Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen

Jane Austen’s classic novel Pride and Prejudice was first published in the United Kingdom 28 January 1813. Pride and Prejudice concerns young Elizabeth Bennet as she deals with issues of manners, upbringing, morality, education, and marriage in the society of the landed gentry of early 19th-century England. Elizabeth is the second of five daughters of a country gentleman living near the fictional town of Meryton in Hertfordshire, near London. Though the story is set at the turn of the 19th century, it retains a fascination for modern readers, continuing near the top of lists of “most loved books” such as The Big Read. It has become one of the most popular novels in English literature and receives considerable attention from literary scholars and has been adapted for film and television numerous times. To date, the book has sold some 20 million copies worldwide.

The novel centres on Elizabeth Bennet, the second of the five daughters of a country gentleman. Mr Bennet is a bookish man, and somewhat neglectful of his responsibilities. Mrs Bennet is a woman lacking in social graces and primarily concerned with finding suitable husbands for her five daughters. Jane Bennet, the eldest daughter, is distinguished by the kindness of her attitudes and her beauty; Elizabeth Bennet, the second daughter, shares her father’s keen wit and occasionally sarcastic outlook; Mary is not pretty, but is studious, devout and musical albeit lacking in taste; Kitty, the fourth sister follows where her younger sister leads, while Lydia is flirtatious and unrestrained. The novel opens with news that Mr Bingley, a wealthy, charismatic and sociable young bachelor, is moving into Netherfield Park in the neighbourhood. Mr Bingley is soon well received, while his friend Mr Darcy makes a less favourable impression by appearing proud and condescending at a ball that they attend (he detests dancing and is not much for light conversation). Mr Bingley singles out Jane for particular attention, and it soon becomes apparent that they have formed an attachment to each other, though Jane does not alter her conduct for him, confessing her great happiness only to Lizzie. By contrast, Darcy slights Elizabeth, who overhears and jokes about it despite feeling a budding resentment. On paying a visit to Mr Bingley’s sister, Caroline, Jane is caught in a heavy downpour, catches cold, and is forced to stay at Netherfield for several days. Elizabeth arrives to nurse her sister and is thrown into frequent company with Mr Darcy, who begins to act less coldly towards her.

Mr Collins, a clergyman, and heir to the Bennet estate, pays a visit to the Bennets. It soon becomes apparent that Mr Collins has come to Longbourn to choose a wife from among the Bennet sisters (his cousins) and Elizabeth is singled out. Elizabeth forms an acquaintance with Mr Wickham, a militia officer who dislikes Mr Darcy, despite having been a godson and favourite of Mr Darcy’s father. This and Elizabeth’s attraction to Mr Wickham, increase her dislike of Mr Darcy.At a ball ,mr Darcy becomes aware that Mr Bingley and Jane may marry. The following morning, Mr Collins proposes marriage to Elizabeth, who refuses him, much to her mother’s distress. Mr Collins becomes engaged to Elizabeth’s close friend Charlotte Lucas, meanwhile Mr Bingley abruptly leaves Netherfield and returns to London, devastating Jane, and Elizabeth becomes convinced that Mr Darcy and Caroline Bingley have colluded to separate him from Jane.Jane is persuaded that Mr Bingley is not in love with her, but goes on an extended visit to her aunt and uncle Gardiner in London in the hope of maintaining her relationship with Caroline if not with Charles Bingley.

During spring, Elizabeth visits Charlotte and Mr Collins in Kent. Elizabeth and her hosts are frequently invited to Rosings Park, home of Lady Catherine de Bourgh, Darcy’s aunt; coincidentally, Darcy also arrives to visit. Elizabeth meets Darcy’s cousin, Colonel Fitzwilliam, Elizabeth rightly assumes that the said friend is none other than Mr Bingley. Then Darcy arrives and, quite unexpectedly, confesses love for Elizabeth and begs her hand in marriage.However Elizabeth rebukes Mr Darcy, for his actions and he tries to persuade her otherwise. Meanwhile Wickham then attempts to elope with Darcy’s young sister Georgiana, and thereby secure her fortune for himself. Regarding Jane and Bingley, Darcy claims he had observed no reciprocal interest in Jane for Bingley, and had assumed her not to be in love with him. In addition to this, he cites the “want of propriety” in the behaviour of Mr and Mrs Bennet and her three younger daughters. Elizabeth begins to warm to Mr Darcy

