Severn Valley Railway Autumn Steam Gala. 2019

This year The Severn Valley Railway Autumn Steam Gala takes place between Thursday 19 September and Sunday 22 September. Visiting locomotives include:

No. 76017, British Railways Standard 4 2-6-0, Mogul With thanks to Mid Hants Railway Ltd. Over 115 of the Standard 4 Moguls were built between 1952 and 1957 at Horwich and Doncaster locomotive works.76017 was completed in June 1953 at Horwich and was allocated from new to the Southern Region, based at Eastleigh Shed. While there she performed pfreight, semi fast or all stopping turns to Southampton and Bournemouth.
76017 moved from Eastleigh to Salisbury in February 1960 where she stayed until withdrawal in July 1965. After being withdrawn from service the locomotive was sold for scrap to Woodham Brothers and it arrived in their scrapyard in Barry in January 1966 and remained there until January 1974. 76017 has a a BR2A tender which hasa water scoop, larger weatherboard windows and handrails than the BR2 tender originally fitted to 76017. The Standard 4 no. 76017 was then moved to Quainton In 1974 and Some restoration work was undertaken.Quainton had been established in 1969 by the London Railway Preservation Society (it is now the Buckinghamshire Railway Centre). In March 1978 it moved to the Mid Hants Railway where the restoration was completed and 76017 steamed again in May 1984. After running in service until 1995 (in 1997 it formed a re-created scrap train to mark 30 years since Southern steam ended in 1967) it was then stored following a dispute between the owner and the Mid Hants Railway. Eventually an agreement was reached in 2009 and 76017 stayed at the Mid Hants Railway where it was overhauled before returning to traffic in 2016

Another visitor to thE 2019 Severn Valley Railway Autumn Steam Gala is Southern Railway Maunsell designed ‘Q’ Class 0-6-0 steam locomotiveNo. 30541 With thanks to The Maunsell Locomotive Society & Bluebell Railway. This was designed by Richard Maunsell of the Southern Railway and constructed immediately prior to the Second World Warfor use on medium-distance freight trains. The design was relatively old-fashioned for the 1930’s and the class was soon afterwards eclipsed by Bulleid’s own more powerful Q1 class. However The class included several ‘modern’ features such as a Belpaire firebox, superheater, and a side-window cab.

They were also fitted with steam carriage heating, as The Southern Railway was primarily a passenger carrying railway. Howeve”r British Railways was responsible for the class from 1948 and gave it a 4F power classification, F denoting a freight locomotive as There was a continuing need for steam freight locomotives. Meanwhile the Traffic Department preferred mixed traffic designs which could also haul passenger trains on the remaining non-electrified lines at peak periods. By the late 1930s the Southern Railway was adequately served with powerful mixed traffic locomotives of the S15 and N and N1 classes, but there was a need for a smaller freight locomotive with high route availability that could also undertake light passenger duties. This role had been performed by the ex-LSWR ‘Jubilee’ A12 0-4-2, which were approaching the end of their useful lives.During his last year as the Chief Mechanical Engineer (CME) of the Southern Railway Richard Maunsell decided on an inside-cylinder 0-6-0 tender locomotive to undertake this role, in what was to become the Q Class. Despite The design being relatively old-fashioned for the 1930’s It was the last Southern steam locomotive design before the Second World War, as Maunsell retired due to ill-health in 1937. Maunsell’’s successor, Oliver Bulleid, oversaw the building of twenty members of the class at Eastleigh railway works between January 1938 and September 1939.

Twenty were constructed by Maunsell’s successor, Oliver Bulleid, prior to the Second World War, where they performed adequately and reliably on secondary services throughout their working lives, thanks to their utility, light weight and steady handling, although there were complaints of poor steaming when used on main-line trains (however they were never designed for this). So When the requirement for modern freight locomotives on the Southern increased during the Second World War, Bulleid designed the highly utilitarian SR Class Q1 0-6-0 locomotive. Withdrawals from service began during 1962 and were completed by 1965. And Only one has survived, no.30541 and this is preserved on the Bluebell Railway.

