Nelson Piquet

Brazilian race car driver and former Formula One World Champion, Nelson Piquet was Born 17th August 1952. Born the son of a Brazilian politican, he had a brief career in tennis before losing interest in the sport. Piquet took up karting and hid his identity to prevent his father discovering and he became the Brazilian national karting champion in 1971-72 and won the Formula Vee championship in 1976. With advice from Emerson Fittipaldi, Piquet went to Europe to further success by taking the record number of wins in Formula Three in 1978, defeating Jackie Stewart’s all-time record.In the same year, he made his Formula One debut with the Ensign team and drove for Mclaren and Brabham.

In 1979, Piquet moved to the Brabham team and finished the runner-up in 1980 before winning the championship in 1981. Piquet’s poor performances in 1982 saw a resurgence for 1983 and his second world championship. For 1984-85, Piquet had once again lost chances to win the championship but managed to score three wins during that period. He moved to the Williams team in 1986 and was a title contender until the final round in Australia. Piquet took his third and final championship in 1987 during a heated battle with team-mate Nigel Mansell which left the pair’s relationship sour. Piquet subsquently moved to Lotus for 1988-89 where he experienced his third drop in form. He eventually went to the Benetton team for 1990-91 where he managed to win three races before retiring. After retiring from Formula One, Piquet tried his hand at the Indianapolis 500 for two years. He currently runs his own company Autotrac, which supplies tracking equipment for transport and also manages his son Nelson Piquet Jr.

Pierre de Fermat

French lawyer and Mathmatician Pierre de Fermat was Born 17th August in 1601 he was a French lawyer at the Parlement of Toulouse, France, and is credited with early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his adequality. He is also recognized for the discovery of an original method of finding the greatest and the smallest ordinates of curved lines, which is analogous to that of the then unknown differential calculus, and his research into number theory. Fermat also made notable contributions to analytic geometry, probability, and optics, andis best known for Fermat’s Last Theorem, which he described in a note at the margin of a copy of Diophantus’ Arithmetica.

Fermat’s pioneering work in analytic geometry was circulated in manuscript form in 1636, predating the publication of Descartes’ famous La géométrie. This manuscript was published posthumously in 1679 in “Varia opera mathematica”, as Ad Locos Planos et Solidos Isagoge, (“Introduction to Plane and Solid Loci”).In his books “Methodus ad disquirendam maximam et minima” and”De tangentibus linearum curvarum”, Fermat developed a method for determining maxima, minima, and tangents to various curves that was equivalent to differentiation. In these works, Fermat obtained a technique for finding the centers of gravity of various plane and solid figures, which led to his further work in quadrature. Fermat was also the first person known to have evaluated the integral of general power functions. Using an ingenious trick, he was able to reduce this evaluation to the sum of geometric series. The resulting formula was helpful to Newton, and then Leibniz, when they independently developed the fundamental theorem of calculus

Fermat also studied Pell’s equation, perfect numbers, amicable numbers and what would later become Fermat numbers. It was while researching perfect numbers that he discovered the little theorem. He invented a factorization method – Fermat’s factorization method – as well as the proof technique of infinite descent, which he used to prove Fermat’s Last Theorem for the case n = 4. Fermat developed the two-square theorem, and the polygonal number theorem, which states that each number is a sum of three triangular numbers, four square numbers, five pentagonal numbers, and so on. Although Fermat claimed to have proved all his arithmetic theorems, few records of his proofs have survived. Many mathematicians, including Gauss, doubted several of his claims, especially given the difficulty of some of the problems and the limited mathematical tools available to Fermat. His famous Last Theorem was first discovered by his son in the margin on his father’s copy of an edition of Diophantus, and included the statement that the margin was too small to include the proof. He had not bothered to inform even Marin Mersenne of it. It was not proved until 1994, using techniques unavailable to Fermat

Although he carefully studied, and drew inspiration from Diophantus, Fermat began a different tradition. Diophantus was content to find a single solution to his equations, even if it were an undesired fractional one. Fermat was interested only in integer solutions to his Diophantine equations, and he looked for all possible general solutions. He often proved that certain equations had no solution, which usually baffled his contemporaries.Through his correspondence with Pascal in 1654, Fermat and Pascal helped lay the fundamental groundwork for the theory of probability. From this brief but productive collaboration on the problem of points, they are now regarded as joint founders of probability theory. Fermat is credited with carrying out the first ever rigorous probability calculation. In it, he was asked by a professional gambler why if he bet on rolling at least one six in four throws of a die he won in the long term, whereas betting on throwing at least one double-six in 24 throws of two dice resulted in him losing. Fermat subsequently proved why this was the case mathematically. Fermat’s principle of least time (which he used to derive Snell’s law in 1657) was the first variational principle enunciated in physics since Hero of Alexandria described a principle of least distance in the first century CE. Now, Fermat is recognized as a key figure in the historical development of the fundamental principle of least action in physics. The term Fermat functional was named in recognition of this role. Fermat’s Last Theorem states that no three positive integers a, b, and c can satisfy the equation:

An + Bn = Cn

If any integer value of n is greater than two. This theorem was first conjectured in 1637, famously in the margin of a copy of Arithmetica where he claimed he had a proof that was too large to fit in the margin.No successful proof was published until 1995 despite the efforts of countless mathematicians during the 358 intervening years. The unsolved problem stimulated the development of algebraic number theory in the 19th century and the proof of the modularity theorem in the 20th Century. It is among the most famous theorems in the history of mathematics and prior to its 1995 proof, it was in the Guinness Book of World Records for “most difficult maths problem”. Pierre de Fermat sadly passed away 12 January 1665

