Chiropractic Founder’s Day

Chiropractic Founder’s Day Takes place annually on 15 September to commemorate the First ‘adjustment’ by Daniel David Palmer, the founder of modern Chiropractic medicine on 15 September 1895. Chiropractic medicine is a form of alternative medicine mostly concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine. Some proponents, especially those in the field’s early history, have claimed that such disorders affect general health via the nervous system, through vertebral subluxation, claims which are contrary to scientific evidence.The main chiropractic treatment technique involves manual therapy, especially spinal manipulation therapy (SMT), and manipulations of other joints and soft tissues.Its foundation is at odds with mainstream medicine, and chiropractic is sustained by pseudoscientific ideas such as subluxation and “innate intelligence” that reject science.

Numerous controlled clinical studies of treatments used by chiropractors have been conducted, with conflicting results. Systematic reviews of this research have not found evidence that chiropractic manipulation is effective, with the possible exception of treatment for back pain.A critical evaluation found that collectively, spinal manipulation was ineffective at treating any condition. Spinal manipulation may be cost-effective for sub-acute or chronic low back pain but the results for acute low back pain were insufficient.The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of maintenance chiropractic care are unknown. There is not sufficient data to establish the safety of chiropractic manipulations.It is frequently associated with mild to moderate adverse effects, with serious or fatal complications in rare cases.There is controversy regarding the degree of risk of vertebral artery dissection, which can lead to stroke and death, from cervical manipulation.Several deaths have been associated with this technique. It has been suggested that the relationship is causative, a claim which is disputed by many chiropractors.

Chiropractics is well established in the United States, Canada, and Australia. It overlaps with other manual-therapy professions such as osteopathy and physical therapy. Most who seek chiropractic care do so for low back pain.Back and neck pain are considered the specialties of chiropractic, but many chiropractors treat ailments other than musculoskeletal issues. Many chiropractors describe themselves as primary careproviders, but the chiropractic clinical training does not support the requirements to be considered primary care providers.Chiropractics has two main groups: “straights”, now the minority, emphasize vitalism, “innate intelligence”, and consider vertebral subluxations to be the cause of all disease; “mixers”, the majority, are more open to mainstream views and conventonal medical techniques, such as exercise, massage, and ice therapy.

D. D. Palmer founded a chiropractor Practice in the 1890s, after saying he received it from “the other world”, and his son B. J. Palmer helped to expand it in the early 20th century.Throughout its history, chiropractics has been controversial. Its foundation is at odds with mainstream medicine, and has been sustained by pseudoscientific ideas such as subluxation and innate intelligence.Despite the overwhelming evidence that vaccination is an effective public health intervention, among chiropractors there are significant disagreements over the subject, which has led to negative impacts on both public vaccination and mainstream acceptance of chiropractic. The American Medical Association called chiropractic an “unscientific cult” in 1966 and boycotted it until losing an antitrust case in 1987.Chiropractors have had a strong political base and sustained demand for services; in recent decades, it has gained more legitimacy and greater acceptance among conventional physicians and health plans in the United States

National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day

National HIV/AIDS and Aging awareness Day takes place annually on 15 September.. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day on 15 September 2008 to focus attention on HIV- issues Confronting people aged 55 or older, who account for 22% of an estimated 1.2 million Americans living with HIV. Older adults are less likely to get tested for the virus, so they are often diagnosed late in the course of the infection, when it is more likely to develop into AIDS.

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness, followed by a prolonged period with no apparent symptoms. As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of developing common infections such as tuberculosis, as well as other opportunistic infections, and tumors that rarely affect people who have working immune systems. These late symptoms of infection are referred to as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This stage is often also associated with unintended weight loss.

HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding.  Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV. Methods of prevention include safe sex, needle exchange programs, treating those who are infected, and male circumcision. Disease in a baby can often be prevented by giving both the mother and child antiretroviral medication. There is no cure or vaccine; however, antiretroviral treatment can slow the course of the disease and may lead to a near-normal life expectancy. Treatment is recommended as soon as the diagnosis is made. Without treatment, the average survival time after infection is 11 years.