The final visitor to the 2019 Severn Valley Railway Autumn Steam Gala is the Southern Region West Country cLass light Pacific locomotive no. 34092 “City of Wells”. The following locomotives From the Severn Valley Railway’s home-fleet, should also be in steam: 1450, 1501, 2857, 7714, 34027 Taw Valley, 43106 and Large Prairie No. 4144 and former resident No.6960 Raveningham Hall which is visiting from the West Somerset Railway, are also expected to join the event. There will be Overnight running on Friday and Saturday with Pannier Tanks No. 1501 and No. 7714. Two Southern Railway ‘West Country’ Pacifics in operation. A Friday morning express from Kidderminster to Bridgnorth at 8.50am, non-stop, and early morning express on Saturday and Sunday pBe?p to Bridgnorth at 5.32am plus a Walk-on breakfast train from Bridgnorth (departing 7.22am) and Kidderminster (departing 9.25am) on Saturday and Sunday. 

GWR No. 1450 will be operating two local auto train  services operating between Kidderminster and Hampton Loade, including the Great Western ‘Toplights’. Goods demonstration trains will be running on Thursday Friday, and Saturday. Eardington Halt will also be open for visits from 9am – 6pm, and will attempt to cover six decades by changing its external appearance throughout the event starting from the 1900s, then move to the 1930s (around lunchtime), followed by the wartime period, then the 1950s and finally the sixties with the Pclosure notice being posted just before they lock up. The Guild of Railway .lArtists will be holding an exhibition at Kidderminster Railway Museum, celebrating its 40th anniversary and Artist in Residence, Rob Rowland, will be at Bridgnorth Station in the Waiting Room on Platform 2. The Paddock Railway and Coalyard Miniature Railway will be in steam and the Wolverhampton Model Engineers will have a miniature railway operating at The Engine House.

Adam West (Batman)

Most famous for playing Batman in the 1960 Television show, the American actor Adam West was born September 19, 1928 West in Walla Walla, Washington. His father was a farmer; his mother was an opera singer and concert pianist who was forced to abandon her own Hollywood dreams to care for her family. Following her example, West stated to his father as a youth that he intended after school to go to Hollywood. He moved to Seattle when he was 15 with his mother following his parents’ divorce. West attended Walla Walla High School during his freshman and sophomore years, and later enrolled in Lakeside School in Seattle. He graduated with a bachelor’s degree in literature and a minor in psychology from Whitman College in Walla Walla, where he was a member of the Gamma Zeta Chapter of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity. He also participated on the speech and debate team. Drafted into the United States Army, he served as an announcer on American Forces Network television. After his discharge, he worked as a milkman before moving to Hawaii to pursue television.

While in Hawaii, West was picked for a role as the sidekick on a children’s show called El Kini Popo Show, which featured a chimp. West later took over as star of the show. In 1959, West moved with his wife and two children to Hollywood, where he took the stage name Adam West. He appeared in the film The Young Philadelphians with Paul Newman, and guest-starred in a number of television Westerns Including Sugarfoot, Colt .45, and Lawman, in which West played the role of Doc Holliday, the frontier dentist and gunfighter. He portrayed Wild Bill Hickok in the episode “Westbound Stage” of the 1960 Western series Overland Trail, with William Bendix and Doug McClure. He guest-starred on the crime drama Johnny Midnight, as police sergeant Steve Nelson and also starred in the crime drama, The Detectives Starring Robert Taylor. He made a few guest appearances on the sitcom, The Real McCoys. In 1961, West appeared as a young, ambitious deputy who foolishly confronts a gunfighter named Clay Jackson, portrayed by Jock Mahoney, in the episode “The Man from Kansas” in the series Laramie and made two guest appearances on Perry Mason in 1961 first as small-town journalist Dan Southern in “The Case of the Barefaced Witness” then as folk singer Pete Norland in “The Case of the Bogus Books”. West starred in the Outer Limits episode “The Invisible Enemy” and made a brief appearance in the film Soldier in the Rain starring Jackie Gleason and Steve McQueen. He also starred as Major Dan McCready, the ill-fated mission commander of ‘Mars Gravity Probe 1’ in the 1964 film Robinson Crusoe on Mars. He also appeared in the comedy Western The Outlaws Is Coming in 1965, the last feature film starring The Three Stooges. He played Christopher Rolf in the episode “Stopover” in The Rifleman,

In 1965 Producer William Dozier cast West as Bruce Wayne and his crime fighting superhero alter ego, Batman, in the television series Batman, which ran from 1966 to 1968; and included afeature-length film version. In his Batman character, West appeared in a public service announcement where he encouraged schoolchildren to heed then-President Lyndon B. Johnson’s call for them to buy U.S. Savings stamps, a children’s version of U.S. Savings bonds, to support the Vietnam War. In 1970, West was offered the role of James Bond by Cubby Broccoli for the film Diamonds Are Forever.

