Equal Opportunity Day

Equal Opportunity Day Takes place annually on 19 November. The purpose of Equal opportunities day is to encourage equal opportunities in the workplace and in other areas of life and to educate those who feel they are not being given equal opportunities, about the things they can do to improve the situation.

Equal opportunities (also known as equality of opportunity) arise from the similar treatment of all people, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified. According to this often complex and contested concept, the intent is that important jobs in an organization should go to those persons who are the “most qualified” – persons most likely to perform ably in a given task – and not go to persons for reasons deemed arbitrary or irrelevant, such as circumstances of birth, upbringing, having well-connected relatives or friends, religion, sex, ethnicity, race, caste, or involuntary personal attributes such as disability, age, gender identity, or sexual orientation. Though accommodation of persons with special needs and disabilities are done through job restructuring activities considering their potential for same level of performance, for experiencing same level of benefits and privileges as others.

Chances for advancement should be open to everybody interested, such that they have “an equal chance to compete within the framework of goals and the structure of rules established”. The idea is to remove arbitrariness from the selection process and base it on some “pre-agreed basis of fairness, with the assessment process being related to the type of position” and emphasizing procedural and legal means. Individuals should succeed or fail based on their own efforts and not extraneous circumstances such as having well-connected parents. It is opposed to nepotism and plays a role in whether a social structure is seen as legitimate. The concept is applicable in areas of public life in which benefits are earned and received such as employment and education, although it can apply to many other areas as well. Equal opportunity is central to the concept of meritocracy.

the concept of Equal opportunities assumes that society is stratified with a diverse range of roles, some of which are more desirable than others The benefit of equality of opportunity is to bring fairness to the selection process for coveted roles in corporations, associations, nonprofits, universities and elsewhere. According to one view, there is no “formal linking” between equality of opportunity and political structure, in the sense that there can be equality of opportunity in democracies, autocracies and in communist nations,although it is primarily associated with a competitive market economy and embedded within the legal frameworks of democratic societies. People with different political perspectives see equality of opportunity differently: liberals disagree about which conditions are needed to ensure it and many “old-style” conservatives see inequality and hierarchy in general as beneficial out of a respect for tradition. It can apply to a specific hiring decision, or to all hiring decisions by a specific company, or rules governing hiring decisions for an entire nation. The scope of equal opportunity has expanded to cover more than issues regarding the rights of minority groups, but covers practices regarding “recruitment, hiring, training, layoffs, discharge, recall, promotions, responsibility, wages, sick leave, vacation, overtime, insurance, retirement, pensions, and various other benefits”.

The concept has been applied to numerous aspects of public life, including accessibility of polling stations, care provided to HIV patients, whether men and women have equal opportunities to travel on a spaceship, bilingual education,skin color of models in Brazil, television time for political candidates, army promotions, admittance to universities and ethnicity in the United States.The term is interrelated with and often contrasted with other conceptions of equality such as equality of outcome and equality of autonomy. Equal opportunity emphasizes the personal ambition and talent and abilities of the individual, rather than his or her qualities based on membership in a group, such as a social class or race or extended family. Further, it is seen as unfair if external factors that are viewed as being beyond the control of a person significantly influence what happens to him or her. Equal opportunity then emphasizes a fair process whereas in contrast equality of outcome emphasizes a fair outcome. In sociological analysis, equal opportunity is seen as a factor correlating positively with social mobility, in the sense that it can benefit society overall by maximizing well-being. There are different types of equality:

Formal equality of opportunity: This is sometimes referred to as the nondiscrimination principle or described as the absence of direct discrimination, or described in the narrow sense as equality of access. It is a basic “no frills” or “narrow” approach to equality of opportunity, a minimal standard of sorts, limited to the public sphere as opposed to private areas such as the family, marriage, or religion. What is considered “fair” and “unfair” is spelled out in advance and that:

There should be an equal opportunity for all. Each and every person should have as great or as small an opportunity as the next one. There should not be the unfair, unequal, superior opportunity of one individual over another.”

the term nondiscrimination principle refers to

“all individuals who possess the attributes relevant for the performance of the duties of the position in question be included in the pool of eligible candidates, and that an individual’s possible occupancy of the position be judged only with respect to those relevant attributes”.