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World Lymphoma Awareness Day

World Lymphoma Awareness Day (WLAD) is a global initiative held annually on September 15 with the aim of raising awareness of lymphoma, an increasingly common form of cancer. It is hosted by the Lymphoma Coalition (LC), a non-profit network organisation of 63 lymphoma patient groups from 44 countries around the world.

WLAD was initiated in 2004 to raise public awareness of both Hodgkin and non- Hodgkin lymphoma in terms of symptom recognition, early diagnosis and treatment. Lymphoma is a potentially life threatening disease which is becoming more widespread Currently One million people worldwide live with lymphoma with nearly 1,000 people being diagnosed with the disease every day, and World Lymphoma Awareness Day aims to raise awareness of the signs and symptoms of lymphoma, to fund lymphoma research and to allow people around the world to better recognize its signs and symptoms, leading to earlier diagnosis and more timely treatment. Greater awareness will also empower patients and their families to demand specialist treatment and care from qualified lymphoma physicians as well as gain access to the most up-to-date information, support and treatment.

This global campaign aims to provide a platform for doctors, nurses, patient support groups, patients and their families to share vital knowledge about lymphoma, its signs and symptoms, and how it affects lives of thousands of people around the world. In addition Know Your Nodes is a public awareness campaign launched by the World Lymphoma Awareness Day in 2007, to enable people to learn more about their lymph nodes, lymphatic systems and the signs and symptoms of lymphoma in time for World Lymphoma Awareness Day. Lymphoma’s signs and symptoms can be similar to other, less serious illnesses, and increasing awareness of lymphoma will allow people around the world to better recognise its signs and symptoms, leading to earlier diagnosis and more timely treatment.

The Beacons of Hope program was created in 2006 to celebrate inspiring people around the world that have been affected by lymphoma. Lymphoma Coalition members were asked to nominate individuals affected by lymphoma who acted as global ‘Beacons of Hope’ ambassadors. The ambassadors spread the word of hope across the world, bringing real life experience to WLAD. The Lymphoma Club was founded in 2010 to recognize those affected by all Lymphomas (Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma) and to help raise awareness for Lymphoma. The Lymphoma Coalition is a non-profit network organisation of lymphoma patient groups which was Established in 2003, with the aim of raising awareness of lymphoma, and promoting the well-being of people affected by lymphoma worldwide.

World suicide Prevention Day

World Suicide Prevention Day (WSPD) is an awareness day observed annually on 10 September, in order to provide worldwide commitment and action to prevent suicides via the organisation of global, regional and national multi-sectoral activities to increase awareness about suicidal behaviours and how to effectively prevent them. The International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP) collaborates with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Federation for Mental Health (WFMH) to host World Suicide Prevention Day. In 2011 an estimated 40 countries held awareness events to mark the occasion. According to WHO’s Mental health Atlas released in 2014, no low-income country reported having a national suicide prevention strategy, while less than 10% of lower-middle income countries, and almost a third of upper-middle and high-income countries had.

An estimated one million people per year die by suicide or about one person in 10,000 (1.4% of all deaths), or about 3,000 every day”. As of 2004 the number of people who die by suicide is expected to reach 1.5 million per year by 2020. On average, three male suicides are reported for every female one, across different age groups and in almost every country in the world. “Conversely, rates of suicide attempts tend to be 2-3 times higher in women than in men, although the gender gap has narrowed in recent years.” More people die from suicide than from murder and war; it is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide. According to WHO there are twenty people who have a failed suicide attempt for every one that is successful, at a rate approximately one every three seconds. Suicide is the “most common cause of death for people aged 15 – 24. According to WHO, suicide accounts for nearly half of all violent deaths in the world. Brian Mishara, IASP president, noted that, more people kill themselves than die in all wars, terrorist acts and interpersonal violence combined. As of 2008, the WHO refers the widest number of suicides occur in the age group 15 – 29, while the lowest in the 80+ although representing as well the one with the highest rate (per 100,000) of all age groups, with 27.8 suicides and 60.1 for females and males respectively. Social norms play a significant role in the development of suicidal behaviors. Late 19th century’s sociological studies recorded first ever observations on suicide: with statistics of the time at hand, sociologists mentioned the effects of industrialization as in relations between new urbanized communities and vulnerability to self-destructive behavior, suggesting social pressures have effects on suicide. Today, differences in suicidal behavior among different countries can show significant. Suicide prevention’s priorities, as declared on the 2012 World Suicide Prevention Day event, are stated below:

The need to continue to research suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour, addressing both risk and protective factors.
The need to develop and implement awareness campaigns, with the aim of increasing awareness of suicidal behaviours in the community, incorporating evidence on both risk and protective factors.