Later, Elizabeth and her aunt and uncle Gardiner visit Pemberley, Darcy’s estate, and Darcy introduces Elizabeth to his sister, and Elizabeth begins to acknowledge her attraction to him. Their re-acquaintance is cut short, however, by the news that Lydia has eloped with Mr Wickham. Elizabeth and the Gardiners return to Longbourn (the Bennet family home). Lydia and Wickham are located, and persuaded to marry And Jane, Elizabeth and Mr Bennet suspect that their Uncle Gardiner may have bribed Wickham to marry Lydia. Mr and Mrs Wickham visit Longbourn, Elizabeth discovers that Mr Darcy was responsible for their marriage. Meanwhile Bingley’s returs and proposes to Jane, who immediately accepts. Then Lady Catherine de Bourgh pays an unexpected visit to Longbourn hoping To persuade Elizabeth not to marry Mr Darcy

Data Privacy Day

Data Privacy Day takes place annually on January 28. The purpose of Data Privacy Day (Data Protection Day in Europe) is to raise awareness and promote privacy and data protection best practices. It is currently ‘celebrated’ in the United States, Canada, and 27 European countries. In Europe it is referred to as Data Protection Day. Data Privacy/Protection is the relationship between the collection and dissemination of data, technology, the public expectation of privacy, legal and political issues surrounding them. Privacy concerns exist wherever personally identifiable information or other sensitive information is collected, stored, used, and finally destroyed or deleted – in digital form or otherwise. Improper or non-existent disclosure control can be the root cause for privacy issues. Data privacy issues may arise in response to information from a wide range of sources, such as:

Healthcare records
Criminal justice investigations and proceedings
Financial institutions and transactions
Biological traits, such as genetic material
Residence and geographic records
Privacy breach
Location-based service and geolocation
Web surfing behavior or user preferences using persistent cookies
Academic research

Internet security has become a growing concern. These concerns include whether email can be stored or read by third parties without consent, or whether third parties can continue to track the websites that someone has visited. Another concern is if the websites that are visited can collect, store, and possibly share personally identifiable information about users. The advent of various search engines and the use of data mining created a capability for data about individuals to be collected and combined from a wide variety of sources very easily. The FTC has provided a set of guidelines that represent widely accepted concepts concerning fair information practices in an electronic marketplace called the Fair Information Practice Principles.

In order not to give away too much personal information, emails should be encrypted. Browsing of web pages as well as other online activities should be done trace-less via “anonymizers”, in case those are not trusted, by open-source distributed anonymizers, so called mix nets, such as I2P or Tor – The Onion Router Are available.

Email isn’t the only internet content with privacy concerns. In an age where increasing amounts of information are going online, social networking sites pose additional privacy challenges. People may be tagged in photos or have valuable information exposed about themselves either by choice or unexpectedly by others. Caution should be exercised with what information is being posted, as social networks vary in what they allow users to make private and what remains publicly accessible. Without strong security settings in place and careful attention to what remains public, a person can be profiled by searching for and collecting disparate pieces of information, worst case leading to cases of cyberstalking or reputational damage.

The challenge of data privacy is to use data while protecting an individual’s privacy preferences and their personally identifiable information. The fields of computer security, data security, and information security design and use software, hardware, and human resources to address this issue. Since the laws and regulations related to Privacy and Data Protection are constantly changing, it is important to keep abreast of any changes in the law and to continually reassess compliance with data privacy and security regulations. Within academia, Institutional Review Boards function to assure that adequate measures are taken to ensure both the privacy and confidentiality of human subjects in research.