Substantive equality of opportunity,: This sometimes called fair equality of opportunity, is a somewhat broader and more expansive concept than the more limiting formal equality of opportunity and it deals with what is sometimes described as indirect discrimination. It goes farther and is more controversial than the formal variant; and has been thought to be much harder to achieve, with greater disagreement about how to achieve greater equality; and has been described as “unstable”, particularly if the society in question is unequal to begin with in terms of great disparity of wealth. It has been identified as more of a left-leaning political position, but this is not a hard-and-fast rule. The substantive model is advocated by people who see limitations in the formal model:

In the substantive approach, the starting point before the race begins is unfair since people have had differing experiences before even approaching the competition. The substantive approach examines the applicants themselves before applying for a position and judges whether they have equal abilities or talents; and if not, then it suggests that authorities (usually the government) take steps to make applicants more equal before they get to the point where they compete for a position and fixing the before-the-starting-point issues has sometimes been described as working towards “fair access to qualifications”. It seeks to remedy inequalities perhaps because of an “unfair disadvantage” based sometimes on “prejudice in the past”.

International Day for Tolerance

The International Day for Tolerance is observed annually on 16 November. It was declared by UNESCO in 1995 to generate public awareness of the dangers of intolerance. Intolerance is the opposite of Tolerance, this is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow but chooses not to. The word tolerance was first used in the 15th century. It is derived from endurance and fortitude, used in the 14th century. According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word was first used to describe having permission from authorities in the 1530s. Random House Dictionary defines tolerance as “a fair, objective, and permissive attitude toward those whose opinions, beliefs, practices, racial or ethnic origins, etc., differ from one’s own”. Toleration may signify “no more than forbearance and the permission given by the adherents of a dominant religion for other religions to exist, even though the latter are looked on with disapproval as inferior, mistaken, or harmful.” Tolerance is a state of mind that implies non-judgmental acceptance of different lifestyles or beliefs, whereas toleration indicates the act of putting up with something that one disapproves of.

Historically, most incidents and writings pertaining to toleration involve the status of minority and dissenting viewpoints in relation to a dominant state religion.  Religious toleration was present in the Achaemenid Empire of Persia. In the Old Testament, king Cyrus the Great was believed to have released the Jews from captivity in 539–530 BCE, and permitted their return to their homeland. Cyrus the Great assisted in the restoration of the sacred places of various cities. The Hellenistic city of Alexandria, founded 331 BCE, contained a large Jewish community which lived in peace with equivalently sized Greek and Egyptian populations. The Roman Empire encouraged conquered peoples to continue worshipping their own gods. However Christians were singled out for persecution because of their own rejection of Roman pantheism and refusal to honor the emperor as a god. In 311 CE, Roman Emperor Galerius issued a general edict of toleration of Christianity, in his own name and in those of Licinius and Constantine I (who converted to Christianity the following year). In the Old Testament, the books of Exodus, Leviticus and Deuteronomy Exodus 22:21 states: “Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt”. The New Testament Parable of the Tares, which speaks of the difficulty of distinguishing wheat from weeds before harvest time, also supports religious toleration.

During the Middle Ages, there were instances of toleration of particular groups. The Latin concept tolerantia was a “highly-developed political and judicial concept in mediaeval scholastic theology and canon law.” Tolerantia was used to “denote the self-restraint of a civil power in the face of” outsiders, like infidels, Muslims or Jews, And social groups like prostitutes and lepers. Heretics such as the Cathari, Waldensians, Jan Hus, and his followers, the Hussites, were persecuted. 

Polish scholar and rector Paulus Vladimiri (c. 1370–1435)presented a thesis, Tractatus de potestate papae et imperatoris respectu infidelium (Treatise on the Power of the Pope and the Emperor Respecting Infidels) at the Council of Constance in 1414, which argued that pagan and Christian nations could coexist in peace and criticized the Teutonic Order for its wars of conquest of native non-Christian peoples in Prussia and Lithuania. Throughout his political, diplomatic and university career, he expressed the view that a world guided by the principles of peace and mutual respect was possible

Dutch Renaissance humanist and Catholic Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (1466–1536), wrote many works on Religious toleration such as De libero arbitrio, which opposed certain views of Martin Luther, Erasmus thought that “religious disputants should be temperate in their language, “because the truth would be easier to see In more harmonious relationship

Continue reading “International Day for Tolerance”

International Stand up to bullying day

nternational STAND UP to Bullying Day takes place on 16 November. Bullying is the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate or aggressively dominate others. The purpose of International Stand Up to Bullying day is to educate people how to prevent, reduce and stop bullying. Many campaigns and events are designated to bullying prevention throughout the world. Bullying prevention campaigns and events include: Anti-Bullying Day, Anti-Bullying Week, International Day of Pink, International STAND UP to Bullying Day and National Bullying Prevention Month. Anti-Bullying laws in the U.S. have also been enacted in 23 of its 50 states, making bullying in schools illegal.