Madonna (part one)

American singer-songwriter, actress, author, director, entrepreneur and philanthropist Madonna Louise Ciccone was born August 16, 1958 in Bay City, Michigan. In 1977 she moved to New York City to pursue a career in modern dance and performed in the music groups Breakfast Club and Emmy. In 1982, Madonna signed with Sire Records (an affiliate of Warner Bros. Records) and her debut single, “Everybody”, was released in 1982, and the second, “Burning Up”, in March 1983. Madonna Asked boyfriend John “Jellybean” Benitez, To help Produce her eponymous debut album, Madonna. Benitez remixed most of the tracks and produced “Holiday”, which was her third single and her first international top-ten hit. The album contained upbeat synthetic disco,and was released in 1983 containing the hits “Holiday”, “Borderline” and “Lucky Star”. Madonna’s look, style of dressing, performances, and her music videos influenced young girls and women. Her style became one of the female fashion trends of the 1980s. Created by stylist and jewelry designer Maripol, the look consisted of lace tops, skirts over capri pants, fishnet stockings, jewelry bearing the crucifix, bracelets, and bleached hair.

Madonna achieved global recognition after the release of her second studio album, Like a Virgin, in 1984 Containing The title track, “Like a Virgin”. However it attracted controversy and many organizations who complained that the song and its accompanying video promoted premarital sex and undermined family values,  and moralists sought to have the song and video banned. Madonna was also  criticized for her performance of “Like a Virgin” at the first 1984 MTV Video Music Awards (VMA) when She appeared on stage atop a giant wedding cake, wearing a wedding dress and white gloves. The performance is noted by MTV as an iconic moment in VMA history. The next hit was “Material Girl” with a video inspired by Marilyn Monroe’s performance of the song “Diamonds Are a Girl’s Best Friend” from the 1953 film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes.Madonna started dating actor Sean Penn. They married on her birthday in 1985.

In 1985 Madonna appeared as a club singer in The romantic drama Vision Quest, the soundtrack contained two new singles, “Crazy for You” and “Gambler”.  She also played the title role in the 1985 comedy film Desperately Seeking Susan, containing the song “Into the Groove”. In 1985, Madonna embarked on The Virgin concert Tour, with the Beastie Boys as her opening act. She progressed from playing CBGB and the Mudd Club to playing large sporting arenas. She also released two more songs, “Angel” and “Dress You Up”. In July, Penthouse and Playboy magazines published a number of nude photos of Madonna, taken in New York in 1978. She had posed for the photographs as she needed money at the time, and was paid as little as $25 a session. The photographs were ultimately sold for up to $100,000. She referred to these events at the 1985 outdoor Live Aid charity concert, saying that she would not take her jacket off because “the media might hold it against me ten years from now.”

In June 1986, Madonna released her third studio album, True Blue, which was inspired by and dedicated to Sean Penn.and contained the songs “Live to Tell”, “Papa Don’t Preach” and “Open Your Heart”,”True Blue” and “La Isla Bonita”. Madonna also starred in the critically panned film Shanghai Surprise, for which she received her first Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Actress. She made also her theatrical debut in a production of David Rabe’s Goose and Tom-Tom; the film and play both co-starred Penn. In 1987 Madonna was featured in the film Who’s That Girl. She contributed four songs to its soundtrack, including “who’s that Girl?” and “Causing a Commotion”. In 1987 Madonna embarked on the Who’s That Girl World Tour. In 1987 she also released a remix album of past hits, titled You Can Dance. Madonna also filed for divorce from Penn in January 1989, citing irreconcilable differences.

In 1989, Madonna signed a deal with soft-drink manufacturer, Pepsi. In one of her Pepsi commercials, she debuted her song “Like a Prayer”. The corresponding music video featured many Catholic symbols such as stigmata and cross burning, and a dream of making love to a saint, leading the Vatican to condemn the video. Religious groups sought to ban the commercial and boycott Pepsi products. Pepsi revoked the commercial and canceled her sponsorship contract. “Like a Prayer” appeared on Madonna’s fourth studio album, Like a Prayer, which was co-written and co-produced by Patrick Leonard and Stephen Bray and contained the songs “Like a Prayer”,  “Express Yourself”, “Cherish”, In 1990 Madonna starred as Breathless Mahoney in the film Dick Tracy  with Warren Beatty playing the title role.Her performance led to a Saturn Award nomination for Best Actress. To accompany the film, she released the soundtrack album, I’m Breathless, which included songs inspired by the film’s 1930s setting. It also featured the  songs “Vogue” and “Sooner or Later”, which earned songwriter Stephen Sondheim an Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1991. In 1990, Madonna embarked on her Blond Ambition World Tour, Which caused controversy and generated strong negative reaction from religious groups for her performance of “Like a Virgin”, during which two male dancers caressed her body before she simulated masturbation. The Laserdisc release of the tour won Madonna a Grammy Award in 1992 for Best Long Form Music Video. In 1990 Madonna released the Greatest-hits compilation album,”The Immaculate Collection” Including new songs, “Justify My Love” and “Rescue Me” The album was certified diamond by RIAA and sold over 30 million copies worldwide, becoming the best-selling compilation album by a solo artist in history. Madonna again courted controversy in the video for “Justify My Love” which featured scenes of sadomasochism, bondage, same-sex kissing, and brief nudity. In 1990 Madonna Pulled out of Jennifer Lynch’s film, Boxing Helena. Madonna had an eight-month relationship with rapper Vanilla Ice; he ended their relationship because of Madonna’s Sex book. Her first documentary film Truth or Dare (known as In Bed with Madonna outside North America)[86] was released in May 1991 and Chronicled her Blond Ambition World Tour.