The need to target our efforts not only to reduce risk factors but also to strengthen protective factor, especially in childhood and adolescence.
The need to train health care professionals to better understand evidence-based risk and protective factors associated with suicidal behaviour.
The need to combine primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.
The need to increase use of and adherence to treatments shown to be effective in treating diverse conditions; and to prioritise research into effectiveness of treatments aimed at reducing self-harm and suicide risk.
The need to increase the availability of mental health resources and to reduce barriers to accessing care.
The need to disseminate research evidence about suicide prevention to policy makers at international, national and local levels.
The need to reduce stigma and promote mental health literacy among the general population and health care professionals.
The need to reach people who don’t seek help, and hence don’t receive treatment when they are in need of it.
The need to ensure sustained funding for suicide research and prevention.
The need to influence governments to develop suicide prevention strategies for all countries and to support the implementation of those strategies that have been demonstrated to save lives.

In much of the world, suicide is stigmatized and condemned for religious or cultural reasons. In some countries, suicidal behavior is a criminal offence punishable by law. Suicide is therefore often a secretive act surrounded by taboo, and may be unrecognized, misclassified or deliberately hidden in official records of death. Stigma, particularly surrounding mental disorders and suicide, means many people thinking of taking their own life or who have attempted suicide are not seeking help and are therefore not getting the help they need. The prevention of suicide has not been adequately addressed due to a lack of awareness of suicide as a major public health problem and the taboo in many societies to openly discuss it. Raising community awareness and breaking down the taboo is important for countries to make progress in preventing suicide.” In richer countries, three times as many men die of suicide than women do, but in low- and middle-income countries the male-to-female ratio is much lower at 1.5 men to each woman. In the United States, males are four times more likely to die from suicide than are females. However, females are more likely to attempt suicide than are males.

Some of the Main suicide triggers are poverty, unemployment, the loss of a loved one, arguments, mental and physical health problems, legal or work-related problems, depression, financial problems, abuse, aggression, social status, exploitation and mistreatment, hopelessness, unemployment, Changing gender roles, sexual orientation, difficulties with developing one’s identity, disassociation from one’s community or other social/belief group, and honour are among the most common causes which can contribute to the feelings of pain and trigger suicidal thoughts.

In 1999, death by self-inflicted injuries was the fourth leading cause of death among aged 15–44, in the world. In a 2002 study it’s reported the countries with the lowest rates tend to be in Latin America, ‘Muslim countries and a few Asian countries’, and noted a lack of information from most African countries where incidence of suicide tends to be under-reported and misclassified due to both cultural and social pressures, and possibly completely unreported in some areas. Since data might be skewed, comparing suicide rates between nations can result in statistically unsound conclusions about suicidal behavior in different countries. Nevertheless the statistics are commonly used to directly influence decisions about public policy and public health strategies.

Of the 34 member countries of the OECD, a group of mostly high-income countries that uses market economy to improve the Human Development Index, South Korea had the highest suicide rate in 2009. In 2008 it was reported that young people 15–34 years old in China were more likely to die by suicide, especially young Chinese women in rural places because of ‘arguments about marriage’. By 2011 however, suicide rate for the same age group had been declining significantly according to official releases, mainly by late China’s urbanisation and migration from rural areas to more urbanised: since the 1990s indeed, overall national chinese suicide rate dropped by 68%. According to WHO, in 2009 the four countries with the highest rates of suicide were all in Eastern Europe; Slovenia, Russia, Latvia, and Belarus. As of 2015 the highest suicide rates are in Eastern Europe, Korea and the Siberian area bordering China, in Sri Lanka and the Guianas, Belgium and few Sub-Saharan countries. suicide is considered a major public health issue in high-income and an emerging problem in low and middle-income countries. Among high-income countries (besides South Korea) highest rates in 2015 are found in these countries, Belgium, France, Japan, Croatia, Austria, Uruguay and Finland. According to WHO’s Mental health Atlas released in 2014, no low-income country reported having a national suicide prevention strategy, while less than 10% of lower-middle income countries, and almost a third of upper-middle and high-income countries had.