Data Privacy Day’s educational initiative was originally focused on raising awareness among businesses as well as users about the importance of protecting the privacy of their personal information online, particularly in the context of social networking. The educational focus has expanded over the past four years to include families, consumers and businesses. In addition to its educational initiative, Data Privacy Day promotes events and activities that stimulate the development of technology tools that promote individual control over personally identifiable information; encourage compliance with privacy laws and regulations; and create dialogues among stakeholders interested in advancing data protection and privacy. The international celebration offers many opportunities for collaboration among governments, industry, academia, nonprofits, privacy professionals and educators.

The Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data was opened by the Council of Europe in 1981. This convention is currently in the process of being updated in order to reflect new legal challenges caused by technological development. The Convention on Cybercrime is also protecting the integrity of data systems and thus of privacy in cyberspace. Privacy including data protection is also protected by Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights. The day was initiated by the Council of Europe in 2007 as the European Data Protection Day and on January 26, 2009, the United States House of Representatives passed a House Resolution declaring January 28 National Data Privacy Day. On January 28, 2009, the Senate officially recognised January 28, 2009 as National Data Privacy Day. In response to the increasing levels of data breaches and the global importance of privacy and data security, the Online Trust Alliance (OTA) and the National Cyber Security Alliance adopted Data Privacy Day as Data Privacy & Protection Day, emphasizing the need to look at the long-term impact to consumers of data collection, use and protection practices and they also organise other Data Protection Day Activities

Billy Bass Nelson

Funkadelic U.S musician William “Billy Bass” Nelson was born January 28, 1951 in Plainfield, New Jersey and as a teenager worked at George Clinton’s barbershop, sweeping the floor and singing and dancing for the customers. Clinton was a member of the doo wop vocal group The Parliaments, who scored a nationwide hit in 1967 with the song “(I Wanna) Testify”. Clinton put together a backing band as musical support for a tour and recruited Nelson, originally as guitarist. Nelson later switched to bass when his good friend Eddie Hazel joined as lead guitarist. The backing band was originally unnamed, but Nelson later coined the name “Funkadelic” to reflect the style (funk) and connect it with the then-burgeoning psychedelic music scene.

By 1970, Funkadelic was a full band consisting of Nelson, Hazel, drummer Tiki Fulwood, guitarist Tawl Ross, and keyboardist Mickey Atkins (later replaced by Bernie Worrell). Since 1967 the band had been billed as the musical backing for The Parliaments. Due to legal problems, in the early 1970s Clinton had temporarily lost the rights to the name “The Parliaments” and instead signed the entire ensemble to Westbound Records under the name Funkadelic. Nelson was a prominent contributor to the first three Funkadelic albums, Funkadelic (1970), Free Your Mind… and Your Ass Will Follow (1970), and Maggot Brain (1971).

Nelson left the group in late 1971 after a financial dispute with George Clinton. Nelson and Hazel next performed with The Temptations. Nelson rejoined Funkadelic briefly in the studio in 1975, playing on the track “Better By the Pound” on the Funkadelic album Let’s Take It To The Stage. Nelson later played with The Commodores, Chairmen of the Board, Fishbone, Jermaine Jackson, Parlet, Lionel Richie, Smokey Robinson, and Lenny Williams.

By the early 1990s, Nelson had reunited with Eddie Hazel, Jerome Brailey, Gregg Fitz and Wilbur Harris and others in a new rendition of Funkadelic, “The New Funkadelic” until Eddie Hazel died in 1992. He also enjoyed a surge of name-checking by such legendary bassists as John Norwood Fisher (of Fishbone) and Flea (of the Red Hot Chili Peppers), while his early Funkadelic work was being sampled often by hip hop artists. Joining with some other P-Funk alumni, in 1994 Nelson released the album Out of the Dark under the name O.G. Funk. In 1994, Nelson rejoined Parliament-Funkadelic.

In March 1997, Michael “Clip” Payne debuted the 420 Funk Mob at two sold-out shows at New York City’s Tramps. The band featured fellow P-Funk members Michael Hampton, Lige Curry, Gabe Gonzalez, Ronald “Stozo” Edwards, and Greg Fitz. Nelson was the 420 Funk Mob’s first “Special Guest”. He was also inducted into the Rock and Roll hall of fame in 1997 with fifteen other members of Parliament-Funkadelic.