In 1992, Madonna Starred in the film A League of Their Own as Mae Mordabito, a baseball player on an all-women’s team. She also recorded the film’s theme song, “This Used to Be My Playground”. She also founded her own entertainment company, Maverick in 1992, consisting of a record company (Maverick Records), a film production company (Maverick Films), and associated music publishing, television broadcasting, book publishing and merchandising divisions. The deal was a joint venture with Time Warner.The first release from the venture was Madonna’s book, titled Sex. It consisted of sexually provocative and explicit images, photographed by Steven Meisel. The book again caused controversy and received strong negative reaction from the media and the general public.she also released her fifth studio album, Erotica, containing The singles: “Deeper and Deeper”, “Bad Girl”, “Fever”, “Rain” and “Bye Bye Baby”. Madonna also featured in the 1993 erotic thriller, Body of Evidence, a film which contained scenes of sadomasochism and bondage and also starred in the film Dangerous Game, which was described as “angry and painful, and the pain feels real.” in 1993, Madonna embarked on The Girlie Show World Tour, in which she dressed as a whip-cracking dominatrix surrounded by topless dancers. In Puerto Rico she rubbed the island’s flag between her legs on stage, causing outrage among the audience. in 1994, she caused further controversy on the Late Show with David Letterman, using profanity that required censorship on television, and handing Letterman a pair of her panties and asking him to smell it. The releases of her sexually explicit films, albums and book, and the aggressive appearance on Letterman all made critics question Madonna as a sexual renegade.

She later released the ballad “I’ll Remember” in an attempt to tone down her provocative image, which was recorded for Alek Keshishian’s film With Honors. She made a subdued appearance with Letterman at an awards show and appeared on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. In 1994 Madonna released her sixth studio album, Bedtime Stories which Had a softer image to try to improve the public perception. It featured the songs, “Secret”, “Take a Bow”, “You’ll See”, “One More Chance”, and a cover of Marvin Gaye’s “I Want You”.Madonna started dating rapper Tupac Shakur, but it ended in 1994. Next year, the rapper revealed in a letter to the singer that he ended the relationship because she was white. She later became romantically involved with fitness trainer Carlos Leon. In 1996 Madonna starred in the musical Evita, Playing the title role of Eva Perón whom Madonna had always wanted to portray, so she asked director Alan Parker. She had vocal training and learned about the history of Argentina and Perón. During shooting she became ill several times due to the intense emotional effort required. After its release, Evita garnered critical appreciation and Madonna won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in Motion Picture Musical or Comedy for the role. She released three singles from the Evita soundtrack album, including “You Must Love Me” (which won an Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1997) and “Don’t Cry for Me Argentina”. Madonna was later presented with the Artist Achievement Award by Tony Bennett at the 1996 Billboard Music Awards.

PART TWO

On October 14, 1996, Madonna gave birth to Lourdes Maria Ciccone Leon, her daughter with Leon. However Her relationship with Carlos Leon ended 1997. After Lourdes’s birth, Madonna became involved in Eastern mysticism and Kabbalah. She was also introduced to Jewish mysticism by actress Sandra Bernhard in 1997. Madonna’s seventh album, Ray of Light, was released in 1998 and She collaborated with electronica producer William Orbit to create a sound that could blend dance music with pop and British rock. Techno and rave was happening in the 90s and had a lot of different forms Such as very experimental, hard stuff like Aphex Twin and party stuff like Fatboy Slim. Ray of Light was honored with four Grammy Awards—including Best Pop Album and Best Dance Recording—and was nominated for both Album of the Year and Record of the Year Rolling Stone listed it among “The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time”. It featured the songs, “Frozen” and “Ray of Light”. In 1999, Madonna recorded the single “Beautiful Stranger” for the film Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me, which earned her a Grammy Award for Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media. Madonna also starred in the 2000 film The Next Best Thing, and contributed two songs to the film’s soundtrack; “Time Stood Still” and a cover of Don McLean’s 1971 song “American Pie”.

In 2000 Madonna Collaborated with French producer Mirwais Ahmadzaï, and released her eighth studio album, Music, which featured elements from the electronica-inspired Ray of Light era. “Music”, “Don’t Tell Me”, and “What It Feels Like for a Girl” The music video of “What It Feels Like for a Girl” depicted Madonna committing acts of crime and vandalism, and was banned by MTV and VH1. In 1998 She met director Guy Ritchie, who would become her second husband, and gave birth to their son Rocco John Ritchie on August 11, 2000 in Los Angeles. Rocco however Madonna suffered complications from the birth due to her experiencing placenta praevia. He was christened at Dornoch Cathedral in Dornoch, Scotland, on December 21, 2000. Madonna married Ritchie the following day at nearby Skibo Castle. In 2001 Madonna embarked on Her fifth concert tour, titled Drowned World Tour, Visiting cities in the U.S. and Europe She also released her second greatest-hits collection, titled GHV2, to coincide with the home video release of the tour. Madonna then starred in the film Swept Away, directed by Ritchie And appeared in London in the West End play Up For Grabs at the Wyndhams Theatre (billed as ‘Madonna Ritchie’) in 2002. She also released “Die Another Day”, the title song for the James Bond film Die Another Day, in which she had a cameo role. The song was nominated for both a Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song and a Golden Raspberry for Worst Song.