Bullying can be defined in many different ways. The United Kingdom has no legal definition of bullying, while some states in the United States have laws against it. Bullying is divided into four basic types of abuse – emotional (sometimes called relational), verbal, physical, and cyber. It typically involves subtle methods of coercion, such as intimidation. Bullying ranges from one-on-one, individual bullying through to group bullying called mobbing, in which the bully may have one or more “lieutenants” who may seem to be willing to assist the primary bully in his or her bullying activities. Bullying in school and the workplace is also referred to as peer abuse. Robert W. Fuller has analyzed bullying in the context of rankism.

Bullying is often repeated and habitual. One essential prerequisite is the perception, by the bully or by others, of an imbalance of social or physical power, which distinguishes bullying from conflict. Behaviors used to assert such domination can include verbal harassment or threat, physical assault or coercion, and such acts may be directed repeatedly towards particular targets. Rationalizations of such behavior sometimes include differences of social class, race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, appearance, behavior, body language, personality, reputation, lineage, strength, size or ability. If bullying is done by a group, it is called mobbing.

A bullying culture can develop in any context in which humans interact with each other. This includes school, family, the workplace, home, and neighborhoods. The main platform for bullying is on social media websites. In a 2012 study of male adolescent American football players, “the strongest predictor of bullying was the perception of whether the most influential male in a player’s life would approve of the bullying behavior”.

Individual bullying tactics can be perpetrated by a single person against a target or targets and can be classified into four types. Collective bullying is known as mobbing, and can include any of the individual types of bullying. Physical, verbal, and relational bullying are most prevalent in primary school and could also begin much earlier whilst continuing into later stages in individuals lives. It is stated that Cyber-bullying is more common in secondary school than in primary school.

Physical bullying hurts someone’s body or damages their possessions. Stealing, shoving, hitting, fighting, and destroying property all are types of physical bullying. Physical bullying is rarely the first form of bullying that a target will experience. Often bullying will begin in a different form and later progress to physical violence. In physical bullying the main weapon the bully uses is their body when attacking their target. Sometimes groups of young adults will target and alienate a peer because of some adolescent prejudice. This can quickly lead to a situation where they are being taunted, tortured, and beaten-up by their classmates. Physical bullying will often escalate over time, and can lead to a tragic ending, and therefore must be stopped quickly to prevent any further escalation.

Verbal bullying is conducted by speaking. Calling names, spreading rumors, threatening somebody, and making fun of others are all forms of verbal bullying. Verbal bullying is one of the most common types of bullying. In verbal bullying the main weapon the bully uses is their voice. In many cases, verbal bullying is the province of girls. Girls are more subtle (and can be more devastating), in general, than boys. Girls use verbal bullying, as well as social exclusion techniques, to dominate and control other individuals and show their superiority and power. However, there are also many boys with subtlety enough to use verbal techniques for domination, and who are practiced in using words when they want to avoid the trouble that can come with physically bullying someone else.

Relational bullying is done with the intent to hurt somebody’s reputation or social standing which can also link in with the techniques included in physical and verbal bullying. Relational Bullying is a form of bullying common amongst youth, but particularly upon girls. Relational bullying can be used as a tool by bullies to both improve their social standing and control others. Unlike physical bullying which is obvious, relational bullying is not overt and can continue for a long time without being noticed.

Cyber bullying is the use of technology to harass, threaten, embarrass, or target another person. When an adult is involved, it may meet the definition of cyber-harassment or cyberstalking, a crime that can have legal consequences and involve jail time. This includes email, instant messaging, social networking sites (such as Facebook), text messages, and cell phones.

Workplace bullying can occur in may jobs such as Information Technology, The legal Profession, medicine, nursing, teaching or blue collar jobs. It occurs when an employee experiences a persistent pattern of mistreatment from others in the workplace that causes harm. Workplace bullying can include such tactics as verbal, nonverbal, psychological, physical abuse and humiliation. This type of workplace aggression is particularly difficult because, unlike the typical forms of school bullying, workplace bullies often operate within the established rules and policies of their organization and their society. Bullying in the workplace is in the majority of cases reported as having been perpetrated by someone in authority over the target. However, bullies can also be peers, and occasionally can be subordinates.

Research has also investigated the impact of the larger organizational context on bullying as well as the group-level processes that impact on the incidence, and maintenance of bullying behavior. Bullying can be covert or overt. It may be missed by superiors or known by many throughout the organization. Negative effects are not limited to the targeted individuals, and may lead to a decline in employee morale and a change in organizational culture.