After Batman finished Adam West’s first post-Caped Crusader role was in the film The Girl Who Knew Too Much (1969) as a cynical tough guy named Johnny Cain. West also made personal appearances as Batman. However In 1974, when Ward and Craig reprised their Batman roles for a TV public-service announcement about equal pay for women, West was absent. Instead, Dick Gautier filled in as Batman. He also made a memorable appearance in the Memphis, Tennessee-based United States Wrestling Association to engage in a war of words with Jerry “The King” Lawler while wearing the cowl and a track suit. West subsequently appeared in the theatrical films The Marriage of a Young Stockbrocker (1971), The Curse of the Moon Child (1972), The Specialist (1975), Hooper (as himself; 1978), The Happy Hooker Goes Hollywood (1980) and One Dark Night (1983 and appeared in such television films as The Eyes of Charles Sand (1972), Poor Devil (1973), Nevada Smith (1975), For the Love of It (1980) and I Take These Men (1983). He also did guest shots on the television series Maverick, Diagnosis: Murder, Love, American Style, Bonanza, The Big Valley, Night Gallery, Alias Smith and Jones, Mannix, Emergency!, Alice, Police Woman, Operation Petticoat, The American Girls, Vega$, Big Shamus Little Shamus, Laverne & Shirley, Bewitched, Fantasy Island, The Love Boat, Hart to Hart, Zorro, The King of Queens and George Lopez. West also made several guest appearances as himself on Family Feud and In 1986, West starred in the comedy police series titled The Last Precinct.

West often reprised his role as Batman/Bruce Wayne, first in the short-lived animated series, The New Adventures of Batman, and in other shows such as The Batman/ Tarzan Adventure Hour, Tarzan and the Super 7, Super Friends: The Legendary Super Powers Show, and The Super Powers Team: Galactic Guardians. In 1979, West once again donned the Batsuit for the live-action TV special Legends of the Superheroes. In 1985, DC Comics named West as one of the honorees in the company’s 50th-anniversary publication Fifty Who Made DC Great for his work on the Batman series. West was considered to play Thomas Wayne in Tim Burton’s Batman. Originally, he wanted to play Batman. So far neither West nor Burt Ward (Robin, from the TV series) has appeared in any of the modern Batman films. West made an appearance in a 1992 episode of Batman: The Animated Series portraying Simon Trent, a washed-up actor who used to play a superhero in a TV series called The Gray Ghost and who now has difficulty finding work.

West later had a recurring role as the voice of Mayor Grange in the WB animated series The Batman. And also voiced as Batman in the animated short film Batman: New Times. He co-starred with Mark Hamill, who vocally portrayed The Joker and had originally played the role on Batman: The Animated Series. West also voiced Thomas Wayne, Bruce Wayne’s father, in an episode of the cartoon series Batman: The Brave and the Bold. He also voiced Batman’s prototype robot “Protobot”. West appeared as himself in the film Drop Dead Gorgeous and in several TV series, including NewsRadio, Murphy Brown, The Adventures of Pete and Pete, The Ben Stiller Show, and The Drew Carey Sho He also portrayed “Dr. Wayne” in the 1990 Zorro episode “The Wizard”. In 1991, he starred in the pilot episode of Lookwell, playing a has-been TV action hero who falsely believes he can solve mysteries in real life. In 1994, West played a non-comedic role as the father of Peter Weller’s character in The New Age. He played a washed-up superhero named Galloping Gazelle in the Goosebumps TV series episode “Attack of the Mutant”. In 1994, West, with Jeff Rovin, wrote his autobiography, Back to the Batcave and also appeared as a guest in the animated talk show Space Ghost Coast to Coast in an episode titled “Batmantis”, where he displayed his book. That episode was essentially a parody to his Batman TV series, where Zorak dressed himself as “Batmantis”, a praying mantis version of Batman.