Socioeconomic status plays an important role in suicidal behavior, and wealth is a constant with regards to Male–Female suicide rate ratios, being that excess male mortality by suicide is generally limited or non existent in low- and middle-income societies, whereas it is never absent in high-income countries. Suicidal behavior has been studied bybeconomists since about the 1970s: although national costs of suicide and suicide attempts are very high, suicide prevention is hampered by scarce resources for lack of interest by mental health advocates and legislators; and moreover, personal interests even financial are studied with regards to suicide attempts. In the 1990’s The United Nations issued ‘National Policy for Suicide Prevention’ which is used as a basis for their assisted suicide policies. However the UN noted that suicide bombers’ deaths are seen as secondary to their goal of killing other people or specific targets and the bombers are not otherwise typical of people committing suicide.

According to a 2006 WHO press release, one third of worldwide suicides were committed with pesticides, “some of which were forbidden by United Nations (UN) conventions.” WHO urged the highly populated Asian countries to restrict pesticides that are commonly used in failed attempts, especially organophosphate-based pesticides that are banned by international conventions but still made in and exported by some Asian countries. WHO reports an increase in pesticide suicides in other Asian countries as well as Central and South America.It is estimated that such painful failed attempts could be reduced by legalizing controlled voluntary euthanasia options, as implemented in Switzerland. As of 2017, it is estimated that around 30% of global suicides are still due to pesticide self-poisoning, most of which occur in rural agricultural areas in low- and middle-income countries (consisting in about 80% world population). In high-income countries consisting of the remaining 20% world population most common methods are firearms, hanging and other self-poisoning.

European and American societies report a higher male mortality by suicide than any other, in western countries men are about 300% more likely to die by suicide than females. suicide rates are globally higher among men than women even though women are more prone to suicidal thoughts than men. The disparity in suicide rates has been partly explained by the use of more lethal means and the experience of more aggression and higher intent to die, when suicidal, in men than women. There are many potential reasons for different suicide rates in men and women such as gender equality issues, differences in socially acceptable methods of dealing with stress and conflict for men and women, availability of and preference for different means of suicide, availability and patterns of alcohol consumption, and differences in care-seeking rates for mental disorders between men and women. However women had higher suicide rates in countries of the former Soviet Bloc and in some of Latin America. Globally. While in China women were up to 30% more likely than men to commit suicide and up to 60% in some other South Asian countries. Some suicide reduction strategies do not recognize the separate needs of males and females. Many young females are at a higher risk of attempting suicide, therefore policies tailored towards this demographic can reduce the overall rates. Researchers have also recommended aggressive long-term treatments and follow up for males that show indications of suicidal thoughts.

More international and national events happening 10 September

  • National Hot Dog Day
  • National Swap Ideas Day
  • TV Dinner Day 

World Physiotherapy Day

World Physical Therapy Day is observed annually on 8 September This day was designated in 1996 by the World Confederation for Physical Therapy. The aim of World Physical Therapy day is to generate awareness about the crucial contribution physical therapists make to society, in enabling people to be mobile, live well, and be independent.

Physical therapy, is a primary care specialty performed by physical therapists (known as physiotherapists in many countries), which uses movements [Bio-mechanics or Kinesiology], Manual therapy, exercise therapy, electrotherapy and various physical therapies who practice evidence based treatments, remediates impairments and promotes mobility, function, and quality of life through examination, diagnosis, prognosis, education, consultation, and administration. Physical therapy services may be provided as primary care treatment or alongside, or in conjunction with, other medical services in order to alleviate the symptoms of illnesses, or injuries that limit a person’s abilities to move and enable them to perform activities in their daily lives.

They do this by examining an individual’s history and physical codition to arrive at a diagnosis and establish a management plan and, when necessary, incorporate the results of laboratory and imaging studies like X-rays, CT-scan, or MRI findings. Electrodiagnostic testing (e.g., electromyograms and nerve conduction velocity testing) may also be used. PT management commonly includes prescription of or assistance with specific exercises, manual therapy and manipulation, mechanical devices such as traction, education, physical agents which includes heat, cold, electricity, sound waves, radiation, assistive devices, prostheses, orthoses and other interventions. In addition, PTs work with individuals to prevent the loss of mobility before it occurs by developing fitness and wellness-oriented programs for healthier and more active lifestyles, providing services to individuals and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. This includes providing therapeutic treatment in circumstances where movement and function are threatened by aging, injury, disease or environmental factors. Functional movement is central to what it means to be healthy.