Collective bullying tactics are employed by more than one individual against a target or targets. Trolling behavior on social media, although generally assumed to be individual in nature by the casual reader, can sometime be organized by many. Mobbing refers to the bullying of an individual by a group, in any context, such as a family, peer group, school, workplace, neighborhood, community, or online. When it occurs as emotional abuse in the workplace, such as “ganging up” by co-workers, subordinates or superiors, to force someone out of the workplace through rumor, innuendo, intimidation, humiliation, discrediting, and isolation, it is also referred to as malicious, nonsexual, nonracial / racial, general harassment.

Bullying is typically ongoing and not isolated behaviour. Common ways that people try to respond, are to try to ignore it, to confront the bullies or to turn to an authority figure to try and address it. Ignoring it often does nothing to stop the bullying continuing, and it can become worse over time. It can be important to address bullying behaviour early on, as it can be easier to control the earlier it is detected. Bystanders play an important role in responding to bullying, as doing nothing can encourage it to continue, while small steps that oppose the behaviour can reduce it. Authority figures can also play an important role, such as parents in child or adolescent situations, or supervisors, human-resources staff or parent-bodies in workplace and volunteer settings. Authority figures can be influential in recognising and stopping bullying behaviour, and creating an environment where it doesn’t continue.

In many situations however people acting as authority figures are untrained and unqualified, do not know how to respond, and can make the situation worse. In some cases the authority figures even support the people doing the bullying, facilitating it continuing and increasing the isolation and marginalising of the target. Some of the most effective ways to respond, are to recognise that harmful behaviour is taking place, and creating an environment where it won’t continue. People that are being targeted have little control over which authority figures they can turn to and how such matters would be addressed, however one means of support is to find a counsellor or psychologist that is trained in handling bullying.

UNESCO

UNESCO (The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ) Was founded 16 November 1945 .The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (French:Organisation des Nations unies pour l’éducation, la science et la culture is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN). Its purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedomproclaimed in the UN Charter. It is the heir of the League of Nations’ International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation.UNESCO has 195 member States (it recently added Palestine in November 2011) and nine Associate MembersMost of the field offices are “cluster” offices covering three or more countries; there are also national and regional offices.UNESCO pursue its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information.

Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, technical, and teacher-training programmes; international science programmes; the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press; regional and cultural history projects; the promotion ofcultural diversity; translations of world literature; international cooperation agreements to secure the world cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites) and to preserve human rights, and attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.UNESCO’s aim is “to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information”.

Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication.The broad goals and concrete objectives of the international community — as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) — underpin all UNESCO’s strategies and activities.

More events and holidays taking place on 16 November
• Have a Party With Your Bear Day.
• International Day for Tolerance.
• National Button Day.

Guards Guards by Terry Pratchett🐲🦧

I am currently listening to the hilarious BBC Radio 4 adaptation of Guard Guards by Terry Pratchett. It concerns a sinister plot by a secret brotherhood, the Unique and Supreme Lodge of the Elucidated Brethren of the Ebon Night, to overthrow the Patrician of Ankh-Morpork and install a puppet king, under the control of the Supreme Grand Master. To do this they summon a dragon hoping to strike fear into the people of Ankh-Morpork So that once a suitable state of terror and panic has been created, the Supreme Grand Master can choose his own king who will slay the dragon and rid the city of tyranny….however this does not go to plan

All hope rests on the Ankh Morpork Night Watch a bunch of cynical, corrupt incompetents.comprising of – Captain Vimes, Sergeant Colon, Corporal Nobbs. They also get some help from the Librarian of the Unseen University, a former wizard named Horace Worblehat who accidentally transformed himself into an orangutan and decided he liked it. Then the Ankh Morpork City Watch gains a new volunteer named Carrot Ironfoundersson was brought up as a dwarf and is enormously strong, honest, moral, straightforward, idealistic and has an absolute dedication and conscientiousness to his job. Initially This causes problems when he tries to arrest the head of the Thieves’ Guild for theft. Then Vimes meets with Sybil Ramkin, a breeder of swamp dragons who gives the Watch a Swamp dragon named Errol, as a mascot.

Meanwhile The dragon which the Brethren have summoned takes over Ankh-Morpork and demands that the people of Ankh-Morpork bring it gold and regular virgin sacrifices. Vimes and the Patrician are then both imprisoned while Sybil is chosen as the first Virgin Sacrifice. Then they learn something surprising about Errol while Carrot gets mixed up with hilarious consequences…

HRH Prince Charles

His Royal Highness Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George) was born 14 November 1948. He is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elzabeth II. Known alternatively in Scotland as Duke of Rothesay and in South West England as Duke of Cornwall, he is the longest-serving heir apparent in British history, having held the position since 1952 and also the oldest heir to the throne since 1714. He is the first grandchild of King George VI andQueen Elizabeth and was Baptised in the palace’s Music Room on 15 December 1948. The prince’s godparents were: the King (his maternal grandfather); the King of Norway (his cousin), Queen Mary (his maternal great-grandmother);Princess Margaret (his maternal aunt); Prince George of Greece and Denmark (his paternal great-uncle, theDowager Marchioness of Milford Haven (his paternal great-grandmother); the Lady Brabourne (his cousin); and the Hon David Bowes-Lyon (his maternal great-uncle’