Following Die Another Day, Madonna collaborated with fashion photographer Steven Klein in 2003 for an exhibition installation named X-STaTIC Pro=CeSS in New York’s Deitch Projects gallery. It included photography from a photo shoot in W magazine, and seven video segments. Madonna also released her ninth studio album, American Life in 2003, which was based on her observations of American society. However the original music video was canceled as Madonna thought that the video, featuring violence and war imagery, would be deemed unpatriotic since America was then at war with Iraq. Madonna gave another provocative performance at the 2003 MTV Video Music Awards, while singing “Hollywood” with Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, and Missy Elliott. Madonna sparked controversy for kissing Spears and Aguilera suggestively during the performance. Madonna provided guest vocals on Spears’ single “Me Against the Music”. Followed by the release of Remixed & Revisited which contained remixed versions of songs from American Life and included “Your Honesty”,

Madonna also signed a contract with Callaway Arts & Entertainment to be the author of five children’s books. Including The English Roses, which was about four English schoolgirls and their envy and jealousy of each other. In 2004 Madonna and Maverick sued Warner Music Group and Time Warner, claiming that mis management of resources and poor bookkeeping had cost the company millions of dollars In return, Warner countersued alleging that Maverick had lost tens of millions of dollars by itself. The dispute was resolved when the Maverick shares, owned by Madonna and Ronnie Dashev, were purchased by Warner. Madonna and Dashev’s company became a wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Music. In 2004 Madonna embarked on the Re-Invention World Tour in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. Which became the subject of her documentary I’m Going to Tell You a Secret. Madonna was also inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame as one of its five founding members, along with The Beatles, Elvis Presley, Bob Marley, and U2. Rolling Stone ranked her at number 36 on its special issue of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. In 2005, Madonna performed a cover version of the John Lennon song “Imagine” at Tsunami Aid and also performed at the Live 8 benefit concert in London in July 2005. Madonna also released Her tenth studio album, Confessions on a Dance Floor, which won a Grammy Award for Best Electronic/Dance Album and featured the song, “Hung Up”, which went on to reach number one in 40 and 41 countries respectively, earning a place in Guinness World Record. The song contained a sample of ABBA’s “Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Midnight)”, ABBA songwriter Björn Ulvaeus remarked “It is a wonderful track—100 per cent solid pop music.” The second single was “Sorry”.

In 2006 Madonna embarked on the Confessions Tour again causing controversy by using religious symbols, such as the crucifix and Crown of Thorns, in the performance of “Live to Tell”. This caused the Russian Orthodox Church and the Federation of Jewish Communities of Russia to urge all their members to boycott her concert. the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) announced officially that Madonna had sold over 200 million copies of her albums. While on tour Madonna participated in the Raising Malawi initiative by partially funding an orphanage in and traveling to that country. While there, she decided to adopt a boy named David Banda in October 2006. The adoption caused more controversy, because Malawian law requires would-be parents to reside in Malawi for one year before adopting, which Madonna did not do. Madonna also launched A clothing line titled M by Madonna, in collaboration with Swedish clothing retailer H&M, Consisting of leather trench coats, sequined shift dresses, cream-colored calf-length pants, and matching cropped jackets. H&M said the collection reflected Madonna’s “timeless, unique and always glamorous style.”

PART THREE

Madonna released the song “Hey You” for the Live Earth series of concerts. She also performed it at the London Live Earth concert. Madonna also produced and wrote I Am Because We Are, a documentary on the problems faced by Malawians which was directed by Nathan Rissman, who worked as Madonna’s gardener. She also directed her first film Filth and Wisdom which concerns three friends and their aspirations. In 2008, Madonna was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in her first year of eligibility. Madonna did not sing at the ceremony but asked fellow Hall of Fame inductees and Michigan natives The Stooges to perform her songs “Burning Up” and “Ray of Light”. In 2008 Madonna released her eleventh studio album, Hard Candy, Which had R&B and urban pop influences, and featured collaborations with Justin Timberlake, Timbaland, Pharrell Williams and Nate “Danja” Hills. It contained the song “4 Minutes” which became Madonna’s 37th top-ten hit and pushed Madonna past Elvis Presley as the artist with the most top-ten hits. At the 23rd Japan Gold Disc Awards, Madonna received her fifth Artist of the Year trophy from Recording Industry Association of Japan. Madonna also embarked on the Sticky & Sweet Tour; which became second highest-grossing tour of all time, behind The Rolling Stones’s A Bigger Bang Tour and remained the highest-grossing tour by a solo artist until Roger Waters’ The Wall Live in 2013. a book by Madonna’s brother Christopher “Life with My Sister Madonna,” was also published. In 2008 Madonna filed for divorce from Ritchie, citing irreconcilable differences. Madonna then decided to adopt a child from Malawi. The country’s High Court initially approved the adoption of Chifundo “Mercy” James; however, the application was rejected because Madonna was not a resident of the country. Madonna appealed, and on June 12, 2009, the Supreme Court of Malawi granted Madonna the right to adopt Mercy James.

In 2009 Madonna released her third greatest-hits album, Celebration, Containing the new songs “Celebration” and “Revolver” along with 34 hits. She also appeared at the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards, to pay tribute to deceased pop star Michael Jackson. In 2010 Madonna performed at the Hope for Haiti Now: A Global Benefit for Earth quake Relief concert and released Her third live album, Sticky & Sweet Tour. It also became her 20th top-ten album on the Oricon Albums Chart, breaking The Beatles’ record for the most top-ten album by an international act in Japan. An episode of The American television show Glee also featured eight cover versions of Madonna songs. Madonna then released the 1980’s inspired Material Girl clothing line, which she designed with her daughter, Lourdes and opened a series of fitness centers around the world named Hard Candy Fitness. Madonna and MG Icon also released the second fashion brand called Truth or Dare by Madonna to include footwear, underclothing, and accessories.