Physical therapy has many specialties including musculoskeletal, sports, neurology, wound care, EMG, cardio pulmonary, geriatrics, orthopedics, women’s health, and pediatrics. Neurological rehabilitation is in particular a rapidly emerging field. PTs practice in many settings, such as private-owned physical therapy clinics, outpatient clinics or offices, health and wellness clinics, rehabilitation hospitals facilities, skilled nursing facilities, extended care facilities, private homes, education and research centers, schools, hospices, industrial and this workplaces or other occupational environments, fitness centers and sports training facilities.

Physical therapists also practise in the non-patient care roles such as health policy, health insurance, health care administration and as health care executives. Physical therapists are involved in the medical-legal field serving as experts, performing peer review and independent medical examinations. However Education varies greatly by country. The span of education ranges from some countries having little formal education to others having doctoral degrees and post doctoral residencies and fellowships.

Physicians like Hippocrates and Galen are believed to have been the first practitioners of physical therapy, advocating massage, manual therapy techniques and hydrotherapy to treat people in 460 BC. After the development of orthopedics in the eighteenth century, machines like the Gymnasticon were developed to treat gout and similar diseases by systematic exercise of the joints, similar to later developments in physical therapy. The earliest documented origins of actual physical therapy as a professional group date back to Per Henrik Ling, “Father of Swedish Gymnastics,” who founded the Royal Central Institute of Gymnastics (RCIG) in 1813 for manipulation, and exercise. The Swedish word for physical therapist is sjukgymnast = someone involved in gymnastics for those who are ill. In 1887, PTs were given official registration by Sweden’s National Board of Health and Welfare. Other countries soon followed. In 1894, four nurses in Great Britain formed the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. The School of Physiotherapy at the University of Otago in New Zealand in 1913, and the United States’ 1914 Reed College in Portland, Oregon, which graduated “reconstruction aides. spinal manipulative therapy is also component of the physical therapist practice.

Modern physical therapy was established towards the end of the 19th century when rapid advances in physical therapy were required following various wars. American orthopedic surgeons began treating children with disabilities and began employing women trained in physical education, and remedial exercise. These treatments were applied and promoted further during the Polio outbreak of 1916. During the First World War women were recruited to work with and restore physical function to injured soldiers, and the field of physical therapy was institutionalized. In 1918 the term “Reconstruction Aide” was used to refer to individuals practicing physical therapy. The first school of physical therapy was established at Walter Reed Army Hospital in Washington, D.C., following the outbreak of World War I. Research catalyzed the physical therapy movement. The first physical therapy research was published in the United States in March 1921 in “The PT Review.” In the same year, Mary McMillan organized the American Women’s Physical Therapeutic Association (now called the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA).

In 1924, the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation promoted the field by touting physical therapy as a treatment for polio. Treatment through the 1940s primarily consisted of exercise, massage, and traction. Manipulative procedures to the spine and extremity joints began to be practiced, especially in the British Commonwealth countries, in the early 1950s. Around this time when polio vaccines were developed, physical therapists have become a normal occurrence in hospitals throughout North America and Europe. In the late 1950s, physical therapists started to move beyond hospital-based practice to outpatient orthopedic clinics, public schools, colleges/universities health-centres, geriatric settings (skilled nursing facilities), rehabilitation centers and medical centers. Specialization for physical therapy in the U.S. occurred in 1974, with the Orthopaedic Section of the APTA being formed for those physical therapists specializing in orthopaedics. In the same year, the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Physical Therapists was formed, which has ever since played an important role in advancing manual therapy worldwide.

World Mosquito Day

World Mosquito Day, is observed annually on 20 August, to commemorate British doctor Sir Ronald Ross, who in 1897, discovered that female mosquitoes transmit malaria between humans. Ross is responsible for the annual observance, having declared shortly after his discovery that the day should be known as World Mosquito Day in the future. The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine also holds Mosquito Day celebrations every year, including events such as parties and exhibitions, in a tradition dating back to as early as the 1930s.

Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae. Females of most species are ectoparasites, whose tube-like mouthparts (called a proboscis) pierce the hosts’ skin to consume blood. The word “mosquito” (formed by mosca and diminutive -ito is Spanish for “little fly”. Thousands of species feed on the blood of various kinds of hosts, mainly vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and even some kinds of fish. Some mosquitoes also attack invertebrates, mainly other arthropods. Though the loss of blood is seldom of any importance to the victim, the saliva of the mosquito often causes an irritating rash that is a serious nuisance. Much more serious though, are the roles of many species of mosquitoes as vectors of diseases. In passing from host to host, some transmit extremely harmful infections such as malaria, yellow fever, Chikungunya, West Nile virus, dengue fever, filariasis, Zika virus and other arboviruses, rendering it the deadliest animal family in the world.

The oldest known mosquito with an anatomy similar to modern species was found in 79-million-year-old Canadian amber from the Cretaceous. An older sister species with more primitive features was found in Burmese amber that is 90 to 100 million years old. Two mosquito fossils have been found that show very little morphological change in modern mosquitoes against their counterpart from 46 million years ago. These fossils are also the oldest ever found to have blood preserved within their abdomens.

Despite no fossils being found earlier than the Cretaceous, recent studies suggest that the earliest divergence of mosquitoes between the lineages leading to Anophelinae and Culicinae occurred 226 million years ago. The Old and New World Anopheles species are believed to have subsequently diverged about 95 million years ago. Over 3,500 species of the Culicidae have already been described. They are generally divided into two subfamilies which in turn comprise some 43 genera. These figures are subject to continual change, as more species are discovered, and as DNA studies change the taxonomy of the family. The two main subfamilies are the Anophelinae and Culicinae, these two subfamilies tend to transmit different diseases. Culicine species tend to transmit arboviral diseases such as yellow fever and dengue. Some species transmit various species of avian malaria, and various forms of filariasis, likemany Simuliidae do. Anopheline mosquitoes, sometimes bear pathogenic arboviruses, and are likely to transmit Human Malaria.

Mosquitoes are members of a family of nematocerid flies: the Culicidae (from the Latin culex, genitive culicis, meaning “midge” or “gnat”) Superficially, mosquitoes resemble crane flies (family Tipulidae) and chironomid flies (family Chironomidae). In particular, the females of many species of mosquitoes are blood-eating pests and spread many dangerous diseases, whereas members of the similar-looking Chironomidae and Tipulidae are not. Many species of mosquitoes are not blood eaters and of those that are, many create a “high to low pressure” in the blood to obtain it and do not transmit disease. Also, in the bloodsucking species, only the females suck blood. even among mosquitoes that do carry diseases, not all of them transmit the same kinds of diseases, nor do they all transmit the diseases under the same circumstances; as their habits differ. So far Over 3,500 species of mosquitoes have already been described. Some mosquitoes that bite humans spread a number of infectious diseases affecting millions of people per year. Others that do not routinely bite humans, but spread animal diseases, may spread new diseases when their habitats are disturbed, for instance by sudden deforestation.

Florence Nightingale

Celebrated English nurse, writer and statistician Florence Nightingale OM, RRC sadly Passed away on 13th August 1910. She was born on 12 May 1820 and is noted for her pioneering work in nursing during the Crimean War, where she tended to wounded soldiers, and was dubbed “The Lady with the Lamp” after her habit of making rounds at night. Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment of her nursing school at St Thomas’ Hospital in London, the first nursing school in the world, now part of King’s College London. the annual International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world on her birthday.

She was born at the Villa Colombaia, near the Porta Romana at Bellosguardo in Florence, Italy, and was named after the city of her birth. Inspired by a call from God she announced her decision to enter nursing in 1844, and rebelled against the expected role for a woman of her status, which was to become a wife and mother. Nightingale worked hard to educate herself in the art and science of nursing, .In Rome she met Sidney Herbert, a brilliant politician who was instrumental in facilitating Nightingale’s nursing work in the Crimea, and she became a key adviser to him in his political career. Later in 1850, she visited a Lutheran religious community where she observed The Pastor and the deaconesses working for the sick and the deprived. , based on this experience She published her first book The Institution of Kaiserswerth on the Rhine, for the Practical Training of Deaconesses, and also received four months of medical training at the institute which formed the basis for her later career.