 

In 1996, Adam West appeared in video cut scenes of the “Chaos Mystery” in the gambling simulation game Golden Nugget. In 2001, he played the super-villain Breathtaker in the TV series Black Scorpion. In 2003, West and Burt Ward starred in the TV movie Return to the Batcave: The Misadventures of Adam and Burt, alongside Frank Gorshin, Julie Newmar, and Lee Meriwether. In 2005, West appeared in the show The King of Queens. West appears in the 2006 video for California band STEFY’s song “Chelsea” as “Judge Adam West”, presiding over the courtroom scene. In 2007, Adam West played an attorney for Benny on the show George Lopez, and starred as “The Boss” in the movie comedy Sexina: Popstar PI. In 2009, West played himself in the episode “Apollo, Apollo” of 30 Rock. In 2010, a Golden Palm Star was dedicated to him on the Palm Springs Walk of Stars And West also received the 2,468th star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, located at 6764 Hollywood Boulevard in front of the Guinness Museum in Hollywood, California. He appeared in Pioneers of Television in the episode “Superheroes” and was the subject of the documentary Starring Adam West.West is among the interview subjects in Superheroes: A Never-Ending Battle, a three-hour documentary narrated by Liev Schreiber.

Adam west has also done voice-over work for many cartoons including the American cartoon series Futurama (10.9, and American Dad and voiced himself, and the 1960s version of Batman, in the video game Lego Batman 3: Beyond Gotham. In 2016, West guest-starred as himself on the 200th episode of The Big Bang Theory. West has also voiced The Simpsons, Futurama, Rugrats, The Critic, Histeria!, Kim Possible, Johnny Bravo, and even in an episode of Batman: The Animated Series called “Beware the Gray Ghost”, and has appeared onThe Fairly OddParents numerous timeS. Since 2000, West has made regular appearances on the animated series Family Guy, portraying Mayor Adam West, the lunatic mayor of Quahog, Rhode Island. He portrayed Uncle Art in the Disney Animation film Meet the Robinsons, and voicing the young Mermaid Man (along with Burt Ward, who voiced the young Barnacle Boy) in The SpongeBob SquarePants episode “Back to the Past” asThe Mermaid Man and Barnacle Boy characters are sea parodies of both Batman and Robin, respectively.West also voiced General Carrington in the video game XIII, and has voiced other video games such as Marc Ecko’s Getting Up: Contents Under Pressure, Chicken Little: Ace in Action, Scooby Doo! Unmasked, and Goosebumps: Attack of the Mutant. Adam West sadly passed away 9 June 2017 However he leaves an enduring legacy behind.

Today it be International Talk Like a Pirate Day Arrrrrr!

International Talk Like a Pirate Day (ITLAPD, takes place annually September 19. It was created in 1995 by John Baur (Ol’ Chumbucket) and Mark Summers (Cap’n Slappy), of Albany, Oregon,U.S., who proclaimed September 19 each year as the day when everyone in the world should talk like a pirate.The holiday, and its observance, springs from a romanticized view of the Golden Age of Piracy. The idea was inspired by a sports injury when, During a racquetball game between Summers and Baur, one of them reacted to the pain with an outburst of “Aaarrr!”, and the idea was born and they chose Summers’ ex-wife’s birthday, as it would be easy for him to remember.

At first it was an inside joke between two friends, however the holiday gained exposure when Baur and Summers sent a letter about their invented holiday to the American syndicated humor columnist Dave Barry in 2002. Barry liked the idea and promoted the day. and later appeared in a cameo in their “Drunken Sailor” Sing Along A-Go-Go video. Growing media coverage of the holiday after Barry’s column has ensured that this event is now celebrated internationally, and Baur and Summers now sell books and T-shirts related to the theme on their website.