In 2011 Madonna directed her second feature film, W.E., a biographical film about the affair between King Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson. Co-written with Alek Keshishian it premiered at the 68th Venice International Film Festival in September 2011. Madonna contributed the ballad “Masterpiece” for the film’s soundtrack, which won her a Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song. In 2012 Madonna performed at Super Bowl XLVI halftime show,visualized by Cirque Du Soleil and Jamie King and featured special guests LMFAO, Nicki Minaj, M.I.A. and Cee Lo Green. Madonna also released Her twelfth studio album, MDNA and collaborated with various producers including William Orbit and Martin Solveig. The song “Give Me All Your Luvin'”, also featured guest vocals from Minaj. However The subsequent MDNA Tour, featured controversial subjects such as violence, firearms, human rights, nudity and politics. Madonna won Top Touring Artist, Top Dance Artist and Top Dance Album At the 2013 Billboard Music Awards, and was named the top-earning celebrity of the year by Forbes. Madonna’s also released her fourth live album, MDNA World Tour, in 2013. Madonna’s Raising Malawi organization had also built ten schools to educate 4,000 children in Malawi

In 2013 Madonna Released a 17-minute film called secretprojectrevolution Working with photographer Steven Klein. The BitTorrent company was selected by Madonna to release the film as part of a Madonna bundle which consisted of the 17-minute film, its stills, a Vice interview, and a message from Madonna With the film she launched the Art for Freedom initiative, which helped to promote “art and free speech as a means to address persecution and injustice across the globe”. The website for the project has had over 3,000 art related submissions since its inception, with Madonna regularly monitoring and enlisting other artists like David Blaine and Katy Perry as guest curators. Madonna released thirteenth studio album, Rebel Heart, in 2015 collaborating with Avicii, Diplo and Kanye West, and also embarked on the Rebel Heart Tour throughout North America, Europe and Asia and Australia. Madonna became embroiled in a legal battle with Ritchie, over the custody of their son Rocco. The dispute started when Rocco decided to continue living in England with Ritchie when the Rebel Heart Tour had visited there, while Madonna wanted him to return with her. Madonna eventually decided to withdraw her application for custody, and appealed for a mutual discussion about Rocco, between herself and Ritchie. During 2014 Madonna visited her hometown of Detroit and contributed funds to three of the city’s organizations, to help eliminate poverty. Extending her business ventures, the singer premiered MDNA Skin in 2014, a range of skin care products in Tokyo, Japan.In 2016 Billboard named Madonna its Woman of the Year. Her “blunt and brutally honest” speech at the ceremony received widespread coverage in the media.

Her upcoming projects include co-writing and directing a film adaptation of Andrew Sean Greer’s novel, The Impossible Lives of Greta Wells. Tentatively titled Loved, the film would portray the protagonist’s relationship with her gay twin brother Felix . In November 2016, Madonna, who actively supported Hillary Clinton during the 2016 U.S. presidential election, performed an impromptu acoustic concert at Washington Square Park in support of Clinton’s campaign. Upset that Donald Trump won the election, Madonna spoke out against him at the Women’s March on Washington, a day after his inauguration. In 2017, Madonna also adopted four-year-old twin sisters from Malawi named Esther and Stella.

Elvis Presley

Often referred to as the “King of Rock and Roll” or simply “the King”, Elvis Presley tragically died 16 August 1977 at the age of 42. He was born 8th January, 1935 in Tupelo, Mississippi. At the age of 13 Presley moved to Memphis, Tennessee, with his family and began his career there in 1954, working with Sun Records owner Sam Phillips, who wanted to bring the sound of African American music to a wider audience. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was one of the originators of rockabilly, an uptempo, backbeat-driven fusion of country and rhythm and blues. Presley’s rise to national attention in 1956 transformed the field of popular music and had a huge effect on the broader scope of popular culture.

Presley’s first RCA single, “Heartbreak Hotel“, was released in January 1956, and was a number one hit. He became the leading figure of the newly popular sound of rock and roll with a series of network television appearances and chart-topping records. His energized interpretations of songs, many from African American sources, and his uninhibited performance style made him enormously popular—and controversial. In November 1956, he made his film debut in Love Me Tender. He was Conscripted into military service in 1958, and relaunched his recording career two years later with some of his most commercially successful work. He staged few concerts however, and guided by Colonel Tom Parker, he proceeded to devote much of the 1960s to making Hollywood movies and soundtrack albums, most of them critically derided. In 1968, after seven years away from the stage, he returned to live performance in a celebrated comeback television special that led to an extended Las Vegas concert residency and a string of profitable tours. In 1973 Presley staged the first concert broadcast globally via satellite, Aloha from Hawaii, seen by approximately 1.5 billion viewers.

Presley is regarded as one of the most important figures of 20th-century popular culture. He had a versatile voice and unusually wide success encompassing many genres, including country, pop ballads, gospel, and blues. He is the best-selling solo artist in the history of popular music. Nominated for 14 competitive Grammys, he won three, and received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36. He has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame, and is regarded As the catalyst for the cultural revolution that was rock and roll, he was central not only to defining it as a musical genre but in making it a touchstone of youth culture and rebellious attitude. His name, image, and voice are instantly recognizable around the globe, and in In polls and surveys, he is recognized as one of the most important popular music artists and influential Americans.