When Charles was aged three his mother’s accession as Queen Elizabeth II made him heir apparent. As the sovereign’s eldest son, he automatically took the titles Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland, in addition to being a prince of the United Kingdom. Charles attended his mother’s coronation at Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953. A governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed and undertook his education between the ages of five and eight. In 1955 Buckingham Palace announced that Charles would attend school rather than have a private tutor. Charles was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 26 July 1958. Though his investiture was not conducted until 1 July 1969 in a televised ceremony held at Caernarfon Castle.The following year he took his seat in the House of Lords and became the first member of the Royal Family since King George I to attend a British Cabinet meeting, having been invited by Prime Minister James Callaghan. Charles first attended Hill House School in west London, Charles then attended two of his father’s former schools, Cheam Preparatory School in Berkshire, England, and Gordonstoun School which his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, had attended as a child, and which he described as “Colditz in kilts”.

He spent two terms in 1966 at the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia, during which time he visited Papua New Guinea on a school trip with his history tutor, Michael Collins Persse. Upon his return to Gordonstoun, Charles emulated his father in becoming Head Boy. He left in 1967, with six GCE O-levels, and two A Levels in history and French at grades B and C respectively Charles proceeded straight from secondary school into university, as opposed to joining theBritish Armed Forces. In October 1967, the Prince was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge University, where he readanthropology, archaeology, and history. During his second year, Charles attended the University College of Wales in Aberystwyth, studying Welsh history and language for a term. He graduated from Cambridge with a 2:2 Bachelor of Arts In 1970, the first heir apparent to earn a university degree. In 1975, he was awarded a Master of Arts degree from Cambridge, per the university’s tradition. After earning a bachelor of arts degree from Trinity College, Cambridge, Charles served in the Royal Navy from 1971 to 1976 After requesting and receiving Royal Air Force training during his second year at Cambridge, he flew himself to the Royal Air Force College Cranwell to train as a jet pilot. Following the passing-out parade that September, he embarked on a naval career, enrolling in a six-week course at the Royal Naval College Dartmouth and then serving on the guided missile destroyer HMS Norfolk (1971–1972) and the frigates HMS Minerva (1972–1973) and HMS Jupiter (1974). He also qualified as a helicopter pilot at RNAS Yeovilton in 1974, just prior to joining 845 Naval Air Squadron, operating from HMS Hermes. In 1976, he took command of the coastal minehunter HMS Bronington for his last ten months serving actively in the navy. He learned to fly on a Chipmunk basic pilot trainer, a BAC Jet Provost jet trainer, and a Beagle Basset multi-engine trainer; he then regularly flew the Hawker Siddeley Andover, Westland Wessex and BAe 146 aircraft

Charles also began to take on more public duties, founding The Prince’s Trust in 1976. & expressed an interest in serving as Governor-General of Australia. After founding The Prince’s Trust in 1976, Charles has established sixteen more charitable organisations, and now serves as president of all of those Together, these form a loose alliance called The Prince’s Charities, which describes itself as “the largest multi-cause charitable enterprise in the United Kingdom, raising over £100million annually … [and is] active across a broad range of areas including education and young people, environmental sustainability, the built environment, responsible business and enterprise and international. The Prince’s Charities Canada was established in a similar fashion to its namesake in the UK. Charles is also patron of over 350 other charities and organisations, and carries out duties related to these throughout the Commonwealth realms; for example, he uses his tours of Canada as a way to help draw attention to youth, the disabled, the environment, the arts, medicine, the elderly, heritage conservation, and education. In Canada, Charles has supported humanitarian projects, for example taking part, along with his two sons, in the ceremonies marking the 1998 International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. In 2013, Charles donated an unspecified sum of money to the British Red Cross Syria Crisis appeal and DEC Syria appeal, which is run by 14 U.K charities to help victims of Syria’s ongoing humanitarian crisis.Charles was one of the first world leaders to express strong concerns about the human rights record of Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu, initiating objections in the international arena, and subsequently supported the FARA Foundation a charity for Romanian orphans and abandoned children. .