He continued to make appearances with the 420 Funk Mob on and off through 2006 until he left the Parliament-Funkadelic camp. He appears on the 420 Funk Mob’s Live on the Off Days CD and in their promotional video “What Time Is It?” from 2005. In 2011, he rejoined Parliament-Funkadelic after the death of the band’s lead singer, Garry Snider, playing guitar and bass until 2012. In 2014 he formed The Funkadelic Experience and as of 2015 continues to tour Europe and the United States.

Lego

The Lego Group, patented the design of Lego bricks in 28 January 1958. LEGO ™ was created by Danish businessman Ole Kirk Christiansen, who was born 7 April 1891 in Filskov, Denmark. He trained as a carpenter and started making wooden toys in 1932 to make a living after having lost his job during the depression. Sadly though, shortly after the depression Christiansen’s wife also died, leaving him to raise his four sons by himself. This experience inspired Christiansen to create a range of hard wearing toys. So to make ends meet he decided to construct a small wooden duck toy for his children. When he found that his sons loved the new toy he decided to put the ducks into production using the leftover wood from his old business. He then went on to making miniature versions of the houses and furniture, which also became quite successful.

Unfortunately though In 1942 a fire broke out at the factory destroying Ole’s life’s work and forcing them to rebuild from scratch. So in 1947 he invested in a revolutionary injection-moulding machine Imported from Britain for 30,000 Danish kroner (£3,200). After Building a new factory, Ole set about re-making his lost designs and moved on to manufacturing them in plastic rather than wood, these originally consisted of small plastic bears and rattles. By 1949 he had produced over 200 plastic and wooden toys. Then, two years after buying the injection-moulding machine, he produced the first Lego bricks, called Automatic Binding Bricks, they looked similar to today’s blocks but had a slit in the sides and were completely hollow. Ole Kirk Christiansen came up with the name Lego from the Danish words leg godt, meaning “play well”, and the company grew to become the Lego Group.

Then In 1954, Ole’s son Godtfred, the firm’s junior managing director returned from a UK toy fair with the idea of creating a toy system in which every element could connect together to build things, and by 1958 the firm had patented the colourful bricks with hollow tubes on the underside which could be locked together and the story of the Lego brick began. Sadly though On 11 March 1958, Christiansen died from a heart attack when he was 66 years old, however his third son Godtfred Kirk Christiansen promptly took over the company and developed his idea of interconnecting bricks culminating in The first Lego set, Town Plan No.1, which had everything a child needed to make their own model town centre, this became a huge success.

Since then Lego(tm) has grown to become a household name, annually selling many million sets worldwide. Then In 1968 they opened a theme park at their HQ in Billund, Denmark — the first of six worldwide. A year later came Lego Duplo for under-fives and in 1978 “minifigure” people. Since then, all manner of themed Lego sets have hit shelves, from pirates, Outer Space, Lord of the Rings, Ninjago and Harry Potter. It is estimated that eight Lego sets are sold every Second worldwide on Average. The UK even has its own Legoland which opened in Windsor in 1996 and there are now Lego-only stores, Lego computer games including Lego batman. There are also a number of rather entertaining LEGO Movies and Television series including Ninjago, Lego Star Wars, Lego Nexo Knights and Droid Tales. There is even a clothing range. The Lego Movie 2 has also recently been released. This takes place five years after the first with the citizens of Bricksburg facing another huge new threat from LEGO DUPLO® invaders from outer space, who are wrecking everything faster than they can rebuild. So Lucy, Batman and the rest of their friends battle to defeat the enemy and restore peace to the Lego world. This takes them to faraway, unexplored worlds that test their courage and creativity.