The association of pirates with peglegs, parrots, and treasure maps, popularized in Robert Louis Stevenson’s novel Treasure Island (1883), has had a significant influence on parody pirate culture. Talk Like a Pirate Day is celebrated with hidden easter egg features in many games and websites, with Facebook introducing a pirate-translated version of its website on Talk Like a Pirate Day 2008 and publisher O’Reilly discounting books on the R programming language to celebrate. In September 2014, Reddit added a pirate theme to their website. English actor Robert Newton is the “patron saint” of Talk Like a Pirate Day. He specialized in portraying pirates, especially Long John Silver in the 1950 Disney film Treasure Island and the 1954 Australian film Long John Silver and the title character in the 1952 film Blackbeard the Pirate, Newton was born in Dorset and educated in Cornwall, and it was his native West Country dialect, which he used in his portrayal of Long John Silver and Blackbeard, that some contend is the origin of the standard “pirate accent”. This was parodied in the 1950s and 1960s by British comedian Tony Hancock.

The archetypal pirate word “Arrr!” (alternatively “Rrrr!” or “Yarrr!”) first appeared in fiction as early as 1934 in the film Treasure Island starring Lionel Barrymore, and was used by a character in the 1940 novel Adam Penfeather, Buccaneer by Jeffrey Farnol. However, it was Robert Newton’s use of it in the classic 1950 Disney film Treasure Island that popularized the interjection and made it widely remembered. It has been speculated that the rolling “rrr”, a distinctive element of the speech of the West Country of England, has been associated with pirates because of the West Country’s strong maritime heritage, where for many centuries fishing was the main industry (and smuggling a major unofficial one), and where there were several major ports. As a result, West Country speech in general, and Cornish speech in particular, may have been a major influence on a generalized British nautical speech. The statement “Arrr!” Is a meaningful reply, not just a grunt or mumble. In West Country parlance it means “yes and is historically common in nautical circles.

The US state of Michigan has also officially recognized the occasion. Krispy Kreme also used to give out free doughnuts to people who talk and/or dress like pirates on September 19, although As of 2017, they stopped giving out free donuts. Long John Silver’s has a similar promotion. Google Search and Facebook both have the option to choose “Pirate” as a language choice.Antivirus provider Avast has, since 2011, permitted users to select “Pirate Talk” as a language option. The option was added on International Talk Like a Pirate Day of that year. In 2006, it was described as a holiday for members of the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster religion (Pastafarians). World of Warcraft also holds an event with special achievements for the holiday. In 2012, Minecraft also added a “Pirate Speak” language option with many humorous word choices.

Tombland by C. J. Sansom

Tombland, the seventh novel in C. J. Sansom’s Shardlake series is soon being published in paperback. It begins during, 1549. Two years after the death of Henry VIII, and sees England sliding into chaos, The nominal king, Edward VI, is eleven years old and is being threatened with exile.His uncle Edward Seymour, Lord Hertford, rules as Protector. Meanwhile radical Protestants are astirring discontent among the populace while the Protector’s prolonged war with Scotland is proving a disastrous failure and threatens to involve France. Worst of all, the economy is in collapse, inflation rages and rebellion is stirring among the peasantry.

Since the old King’s death, Matthew Shardlake has been working as a lawyer in the service of Henry’s younger daughter, the Lady Elizabeth. The gruesome murder of Edith Boleyn, the wife of John Boleyn – a distant Norfolk relation of Elizabeth’s mother – which could have political implications for Elizabeth, brings Shardlake and his assistant Nicholas Overton to the summer assizes at Norwich. There they are reunited with Shardlake’s former assistant Jack Barak. The three find layers of mystery and danger surrounding Edith’s death, as a second murder is committed.

Then East Anglia explodes, as peasant rebellion breaks out across the country. The yeoman Robert Kett leads a force of thousands in overthrowing the landlords and establishing a vast camp outside Norwich. Soon the rebels have taken over the city, Which at the time was England’s second largestThen Shardlake is forced to decide where his loyalties lie when Jack Barack decides to support the rebels, while Nicholas,  opposes them, and becomes a prisoner in Norwich Castle. Meanwhile government forces in London prepare to march north and destroy the rebels. Then Shardlake discovers that the murder of Edith Boleyn may have connections with the rebel camp and the Norfolk gentry . . .

Damon Hill OBE

Retired Formula One driver Damon Graham Devereux Hill OBE was also born 17 September, in 1960. He is the son of the late Graham Hill, and is the only son of a world champion to win the title. His father died in an aeroplane crash when Hill was 15. He started racing on motorbikes in 1981 and after minor success, he moved on to single-seater racing cars and progressed steadily up the ranks to the International Formula 3000 championship by 1989, where, although often competitive, up until that point he never won a race.