Florence Nightingale’s most famous contribution came during the Crimean War, which became her central focus in changing the horrific conditions present. On 21 October 1854, she and a staff of 38 women volunteer nurses, were sent to the Ottoman Empire, approx. 546 km (339 miles) across the Black Sea from Balaklava in the Crimea, where the main British camp was based. She arrived early in November 1854 and found wounded soldiers being badly cared for by overworked medical staff in the face of official indifference. Medicines were in short supply, hygiene was neglected, conditions were unsanitory, and there was no equipment to process food for the patients.This prompted Nightingale to send a plea to The Times for the government to produce a solution to the poor conditions, the British Government commissioned Isambard Kingdom Brunel to design a prefabricated hospital, which could be built in England and shipped to the Dardanelles. The result was Renkioi Hospital, a civilian facility which under the management of Dr Edmund Alexander Parkes had a death rate less than 1/10th that of Scutari. At the beginning of the 20th century, it was asserted that Nightingale reduced the death rate from 42% to 2% either by making improvements in hygiene herself or by calling for the Sanitary Commission. .

During her first winter at Scutari, 4,077 soldiers died. Ten times more soldiers died from illnesses such as typhus, typhoid, cholera and dysentery than from battle wounds.Conditions at the temporary barracks hospital were so fatal because of overcrowding, defective sewers and lack of ventilation. A Sanitary Commission had to be sent out by the British government to Scutari in March 1855, and effected flushing out the sewers and improvements to ventilation. Death rates were sharply reduced. During the war she did not recognise hygiene as the predominant cause of death, and she never claimed credit for helping to reduce the death rate. Nightingale continued believing the death rates were due to poor nutrition and supplies and overworking of the soldiers. It was not until after she returned to Britain and began collecting evidence before the Royal Commission on the Health of the Army that she realised most of the soldiers at the hospital were killed by poor living conditions and advocated sanitary living conditions as of great importance. Consequently, she reduced deaths in the army during peacetime and turned attention to the sanitary design of hospitals. During the Crimean war, Florence Nightingale gained the nickname “The Lady with the Lamp”, deriving from a phrase in a report in The Times and The phrase was further popularised by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s 1857 poem “Santa Filomena”.

While she was in the Crimea, the Nightingale Fund for the training of nurses was established. Nightingale pioneered medical tourism as well, and wrote of spas in the Ottoman Empire, and directed less well off patients there (where treatment was cheaper than in Switzerland). Nightingale also set up the Nightingale Training School at St. Thomas’ Hospital. (Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery at King’s College London.) and campaigned for the Royal Buckinghamshire Hospital in Aylesbury. She also wrote Notes on Nursing, a slim 136-page book that served as the cornerstone of the curriculum at the Nightingale School and other nursing schools,and though written specifically for the education of those nursing at home, it sold well to the general reading public and is considered a classic introduction to nursing.

Nightingale was an advocate for the improvement of care and conditions in the military and civilian hospitals in Britain. One of her biggest achievements was the introduction of trained nurses into the workhouse system from the 1860s onwards. This meant that sick paupers were now being cared for by properly trained nursing staff and was the forerunner of the National Health Service in Britain. By 1882, Nightingale nurses had a growing and influential presence in the embryonic nursing profession. Some had become matrons at leading hospitals, including, in London, St Mary’s Hospital, Westminster Hospital, St Marylebone Workhouse Infirmary and the Hospital for Incurables at Putney, Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley; Edinburgh Royal Infirmary; Cumberland Infirmary and Liverpool Royal Infirmary, as well as at Sydney Hospital in New South Wales, Australia.

In 1883, Nightingale was awarded the Royal Red Cross by Queen Victoria. In 1904, she was appointed a Lady of Grace of the Order of St John (LGStJ) and in 1907, she became the first woman to be awarded the Order of Merit. In 1908, she was given the Honorary Freedom of the City of London and her contributions to medical science, nursing care and sanitary conditions have improved hospitals the world over and are still in use today. He birthday is now celebrated as International CFS Awareness Day