The Prince of Wales has openly expressed his views on architecture and urban planning, asserting that he “cares deeply about issues such as the environment, architecture, inner-city renewal, and the quality of life and his interests encompass a range of humanitarian and social issuesTwo of his charities (The Prince’s Regeneration Trust and The Prince’s Foundation for Building Community) promote his views, on archetechture and the environment. He has long championed organic farming and sought to raise world awareness of the dangers facing the natural environment, such asclimate change. As an environmentalist, he has received numerous awards and recognition from environmental groups around the world. His 2010 book, Harmony: A New Way of Looking at Our World, won the Nautilus Book Award. He has been outspoken on the role of architecture in society and the conservation of historic buildings, and produced a book on the subject called A Vision of Britain: A Personal View of Architecture in 1989. He has also promoted herbal and other alternative medical treatment. Charles helped establish a national trust for the built environment in Canada after lamenting, in 1996, the unbridled destruction of many of the country’s historic urban cores.

He offered his assistance to the Department of Canadian Heritage in creating a trust modelled on Britain’s National Trust, a plan that was implemented with the passage of the 2007 Canadian federal budget. In 1999, the Prince agreed to the use of his title for the Prince of Wales Prize for Municipal Heritage Leadership, awarded by the Heritage Canada Foundation to municipal governments that have shown sustained commitment to the conservation of historic places. While visiting the United States and surveying the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina, Charles received the National Building Museum’s Vincent Scully Prize in 2005, for his efforts in regard to architecture; he donated $25,000 of the prize money towards restoring storm-damaged communities.From 1997, the Prince of Wales has visited Romania to view and highlight the destruction of Orthodox monasteries and Transylvanian Saxon villages during the Communist rule ofNicolae Ceauşescu.] Charles is patron of the Mihai Eminescu Trust, a Romanian conservation and regeneration organisation and has purchased a house in Romania. Charles also has “a deep understanding of Islamic art andarchitecture”, and has been involved in the construction of a building and garden at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies that combine Islamic and Oxford architectural styles. In 2010, The Prince’s Foundation for the Built Environment decided to help reconstruct and redesign buildings in Port-au-Prince, Haiti after the capital was destroyed by the 2010 Haiti earthquake

In 1980, he wrote a children’s book titled The Old Man of Lochnagar which was later adapted into an animation short film, a musical stage play and a ballet. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer and they had two sons, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge (born 1982), and Prince Harry of Wales (born 1984). In 1996, the couple divorced, following well-publicised extra-marital affairs. The following year, the Princess of Wales died in a car crash. In 2005, he married Camilla Parker Bowles in a civil ceremony followed by a televised blessing service. Camilla uses the title Duchess of Cornwall.

On 16 June 2012, the Queen awarded the Prince of Wales honorary five-star rank in all three branches of the British Armed Forces, “to acknowledge his support in her role as Commander-in-Chief.” He became a field marshal, an admiral of the fleet and amarshal of the Royal Air Force. He has held substantive ranks in the armed forces of a number of countries since he was made a flight lieutenant in the Royal Air Force in 1972. Since 2009, Charles holds the second-highest ranks in all three branches of the Canadian Forces. Charles’s first honorary appointment in the armed forces was as Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Regiment of Wales in 1969; since then, the Prince has also been installed as Colonel-in-Chief, Colonel, Honorary Air Commodore, Air Commodore-in-Chief, Deputy Colonel-in-Chief, Royal Honorary Colonel, Royal Colonel, and Honorary Commodore of at least 32 military formations throughout the Commonwealth, including the Royal Gurkha Rifles, which is the only foreign regiment in the British army.He has been inducted into seven orders and received eight decorations from the Commonwealth realms, and has been the recipient of 20 different honours from foreign states, as well as nine honorary degrees from universities in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand

As Prince of Wales, Charles undertakes official duties on behalf of his mother and the Commonwealth realms. He officiates at investitures and attends the funerals of foreign dignitaries. At the funeral of Pope John Paul II, Charles unintentionally caused controversy when he shook hands with Robert Mugabe, the President of Zimbabwe, who had been seated next to him. The Prince finds the current Zimbabwean regime abhorrent. He has supported the Zimbabwe Defence and Aid Fund which works with those being oppressed by the regime. The Prince also recently met Pius Ncube, the Archbishop of Bulawayo, an outspoken critic of the government.”Both Charles and the Duchess of Cornwall travel abroad on behalf of the United Kingdom. The Prince has been regarded as an effective advocate of the country, with his visit to the Republic of Ireland, where he delivered a personally researched and written speech on Anglo-Irish affairs that was warmly received by Irish politicians and the media, being cited as an example. Prince Charles makes regular tours of Wales, fulfilling a week of engagements in the principality each summer, and attending important national occasions, such as opening the Senedd.