Hill became a test driver for the Formula One title-winning Williams team in 1992. He was promoted to the Williams race team the following year after Riccardo Patrese’s departure and took the first of his 22 victories at the 1993 Hungarian Grand Prix. During the mid-1990s, Hill was Michael Schumacher’s main rival for the Formula One Drivers’ Championship. The two clashed on and off the track. Their collision at the1994 Australian Grand Prix gave Schumacher his first title by a single point. Hill became champion in 1996 but was dropped by Williams for the following season. He went on to drive for the less competitive Arrows and Jordan teams, and in 1998 gave Jordan its first win.

Hill retired from racing after the 1999 season. He has since launched several businesses and has made appearances playing the guitar with celebrity bands. In 2006, he became president of the British Racing Drivers’ Club, succeeding Jackie Stewart. Hill stepped down from the position in 2011 and was succeeded by Derek Warwick. He presided over the securing of a 17-year contract for Silverstone to hold Formula One races, which enabled the circuit to see extensive renovation work.

Anne Dudley Bradstreet

Anne Dudley Bradstreet Day takes place annually on 16 September to Commemorate prominentEnglishPoetAnne Bradstreet whosadly died 16. September1672. She wasBorn onSeptember 16, 1612 and ws. the daughter of Thomas Dudley, a steward of the Earl of Lincoln, and Dorothy Yorke. Due to her family’s wealthy Puritan position Bradstreet was a well-read scholar who grew up in cultured circumstances and was a well-educated woman for her time, being tutored in history, several languages, and literature.

At the age of sixteen she married Simon Bradstreet. Both Anne’s father and husband were later to serve as governors of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Anne and Simon, along with Anne’s parents, emigrated to America aboard the Arbella as part of the Winthrop Fleet of Puritan emigrants in 1630. She first arrrived in America on June 14, 1630 at what is now Pioneer Village (Salem, Massachusetts) with Simon, her parents, and other voyagers as part of the Puritan migration to New England (1620–1640). Due to the illness and starvation of Gov. John Endecott and other residents of the village, their stay was very brief. Most moved immediately south along the coast to Charlestown, Massachusetts for another short stay before moving south along the Charles River to found “the City on the Hill,” Boston, Massachusetts.

The Bradstreet family soon moved again, this time to what is now Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1632 had her first child, Samuel, in Newe Towne, as it was then called. Despite I’ll health, she had eight children and achieved a comfortable social standing. Having previously been afflicted with smallpox as a teenager in England, Anne would once again fall prey to illness as paralysis overtook her joints in later years. In the early 1640s, Simon once again pressed his wife, pregnant with her sixth child, to move for the sixth time, from Ipswich, Massachusetts to Andover Parish. North Andover is that original town founded in 1646 by the Stevens, Osgood, Johnson, Farnum, Barker, and Bradstreet families among others. Anne and her family resided in the Old Center of North Andover, Massachusetts They never lived in what is now known as “Andover” to the south. Her early works read in the style of Du Bartas, but her later writings develop into her unique style of poetry which centers on her role as a mother, her struggles with the sufferings of life, and her Puritan faith. Her first collection, The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America, was widely read in America and England.

Both Anne’s father and her husband were instrumental in the founding of Harvard. Two of her sons were graduates, Samuel (Class of 1653) and Simon (Class of 1660). In October 1997, the Harvard community dedicated a gate in memory of her as America’s first published poet. In 1650, Rev. John Woodbridge had The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America composed by “A Gentlewoman from Those Parts” published in London, making Anne the first female poet ever published in both England and the New World. On July 10, 1666, their North Andover family home burned (see “Works” below) in a fire that left the Bradstreets homeless and with few personal belongings. By then, Anne’s health was slowly failing. She suffered from tuberculosis and had to deal with the loss of cherished relatives. But her will remained strong and as a reflection of her religious devotion and knowledge of Biblical scriptures, she found peace in the firm belief that her daughter-in-law Mercy and her grandchildren were in heaven.

Anne Bradstreet died on September 16, 1672 in North Andover, Massachusetts at the age of 60 of tuberculosis. The precise location of her grave is uncertain but many historians believe her body is in the Old Burying Ground at Academy Road and Osgood Street in North Andover. In 1676, four years after the death of Anne, Simon Bradstreet married for a second time to a lady also named Anne (Gardiner). In 1697 Simon died and was buried in Salem.