More events and National Holidays happening January 28

National Kazoo Day
Daisy Day
Data Privacy Day
National Blueberry Pancake Day
Pop Art Day
Thank a Plugin Developer Day

Pop art day/Jackson Pollock

PopArt day takes place annually on 28th January to commemorate the birth of the American Artist Jackson Pollock and inspire artists to create their own Pop Art. Paul Jackson Pollock was born in Cody, Wyoming, in 28 January 1912, His parents. Stella and LeRoy Pollock were Presbyterian; and of Irish and Scots-Irish descent, respectively. LeRoy Pollock was a farmer and later a land surveyor for the government, moving for different jobs. Stella, proud of her family’s heritage as weavers, made and sold dresses as a teenager. In 1912, Stella took her sons to San Diego; Jackson was just 10 months old He subsequently grew up in Arizona and Chico, California. While living in Echo Park, California, he enrolled at Los Angeles’ Manual Arts High School, from which he was expelled. He had already been expelled in 1928 from another high school. During his early life, Pollock explored Native American culture while on surveying trips with his father. In 1930, following his older brother Charles Pollock, he moved to New York City, where they both studied under Thomas Hart Benton at the Art Students League. In the early 1930s, Pollock spent a summer touring the Western United States together with Glen Rounds, a fellow art student, and Benton, their teacher.

Pollock was introduced to the use of liquid paint in 1936 at an experimental workshop in New York City by the Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros. He later used paint pouring as one of several techniques on canvases of the early 1940s, such as Male and Female and Composition with Pouring I. After his move to Springs, he began painting with his canvases laid out on the studio floor and he developed what was later called his “drip” technique. Between 1938 and 1942 Pollock worked for the WPA Federal Art Project. Pollock became an Alcoholic and underwent Jungian psychotherapy with Dr. Joseph Henderson and later with Dr. Violet Staub de Laszlo in 1941–42. Henderson engaged him through his art, encouraging Pollock to make drawings. Jungian concepts and archetypes were expressed in his paintings. It is possible that Pollock might have had bipolar disorder (When I get depressed I find that drawing can have an uplifting effect, i think I would go mad without Autodesk Sketchbook, however I digress). In 1943 Pollock signed a gallery contract with Peggy Guggenheim in July 1943. He received the commission to create the 8-by-20-foot (2.4 by 6.1 m) Mural for the entry to her new townhouse. Pollock painted the work on canvas, rather than the wall, so that it would be portable. Pollock’s most famous paintings were made during the “drip period” between 1947 and 1950. He rocketed to fame following an August 8, 1949 four-page spread in Life magazine.

Then At the peak of his fame, Pollock abruptly abandoned the drip style. Pollock’s work after 1951 was darker in color, including a collection painted in black on unprimed canvases. These paintings have been referred to as his ‘Black pourings’ and show Pollock attempting to find a balance between abstraction and depictions of the figure. He later returned to using color and continued with figurative elements. Pollock also moved to the Sidney Janis Gallery, a more commercial gallery; the demand for his work from collectors was great. Unfortunately the extra pressure this put on him, plus personal frustration, worsened his alcoholism.

In 1942 Jackson met fellow artist Lee Krasner while they both exhibited at the McMillen Gallery. Krasner was unfamiliar, yet intrigued with Pollock’s work and went to his apartment, unannounced, to meet him following the gallery. In 1945 Pollock and Lee Krasner married and moved out of the city to the Springs area of East Hampton on the south shore of Long Island into a wood-frame house and barn at 830 Springs Fireplace Road which Pollock converted into a studio, where he perfected his big “drip” technique with which he would become permanently identified. Lee Krasner had an immense impact on Pollock’s art due to her extensive knowledge and training in modern art and techniques which influenced Pollack and helped her bring him up to date with what contemporary art should be and Pollock’s style became more organized and cosmopolitan.

Lee Krasner also introduced Pollock to many collectors, critics, and artists, including Herbert Matter. Jackson Pollock also influenced Lee Krasner’s, artwork and Krasner began to reproduce and reinterpret her husband’s chaotic “I Am Nature” paint splatters in her own work. In 1955, Pollock painted Scent and Search, his last two paintings. In 1956 he was making sculptures at Tony Smith’s home: constructions of wire, gauze, and plaster. Shaped by sand-casting, they have heavily textured surfaces similar to what Pollock often created in his paintings.