In 2000, Charles revived the tradition of the Prince of Wales having an official harpist, in order to foster Welsh talent at playing the harp, the national instrument of Wales. He and the Duchess of Cornwall also spend one week each year in Scotland, where the Prince is patron of several Scottish organisations. His service to the Canadian Armed Forces also permits him to be informed of troop activities, and allows him to visit these troops while in Canada or overseas, taking part in ceremonial occasions, such as placing a specially commissioned wreath, made from vegetation taken from French battlefields, at the Canadian Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and in 1981 he became the patron of the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum. In 2010, he represented the Queen at the opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi, India. He attends official events in the United Kingdom in support of Commonwealth countries, such as the Christchurch earthquake memorial service at Westminster Abbey in 2011 On 16 November 2011, he attended a special service at Westminster Abbey celebrating the 400th anniversary of the King James Bible in the presence of the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh The Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall attended the enthronement of the Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby at Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013. ThePrince of Wales represented the Queen at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2013,

From his youth the Prince had been avid player of competitive polo until 1992, breaking his arm in 1990, and becoming briefly unconscious after a fall in 2001. He then played for charity until 2005. Charles also frequently took part in fox hunting, before the sport was banned in the United Kingdom in 2005. The Prince has been a keen salmon angler since youth and, frequently fishes the River Dee in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, Charles is a supporter of Burnley Football Club. The Prince is also President or Patron of more than 20 performing arts organisations, including the Royal College of Music, the Royal Opera, the English Chamber Orchestra, the Philharmonia Orchestra, Welsh National Opera, and the Purcell School. As an undergraduate at Cambridge he played cello, and has sung with the Bach Choir twice. He is a fan of Canadian singer-songwriter Leonard Cohen. He founded The Prince’s Foundation for Children and The Arts in 2002, to help more children experience the arts first-hand. He is President of the Royal Shakespeare Company and attends performances in Stratford-Upon-Avon, supports fundraising events and attends the company’s annual general meeting. He enjoys comedy, and became a member of The Magic Circle after passing his audition in 1975 by performing the “cups and balls” effect

Prince Charles is also keen and accomplished painter and has exhibited and sold a number of his works, and published many books. In 2001, 20 lithographs of his watercolour paintings illustrating his country estates were exhibited at the Florence International Biennale of Contemporary. He was awarded the 2011 Montblanc de la Culture Arts Patronage Award by the Montblanc Cultural Foundation for his support and commitment to the arts. Upon moving into Highgrove House, he became interested in organic farming, and launched his own organic brand, Duchy Originals. The Prince of Wales also became involved with farming and various industries within it, regularly meeting with farmers to discuss their trade. In 2004, he founded the Mutton Renaissance Campaign, which aims to support British sheep farmers and make mutton more attractive to Britons. In 2007 he received the 10th annual Global Environmental Citizen Award from the Harvard Medical School’s Center for Health and the Global Environment, In 2007, Charles launched The Prince’s May Day Network, which encourages businesses to take action on climate change. He also spoke of the need to protect fisheries, the Amazon rain forest, and to make low-carbon emissions affordable and competitive. In 2011, Charles received the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds Medal for his engagement with the environment, such as the conservation of rainforests and continues his work to this day.

Loosen up, Lighten up Day

Loosen up, Lighten up day takes place annually on 14 November. The purpose of Loosen up, Lighten up Day is to remind people that sometimes you have to take things easy, relax, and focus on your own personal wellbeing in order to remain healthy. Modern life can be very stressful, as the needs of family and work life stretch us to breaking point. However although routine and precision are very useful Life shouldn’t all be about work, deadlines and the rat race; it should also be about relaxing, looking after our health, happiness and contentment otherwise Stress, anxiety and worry are bad for your health and eventually send you to an early grave. What is the point of working yourself into the ground if you’re not going to take the time to enjoy life? Life is there to be lived, and it is too short to be allowed to slip by. New experiences open your mind to a world of possibilities, helping you achieve the ultimate human goal – happiness. a balance has to be found between work and relaxation.

One way to relax and unwind is to take time to cook (unless you own a restaurant or hotel). In the developed world, too many people rely on pre-packaged, convenience food for their meals, which are often laden with salt, sugar, fat and preservatives. Not only is cooking a wholesome, nutritious meal better for your health, the process involved is good for your self-esteem – namely, the sense of achievement that comes with successfully preparing a meal. Moreover, cooking a meal to share with those closest to you can be very good for your overall wellbeing – there are few activities more rewarding than preparing a tasty and nutritious meal for friends and/or family.

Another way to loosen up and lighten up is to exercise regularly, this along with a healthy diet, will help you to regulate your weight and keep you healthy, happy and full of energy. Exercise doesn’t have to mean spending hours at a time in the gym; it can be something as simple as going for a brisk walk in the country or by the sea. It can also be done in the home, and integrated into your daily life.