“Elvis Presley is the greatest cultural force in the twentieth century”, said composer and conductor Leonard Bernstein. “He introduced the beat to everything and he changed everything—music, language, clothes. It’s a whole new social revolution—the sixties came from it.” Bob Dylan described the sensation of first hearing Presley as “like busting out of jail”. A New York Times editorial on the 25th anniversary of Presley’s death observed, “All the talentless impersonators and appalling black velvet paintings on display can make him seem little more than a perverse and distant memory. But before Elvis was camp, he was its opposite: a genuine cultural force. … Elvis’s breakthroughs are underappreciated because in this rock-and-roll age, his hard-rocking music and sultry style have triumphed so completely.” Not only Presley’s achievements, but his failings as well, are seen by some cultural observers as adding to the power of his legacy.

His sudden death was contributed to by Prescription drug abuse And poor diet which severely compromised his health. Despite this Elvis Presley remains a supreme figure in American life, one whose presence, no matter how banal or predictable, brooks no real comparisons, The cultural range of his music has expanded to the point where it includes not only the hits of the day, but also patriotic recitals, pure country gospel, and really dirty blues. Elvis emerged as a great artist, a great rocker, a great purveyor of schlock, a great heart throb, a great bore, a great symbol of potency, a great ham, a great nice person, and a great American.

James Cameron

Canadian film director, film producer, deep-sea explorer, screenwriter, and editor James Cameron was born August 16, 1954.  His first film was called Xenogenesis (1978). . He then became a production assistant on a film called Rock and Roll High School, though uncredited in 1979. While continuing to educate himself in film-making techniques, Cameron started working as a miniature-model maker at Roger Corman Studios. Making rapidly-produced, low-budget productions taught Cameron to work efficiently and effectively. He soon found employment as an art director in the sci-fi movie Battle Beyond the Stars (1980). He did special effects work design and direction on John Carpenter’s Escape from New York (1981), acted as production designer on Galaxy of Terror (1981), and consulted on the design of Android (1982). Cameron was hired as the special effects director for the sequel to Piranha, entitled Piranha II: The Spawning in 1981. The original director, Miller Drake, left the project due to creative differences with producer Ovidio Assonitis, who then gave Cameron his first job as overall director. The interior scenes were filmed in Italy while the underwater sequences were shot at Grand Cayman Island. While Filming in Jamaica, they had numerous problems plus adverse weather. James Cameron was fired after failing to get a close up of Carole Davis in her opening scene. Ovidio ordered Cameron to do the close-up the next day before he started on that day’s shooting. Cameron spent the entire day sailing around the resort to reproduce the lighting but still failed to get the close-up. After he was fired, Ovidio invited Cameron to stay on location and assist in the shooting. Once in Rome, Ovidio took over the editing when Cameron was stricken with food poisoning.

 During his illness, he had a nightmare about an invincible robot hitman sent from the future to kill him, giving him the idea for The Terminator. After completing a screenplay for The Terminator, Cameron decided to sell it so that he could direct the movie. However, the production companies he contacted, while expressing interest in the project, were unwilling to let a largely inexperienced feature film director make the movie. Finally, Cameron found a company called Hemdale Pictures, which was willing to let him direct. Gale Anne Hurd, who had started her own production company, Pacific Western Productions, had previously worked with Cameron in Roger Corman’s company and agreed to buy Cameron’s screenplay for one dollar, on the condition that Cameron direct the film. Hurd was signed on as producer, and Cameron finally got his first break as director. Orion Pictures distributed the film. For the role of the Terminator, Cameron envisioned a man who was not exceptionally muscular, who could “blend into” a crowd. Lance Henriksen, who had starred in Piranha II: The Spawning, was considered for the title role, but when Arnold Schwarzenegger and Cameron first met over lunch to discuss Schwarzenegger playing the role of Kyle Reese, both came to the conclusion that the cyborgvillain would be the more compelling role for the Austrian bodybuilder; Henriksen got the smaller part of LAPD detective Hal Vukovich and the role of Kyle Reese went to Michael Biehn. In addition, Linda Hamilton first appeared in this film in her iconic role of Sarah Connor, and later married Cameron.The Terminator was a box office hit, breaking expectations by Orion Pictures executives that the film would be regarded as no more than a sci-fi film, and only last a week in theaters. It was a low-budget film which cost $6.5 million to make, cutting expenses in such ways as recording the audio track in mono. However, The Terminator eventually earned over $78 million worldwide.

He next began the film Aliens, the sequel to Alien, by Ridley Scott and cast Sigourney Weaver in the iconic role of Ellen Ripley. According to Cameron, the crew on Aliens was hostile to him, regarding him as a poor substitute for Ridley Scott. Cameron sought to show them The Terminator but the majority of the crew refused to watch it and remained skeptical of his direction throughout production. Despite this and other off-screen problems (such as clashing with an uncooperative camera man and having to replace one of the lead actors – Michael Biehn of Terminator took James Remar’s place as Corporal Hicks), Aliens became a box office success. It received Academy Award nominations for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Weaver, Best Art Direction, Best Film Editing, Best Original Score, Best Sound, and won awards for Best Sound Effects Editing and Best Visual Effects. In addition, the film and its lead actress made the cover ofTIME magazine as a result of its numerous and extensive scenes of women in combat – these were almost without precedent and expressed the feminist theme of the film very strongly.

