/-, 70/- and 80/- (shillings) respectively, dating back to the 19th century method of invoicing beers according to their strength.

Barley wines range from 10% to 12%, with some stored for long periods of time, about 18 to 24 months. While drinking barley wine, one should be prepared to taste “massive sweet malt and ripe fruit of the pear drop, orange and lemon type, with darker fruits, chocolate and coffee if darker malts are used. Hop rates are generous and produce bitterness and peppery, grassy and floral notes”. Mild ale originally meant unaged ale, the opposite of old ale. It can be any strength or colour, although most are dark brown and low in strength, typically between 3 and 3.5%. An example of a lighter coloured mild is Banks’s Mild. Burton ale on the other hand, is a strong, dark, somewhat sweet ale sometimes used as a stock ale for blending with younger beers. Bass No.1 was a classic example of Burton ale. Fullers 1845 Celebration Ale is considered by some to be a rare modern example of a Burton ale.

Old ale was strong beer traditionally kept for about a year, gaining sharp, acetic flavours as it did so. The term is now applied to medium-strong dark beers, some of which are treated to resemble the traditional old ales. In Australia, the term is used even less discriminately, and is a general name for any dark beer.

Belgium produces a wide variety of speciality ales. Virtually all Belgian ales are high in alcoholic content but relatively light in body due to the substitution of part of the grist for sucrose, which provides an alcohol boost without adding unfermentable material to the finished product. This process is often said to make a beer more digestible.

International and National events happening on 12 June

  • Peanut Butter Cookie Day
  • Little League Girls Baseball Day
  • National Jerky Day
  • National Loving Day
  • National Red Rose Day
  • Orlando United Day
  • International Falafel Day
  • Crowded Nest Awareness Day
  • World Day Against Child Labour

Peanut butter cookie Day

Peanut Butter Cookie Day takes place annually on 12 June. Peanut Butter can trace its roots back to the time of the Aztecs and the Incas who were making a paste of peanuts at least 3,500 years ago, but the modern version is claimed by several inventive types, including Dr. John Kellogg, and its popularity became assured by its appearance at the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair. The Peanut Butter Cookie is even harder to track, but George Washington Carver became a much-sought-after speaker between 1916 and 1933. One of his most frequent topics: the many uses of the peanut.


LITTLE LEAGUE GIRLS BASEBALL DAY

Little League Girls Baseball Day commemorates the occasion of 12 June 1950 when A girl plays an entire season with a team in New York, until the Little League organization institutes a ban on girls in Little League. The ban stays on the books until 1974, when the National Organization for Women (NOW) backs Maria Pepe in a discrimination lawsuit in which the New Jersey Superior Court decides that Little League must allow girls to try out.


LOVING DAY

Loving Day takes place annually on 12 June to commemorate the date of 12 June 1967 when Mildred and Richard Loving were were sentenced to a year in prison for marrying each other, a violation of Virginia’s Racial Integrity Act of 1924, because she is black and he is white. They bring suit, and the U.S. Supreme Court makes a unanimous decision in Loving v. Virginia that the Virginia law is unconstitutional, ending all race-based restriction on marriage in the U.S.


National Jerky Day

National Jerky Day takes place annually on 12 June. It was launched 12 June 2012 by Jack Link’s Beef Jerky. Jerky is lean trimmed meat that has been cut into strips and dried (dehydrated) to prevent spoilage. Normally, this drying includes the addition of salt to prevent bacteria grow before the meat has finished the dehydrating process. The word “jerky” is derived from the Quechua word ch’arki which means “dried, salted meat” however its use is wide-spread, especially in the Andes Mountains of South America, as a staple of travelers. Related to, but not the same as Pemmican, which includes other dried ingredients, like berries, which is a travel food of many North American tribes

All that is needed to produce basic “jerky” is a low-temperature drying method, and salt to inhibit bacterial growth. Modern manufactured jerky is often marinated, prepared with a seasoned spice rub or liquid,or or smoked with low heat (usually under 70 °C/160 °F). Also common in store bough jerky is the use of sweeteners such as brown sugar. Jerky is ready-to-eat, needs no additional preparation and can be stored for months without refrigeration. To ensure maximum shelf life a proper protein to moisture content is required in the final cured product.

Many products which are sold as jerky consist of highly processed, chopped and formed meat rather than traditional sliced whole-muscle meat. These products may contain more fat, but moisture content, like the whole-muscle product, must meet a 0.75 to 1 moisture to protein ratio in the US Chemical preservatives can be used to prevent oxidative spoilage, but the moisture to protein ratio prevents microbial spoilage by low water activity. Some jerky products are very high in sugar and are therefore very sweet, unlike biltong, which rarely contains added sugars.