Sadly by 1956 Pollock and Krasner’s relationship began to crumble owing to Pollock’s continuing alcoholism and infidelity involving Ruth Kligman. Then tragically On August 11, 1956, Pollock died in a single-car crash in his Oldsmobile convertible while driving under the influence of alcohol. At the time Krasner was visiting friends in Europe and she abruptly returned on hearing the news One of the passengers, Edith Metzger, was also killed in the accident, which occurred less than a mile from Pollock’s home. The other passenger, Ruth Kligman, an artist and Pollock’s mistress, survived. Lee Krasner managed his estate For the rest of her life and ensured that Pollock’s reputation remained strong despite changing art world trends. The couple are buried in Green River Cemetery in Springs with a large boulder marking his grave and a smaller one marking hers.

His Dark Materials

The Lavish 8 Part BBC adaptation of Philip Pullman’s epic fantasy trilogy, His Dark Materials is out on DVD and Blu-Ray. It stars James McAvoy, Ann Marie Duff, and Ruth Wilson. It features a twelve year old orphan named Lyra Belacqua, who lives a carefree existence at Jordan College, Oxford under the guardianship of the College’s Master with her friend Roger and her daemon Pantalaimon. Daemons are the physical manifestation of humans’ souls which naturally exist outside of their bodies in the form of sentient talking animals”.

Meanwhile her Uncle, Lord Asriel is off exploring the North Pole researching the controversial nature of an illusive substance called dust, however this could get him into serious trouble, as it is considered heresy by a mysterious, all powerful and rather sinister religious group called the “Magisterium”. Lyra then meets the seemingly pleasant and glamorous Mrs Coulter. Then when her Uncle Lord Asriel returns she witnesses the Master poison wine intended for Lord Asriel, Lyra’s rebellious and adventuring uncle. She warns Asriel not to drink the wine, then spies on his lecture about “Dust”, mysterious elementary particles attracted to adults more than to children. Asriel shows the college scholars images of a parallel universe seen through the Northern Lights amidst a concentration of Dust.

Lyra’s best friend Roger then goes missing, and is presumed kidnapped by mysterious child abductors called “Gobblers”. Mrs Coulter, a charming socialite, adopts Lyra. Before Lyra leaves Jordan, the Master secretly entrusts her with an alethiometer, a strange truth-telling device, which she quickly learns to use intuitively. After several weeks, Lyra discovers that Coulter is actually involved with the sinisterGobblers, or “General Oblation Board”, a secret Church-funded project. Horrified by this, Lyra flees to the Gyptians, canal-faring nomads, many of whose children have also been abducted including a Gyptian named Billy Costa who also reveal Alarming information concerning Asriel and Coulter.

The Gyptians led by Farder Coram then journey to the Arctic with Lyra, where they believe the Gobblers are holding their children. They stop in Trollesund, where Lyra meets Iorek Byrnison, the dispossessed royal heir of the panserbjørne (armoured bears). Lyra uses her alethiometer to locate Iorek’s missing armour; in return, he and his human aeronaut friend, Lee Scoresby, join her group. She also learns that Lord Asriel has been exiled on Svalbard. Trollesund’s witch consul tells the Gyptians of a prophecy about Lyra which she must not know, and that the witch clans are choosing sides for an upcoming war.

The search party continues towards the Gobbler research station at Bolvangar, along the way Lyra discovers an abandoned child and realises the Gobblers are performing sinister experiments on children by severing the bond between human and dæmon, in a soul-splitting process called intercision. Unfortunately Lyra is also captured and taken to Bolvangar, for intercision herself.

Luckily Lee Scoresby, Iorek, Roger, the Gyptians, and the witch clan of Serafina Pekkala, are in hot pursuit in Lee Scoresby’s hot air balloon. However This does not go very well and Lyra ends up at the mercy of the Usurper panserbjorne, Iofur Raknison. However Iorek Bernyson shows up and confronts Iofor Raknison to reclaim his rightful place as King of the Panserbjorne throne. Lyra, Iorek, and Roger then continue onwards to Svalbard, looking for Asriel. Upon reaching the Northern Lights Lyra learns that Dust could be connected to many wonderful things including Parallel Universes, however she also discovers that there are many others who believe it is evil and would stop at nothing to destroy it and stop people from discovering the truth….