Three years after filming Aliens Cameron followed up withThe Abyss (1989) Inspred by an idea he had during a high school biology class. It concerns oil-rig workers who discover otherworldly underwater creatures and stars Ed Harris, Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio and Michael Biehn.  it was considered to be one of the most expensive films of its time, and required cutting-edge effects technology. Because much of the film takes place underwater and the technology wasn’t advanced enough to digitally create an underwater environment, Cameron chose to shoot much of the movie “reel-for-real”, at depths of up to 40 feet (12 m). Following the success of The Terminator, there had always been talks about a sequel to continue the story of Sarah Connor and her struggle against machines from the future. Although Cameron had come up with a core idea for the sequel, and Schwarzenegger expressed interest in continuing the story, there were still problems regarding who had the rights to the story, as well as the logistics of the special effects needed to make the sequel. Finally, in late-1980s, Mario Kassar of Carolco Pictures secured the rights to the sequel, allowing Cameron to greenlight production of the film, now called Terminator 2: Judgment Day. For the film, Linda Hamilton and Arnold Schwarzenegger reprised their roles as Sarah Connor and The Terminator, but this time as a protector. Unlike Schwarzenegger’s character—the T-800 Terminator which is made of a metal endoskeleton—the new villain of the sequel, called the T-1000, is a more-advanced Terminator made of liquid metal, and with polymorphic abilities. The T-1000 would also be much less bulky than the T-800. For the role, Cameron cast Robert Patrick, a sharp contrast to Schwarzenegger. Cameron explained, “I wanted someone who was extremely fast and agile. If the T-800 is a human Panzer tank, then the T-1000 is a Porsche.”Cameron had originally wanted to incorporate this advanced-model Terminator into the first film, but the special effects at the time were not advanced enough. The ground-breaking effects used in The Abyss to digitally depict the water tentacle convinced Cameron that his liquid metal villain was now possible.

The movie, co-written by Cameron and his longtime friend, William Wisher, Jr., had to go from screenplay to finished film in one year. Like Cameron’s previous film, it was one of the most expensive films of its era, with a budget of about $100 million. The biggest challenge of the movie was the special effects used in creating the T-1000. Nevertheless, the film was finished on time, and released to theaters on July 3, 1991.Terminator 2, or T2, as it was abbreviated, broke box-office records (including the opening weekend record for an R-rated film), earning over $200 million in the United States and Canada, and over $300 million in other territories, and became the highest-grossing film of that year. It won four Academy Awards: Best Makeup, Best Sound, Best Sound Effects Editing, and Best Visual Effects. It was also nominated for Best Cinematography and Best Film Editing, but lost both Awards to JFK.James Cameron announced a third Terminator film many times during the 1990s, but without coming out with any finished scripts. Kassar and Vajna purchased the rights to the Terminator franchise from a bankruptcy sale of Carolco’s assets. Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines was eventually made and released in July 2003 without Cameron’s involvement. Jonathan Mostow directed the film and Schwarzenegger returned as the Terminator.Cameron reunited with the main cast of Terminator 2 to film T2 3-D: Battle Across Time, an attraction at Universal Studios Florida, Universal Studios Hollywood and Universal Studios Japan. It was released in 1996 and was a mini-sequel to Terminator 2: Judgment Day. The show is in two parts: a prequel segment in which a spokesperson talks about Cyberdyne, and a main feature, in which the performers interact with a 3-D movie.

Before the release of T2, Schwarzenegger came to Cameron with the idea of remaking the French comedy La Totale! Titled True Lies, with filming beginning after T2’s release, the story revolves around a secret-agent spy who leads a double life as a married man, whose wife believes he is a computer salesman. Schwarzenegger was cast as Harry Tasker, a spy charged with stopping a plan by a terroristto use nuclear weapons against the United States. Jamie Lee Curtis and Eliza Dushku played the character’s family, and Tom Arnold the sidekick.Cameron’s Lightstorm Entertainment signed on with Twentieth Century Fox for production of True Lies. Made on a budget of $115 million and released in 1994, the film earned $146 million in North America, and $232 million abroad. The film received an Academy Award nomination for Best Visual Effects.

Cameron’s next film concerned the sinking of the RMS Titanic. The picture featured a fictional romance story between two young lovers from different social classes who meet on board. Before production began, he took dives to the bottom of the Atlantic and shot actual footage of the ship underwater, which he inserted into the final film. Much of the film’s dialogue was also written during these dives. Subsequently, Cameron cast Leonardo DiCaprio, Kate Winslet, Billy Zane, Kathy Bates, Frances Fisher, Gloria Stuart, Bernard Hill, Jonathan Hyde, Victor Garber, Danny Nucci, David Warner, Suzy Amis, and Bill Paxton as the film’s principal cast. Cameron’s budget for the film reached about $200 million, making it the most expensive movie ever made at the time. Titanic went on to gross more than $1 billion worldwide and remained the highest-grossing film since 1998, until Cameron’s 2009 film Avatar surpassed it in 2010. The CG visuals surrounding the sinking and destruction of the ship were considered spectacular. It received 14 Oscar nominations (tied with All About Eve) at the 1998 Academy Awards. It won 11 Oscars (also tying the record for most Oscar wins with Ben-Hur and later The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King), including: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Art Direction, Best Cinematography, Best Visual Effects, Best Film Editing, Best Costume Design, Best Sound, Best Sound Effects Editing, Best Original Dramatic Score, Best Original Song. Upon receiving the Best Director Oscar, Cameron exclaimed, “I’m king of the world!”, in reference to one of the main characters’ lines from the film. After receiving the Best Picture Oscar along withJon Landau, Cameron asked for a moment of silence for the 1500 men, women and children, who died when the ship sank. Titanic was re-released in 3D in April 2012, to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the sinking of the real ship.