Crowded Nest Syndrome describes when adult children move back in with their parents following a divorce or other tumultuous event where the parent has lost their home. Crowded Nest syndrome day takes place annually 12 June. Crowded nest syndrome is the opposite of Empty nest syndrome. This describes a feeling of grief and loneliness parents may feel when their children leave home for the first time, such as to live on their own or to attend a college or university. It is not a clinical condition. Since young adults moving out from their families’ house is generally a normal and healthy event, the symptoms of empty nest syndrome often go unrecognized. This can result in depression and a loss of purpose for parents, since the departure of their children from “the nest” leads to adjustments in parents’ lives. Empty nest syndrome is especially common in full-time mothers. The first known Crowded Nest Awareness Day took place 12 June 2005. It was  inspired by the Kathleen Shaputis book Crowded Nest Syndrome: Surviving the Return of Adult Children


International Falafel Day

The first International Falafel Day took place 12 June 2012. Falafel  refers to a deep-fried ball, or a flat or doughnut-shaped patty, made from ground chickpeas, fava beans, or both. Herbs, spices, and onion relatives are commonly added to the dough. It is a Levantine and Egyptian dish that most likely originated in Egypt, but is commonly eaten throughout Western Asia. The fritters are now found around the world as part of vegetarian cuisine, and as a form of street food. Falafel balls are commonly served in a pita, which acts as a pocket, or wrapped in a flatbread known as taboon. Falafel also frequently refers to a wrapped sandwich prepared with falafel balls laid over a bed of salad or pickled vegetables and drizzled with hot sauce or a tahini sauce. Falafel balls may also be eaten alone as a snack, or served as part of an assortment of appetizers known as a meze. The goal of International Falafel Day Is to connect the world through Falafel”


Orlando United Day

The inaugural Orlando United Day took place on 12 June 2017 with the intention honoring the memory of the 49 victims killed and supporting the survivors of the Pulse nightclub tragedy. The Pulse Nightclub shootings took place 12 June 2016 when a 29-year-old security guard named Omar Mateen, killed 49 people and wounded 53 others in a mass shooting inside Pulse, a gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida, United States which was hosting a “Latin Night,” at the time and most of the victims were Hispanic. It is the deadliest incident of violence against LGBT people in U.S. history and the deadliest terrorist attack in the U.S. since the September 11 attacks in 2001. At the time, it was the deadliest mass shooting by a single shooter in U.S. history, being surpassed by the Las Vegas shooting a year later. By June 2018, the FBI had declined to classify the incident as an anti-gay hate crime, as evidence suggested that Mateen had scouted several different targets before choosing Pulse, and that he did not know it was a gay nightclub.

an Emergency call was made shortly after the shooting began, in which Mateen swore allegiance to the leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, and said the U.S. killing of Abu Waheeb in Iraq the previous month “triggered” the shooting. He later told a negotiator he was “out here right now” because of the American-led interventions in Iraq and in Syria and that the negotiator should tell the United States to stop the bombing. The incident was deemed a terrorist attack by FBI investigators. Orlando Police Department officers shot and killed him after a three-hour standoff.

International and National Events happening 1 June

  • Hazelnut Cake Day
  • Heimlich Maneuver Day
  • National Olive Day
  • National Penpal Day
  • Say Something Nice Day
  • Oscar the Grouch’s Birthday
  • Dare Day
  • Flip a Coin Day
  • Global Day of Parents
  • National Go Barefoot Day
  • National Running Day
  • National Tailors’ Day
  • Say Something Nice Day
  • Stand For Children Day
  • Wear a Dress Day
  • World Milk Day

World Milk Day

World Milk Day takes place annually on 1 June. It was established by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations to recognise the importance of milk as a global food and focus attention on milk and to publicise activities connected with milk and the dairy industry and provide an opportunity to educate the public concerning activities that are connected with the dairy sector.

Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals (including humans who are breastfed) before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother’s antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases. It contains many other nutrient including protein and lactose. Interspecies consumption of milk is not uncommon, particularly among humans, many of whom consume the milk of other mammals.

As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from non-human mammals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011,from 260 million dairy coWs. India is the world’s largest producer of milk, and is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports few other milk products. The ever increasing rise in domestic demand for dairy products and a large demand-supply gap could lead to India being a net importer of dairy products in the future. The United States, India, China and Brazil are the world’s largest exporters of milk and milk products. China and Russia were the world’s largest importers of milk and milk products until 2016 when both countries became self-sufficient. Throughout the world, more than six billion people consume milk and milk products. Over 750 million people live in dairy farming households

World milk Day has been observed annually on June 1 each year since 2001. The day is intended to World Milk Day was first designated by the FAO in 2001. June 1 was chosen as the date because many countries were already celebrating a milk day during that time of year. The fact that many countries choose to do this on the same day lends additional importance to individual national celebrations and shows that milk is a global food.

In 2016, World Milk Day was celebrated in over 40 countries. Activities included marathons and family runs, milking demonstrations and farm visits, school-based activities, concerts, conferences and seminars, competitions and a range of events focusing on promoting the value of milk and illustrating the important role played by the dairy industry in the national economy. On June 1, 2018 and 2019 a special campaign will be carried out by the Global Dairy Platform called “Raise a Glass” under the campaign hashtag: #WorldMilkDay.