Battle of Britain day

Battle.of Britain Day is celebrated annually on 15 September to commemorate the large-scale aerial battle of the same name, which took place on 15 September 1940, (German: Luftschlacht um England or Luftschlacht um Großbritannien). In Canada, the commemoration takes place on the third Sunday of September.

The background concerns Nazi Germany who had conquered most of Western Europe and Scandinavia by June 1940 and the British Empire and Commonwealth were the only major powers standing in the way of a German-dominated Europe. Adolf Hiltler, Chancellor of Nazi Germany attempted to appease the British however After having several peace offers rejected by the British, He ordered the Luftwaffe to destroy the Royal Air Force (RAF) in order to gain air superiority or air supremacy as a prelude to launching Operation Sea Lion, an amphibious assault by the Wehrmacht (German armed forces) onto the British mainland.

To prepare for this the Luftwaffe started attacking Merchant Shipping on the English Channel during July 1940 and the first Luftwaffe bomber fleets began attacking convoys and Royal Navy forces in English ports and Channel. The results were positive and the Germans succeeded in forcing the British to abandon the channel convoy route and to redirect shipping to ports in north-eastern Britain. With this achieved the Luftwaffe began the second phase of its air offensive, attacking RAF airfields and supporting structures on the British mainland. The codename of the offensive was Unternehmen Adlerangriff (“Operation Eagle Attack”). On 12 August, it flew its first missions in this regard. On 13 August, the Luftwaffe carried out its largest attack to date on the mainland. Christened Adlertag (“Eagle Day”), the attack was a failure. Nevertheless, the raids continued, at great cost to both sides. The impact of the German offensive on RAF airfields and Fighter Command is disputed. Some historians believe that the attacks were not having much effect and that the Germans were losing the attrition battle, while others believe the RAF was faltering.

However Hitler was dissatisfied with the progress being made. Prompted by an RAF raid on Berlin in late August 1940, he ordered the Luftwaffe to concentrate its attacks upon London. It was thought the move would draw RAF Fighter Command up into a large, decisive battle. Initially, the change in strategy caught the British off-guard. The first daylight attack of this type occurred on 7 September and caused extensive damage and civilian casualties. Some 107,400 long tons (109,100 t) of shipping was damaged in the Thames Estuary and 1,600 civilians were killed or injured. Hitler was dissatisfied with the Luftwaffe and its failure to destroy Fighter Command quickly. He dismissed over-optimistic reports from the Oberkommando der Luftwaffe (OKL or High Command of the Air Force), particularly the Chief of the Luftwaffe general staff Hans Jeschonnek, who asserted the RAF was on its last legs. Confident the RAF was nearly defeated, Jeschonnek requested terror bombing to be enacted as a final blow. Hitler refused, and only allowed attacks on industry, communications and public utility targets.

Over the next few days, bad weather prevented more large attacks. On 9 and 11 September, only smaller raids were carried out. It gave Hugh Dowding AOC (Air Officer Commanding) Fighter Command, the chance to prepare and reinforce his forces. The British, possibly through the use of Ultra intelligence, recognised the German change in strategy and duly prepared for further attacks on the capital although The intelligence from ULTRA at this stage in the war tended to be fragmented. Then in August, Operation Adlerangriff (Eagle Attack) was launched against RAF airfields in southern England. By the first week of September, the Luftwaffe had not gained the results desired by Hitler. Frustrated, the Germans turned towards the strategic bombing of cities, an offensive which was aimed at British military and civil industries, but also civilian morale. The attacks began on 7 September 1940, but were to reach their daylight climax on 15 September 1940 when the Luftwaffe launched its largest and most concentrated attack against London in the hope of drawing out the RAF into a battle of annihilation. Around 1,500 aircraft took part in the air battles which lasted until dusk. The action was the climax of the Battle of Britain during which RAF Fighter Command confronted the German raids. The Luftwaffe formations were dispersed by a large cloud base and failed to inflict severe damage on the city of London. In the aftermath of the raid, Hitler postponed Operation Sea Lion. Having been defeated in daylight, the Luftwaffe turned its attention to The Blitz night campaign which lasted until May 1941.