Relaxing is another good way to lighten up and loosen up. The only way to truly relax is to set aside time during which you won’t be disturbed. Relaxation is a very personal goal, so you need to discover what truly relaxes you. You might find that a massage or spa treatment soothes your senses; some people, on the other hand, find that deep breathing exercises and meditation work. Listening to classical or slow-paced music can also lower blood pressure, anxiety and heart rate and help you relax. Other ways to unwind include watching a favourite TV show, going to yoga classes or reading a good book

Another good way loosen up and lighten up is to Seek new experiences and try something new. Experiencing new things can reinvigorate you, and change the way you approach your entire way of life. This can include doing something you have always wanted to try, but have never had the time or motivation. Loosen up, Lighten up day is an opportunity to relax and restore some balance into your hectic life.

world Diabetes Day



World Diabetes Day is the primary global awareness campaign focusing on diabetes mellitus and is held on November 14 each year. Led by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), each World Diabetes Day focuses on a theme related to diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes is largely preventable and treatable non-communicable disease that is rapidly increasing in numbers worldwide. Type 1 Diabetes is not preventable but can be managed with insulin shots. Topics covered have included diabetes and human rights, diabetes and lifestyle, diabetes and obesity, diabetes in the disadvantaged and the vulnerable, and diabetes in children and adolescents. While the campaigns last the whole year, the day itself marks the birthday of Frederick Banting who, along with Charles Best and John James Rickard Macleod, first conceived the idea which led to the discovery of insulin in 1922.

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eye. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:

Type 1 DM results from the pancreas’s failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”. The cause is unknown. Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as “non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes. The most common cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise.Gestational diabetes is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels. Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco. Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with the disease. Type 1 DM must be managed with insulin injections. Type 2 DM may be treated with medications with or without insulin. Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar. Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 DM.Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.

As of 2015, an estimated 415 million people had diabetes worldwide,with type 2 DM making up about 90% of the cases which represents 8.3% of the adult population,with equal rates in both women and men As of 2014, trends suggested the rate would continue to rise.Diabetes at least doubles a person’s risk of early death. From 2012 to 2015, approximately 1.5 to 5.0 million deaths each year resulted from diabetes.The global economic cost of diabetes in 2014 was estimated to be US$612 billion. In the United States, diabetes cost $245 billion in 2012.

World Diabetes Day was launched in 1991 by the IDF and the World Health Organization (WHO) in response to the rapid rise of diabetes around the world. By 2016, World Diabetes Day was being celebrated by over 230 IDF member associations in more than 160 countries and territories, as well as by other organizations, companies, healthcare professionals, politicians, celebrities, and people living with diabetes and their families. Activities include diabetes screening programmes, radio and television campaigns, sports events.

More Events and Holidays happening on November 14

National American Teddy Bear Day
International Girls Day
National Pickle Day
National Spicy Guacamole Day
Operating Room Nurse Day
Spirit of National Speakers Association Day

Wyrd Sisters

I have recently listened to the hilarious BBC4 Radio four part adaptation of Wyrd Sisters by Terry Pratchett. Wyrd Sisters was the sixth Disc World Novel and was published in 1988. Itfeatures three witches: Granny Weatherwax; Nanny Ogg, owner of the most evil cat in the world; and Magrat Garlick, the junior witch, Who Find themselves involved in a sinister plot involving murder and mistaken identity, when they are given a mysterious child named Tomjon and a crown. The witches unaware of the child’s true parentage hand him to a troupe of travelling actors, led by Vitoller and hide the crown in the props-box. However They learn that Tomjon could play an important part in the future of Lancre.

Nanny Ogg Then learns that the ex-King Verence I of Lancre was a victim of foul play and was murdered by his cousin, Duke Felmet, and his scheming and ambitious wife, who were crowned King and Queen but have made themselves very unpopular by raising taxes and persecuting Witches Since coming to power. So Granny Weatherwax, Nanny Ogg and Magrat Garlick devise a plan to help Tomjon. Then in order to restore his popularity, the duke decides to have a play written and performed that portrays him in a favourable light and the witches in a negative light. So he employs the services of a group of actors. (ironically this happens to be the same acting company that Tomjon was given to). So Vitoller, Tomjon (who has become an extremely talented actor) and The rest of the company, make their way to Lancre, to perform the play for the King.

However, following an unfortunate incident and a little intervention from the witches, people discover more about Duke Felmet, and the Duchess, concerning the fate of Verance I. Then both Tomjon and the Jester also learn something surprising from Granny Weatherwax and have an important decision to make concerning their destinies and the fate of Lancre itself…