Following Titanic Cameron began a project that took almost 10 years to make: his science-fiction epic Avatar (2009), This concerns a disabled ex-marine named Jake Sully who is stationed on the lush Planet Pandora and is asked to make contact with the planets indiginous Na’avi people by means of using an Artifically grown body known as an Avatar. Jake is asked to mediate between the locals and the human settlers concerning mining rights to a valuable mineral which can only be found on Pandora. After a while Jake begins to find the Na’avi way of life rather enjoyable and is horrified when the Military attack and decide to start using deadly force So he switches his allegiance and encourages the Na’avi to start fighting back. Following Avatar’s release Cameron was again nominated for Best Director and Film Editing again.

Between making Titanic and Avatar, Cameron spent several years creating many documentary films (specifically underwater documentaries) and co-developed the digital 3D Fusion Camera System. Described by a biographer as part-scientist and part-artist, Cameron has also contributed to underwater filming and remote vehicle technologies. On March 26, 2012, Cameron reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the ocean, in the Deep sea Challenger submersible. He is the first person to do this in a solo descent, and is only the third person to do so ever. Cameron Then moved to television and created Dark Angel, a superheroine-centered series influenced bycyberpunk, biopunk, contemporary superhero franchises, and third-wave feminism. Co-produced with Charles H. Eglee, Dark Angel starred Jessica Alba as Max Guevara, a genetically enhanced super-soldier created by a secretive organization. Cameron’s work was said to “bring empowered female warriors back to television screens by mixing the sober feminism of his The Terminator and Aliens characters with the sexed-up Girl Power of a Britney Spears concert.” sadly low ratings in the second led to its cancellation. Cameron himself directed the series finale, a two-hour episode wrapping up many of the series’ loose ends. He has been nominated for six Academy Awards overall and won three for Titanic. In total, Cameron’s directorial efforts have grossed approximately US$2 billion in North America and US$6 billion worldwide. Not adjusted for inflation, Cameron’s Titanic and Avatar are the two highest-grossing films of all time at $2.19 billion and $2.78 billion respectively. In March 2011 he was named Hollywood’s top earner by Vanity Fair, with estimated 2010 earnings of $257 million

Lawrence of Arabia

Thomas Edward Lawrence, CB, DSO was born 16th August 1888. known professionally as T. E. Lawrence, he was a British Army officer renowned especially for his liaison role during the Arab Revolt against Ottoman Turkish rule of 1916–18. The breadth and variety of his activities and associations, and his ability to describe them vividly in writing, earned him international fame as Lawrence of Arabia, a title which was used for the 1962 film based on his World War I activities. From 1907 to 1910 Lawrence studied history at Jesus College, Oxford. He became a practising archaeologist in the Middle East, working at various excavations. In 1908 he joined the OUOTC (Oxford University Officer Training Corps), undergoing a two-year training course. Before the outbreak of World War I, Lawrence was co-opted by the British Army to undertake a military survey of the Negev Desert while doing archaeological research. In the summer of 1909 Lawrence set out alone on a three-month walking tour of crusader castles in Ottoman Syria. Lawrence graduated with First Class Honours after submitting a thesis entitled The influence of the Crusades on European Military Architecture — to the end of the 12th century, based on his field research in France, notably in Châlus, and in the Middle East.

On completing his degree in 1910, Lawrence commenced postgraduate research in mediaeval pottery with a Senior Demy, a scholarship, at Magdalen College, Oxford, which he abandoned after he was offered the opportunity to become a practising archaeologist in the Middle East. In December 1910 he sailed for Beirut, and went to Jbail (Byblos), and then went to work on the excavations at Carchemish, in northern Syria, where he worked for the British Museum. As the site lay near an important crossing on the Baghdad Railway, knowledge gathered there was of considerable importance to the military. From November 1911 he spent a second season at Carchemish and continued making trips to the Middle East as a field archaeologist until the outbreak of the First World War.

In January 1914, he was co-opted by the British military as an archaeological smokescreen for a British military survey of the Negev Desert in order to search for an area referred to in the Bible as the “Wilderness of Zin”; along the way, they undertook an archaeological survey of the Negev Desert. The Negev was of strategic importance, as it would have to be crossed by any Ottoman army attacking Egypt in the event of war, Lawrence also visited Aqaba and Petra. Upon the outbreak of World War One in 1914 Lawrence was working as a university post-graduate researcher and had travelled extensively within the Ottoman Empire provinces of the Levant (Transjordan and Palestine) and Mesopotamia (Syria and Iraq) under his own name. As such he became known to the Turkish Interior Ministry authorities and their German technical advisors. Lawrence came into contact with the Ottoman–German technical advisers, travelling over the German-designed, -built, and -financed railways during the course of his researches. Due to his first-hand knowledge of Syria, the Levant, and Mesopotamia, He was posted to Cairo on the Intelligence Staff of the GOC Middle East. The British government in Egypt sent Lawrence to work with the Hashemite forces in the Hejaz in October 1916

During the war, Lawrence fought with Arab irregular troops under the command of Emir Faisal, a son of Sherif Hussein of Mecca, in extended guerrilla operations against the armed forces of the Ottoman Empire. Lawrence obtained assistance from the Royal Navy to turn back an Ottoman attack on Yenbu in December 1916. Lawrence’s major contribution to the revolt was convincing the Arab leaders (Faisal and Abdullah) to co-ordinate their actions in support of British strategy. He persuaded the Arabs not to make a frontal assault on the Ottoman stronghold in Medina but allowed the Turkish army to tie up troops in the city garrison. The Arabs were then free to direct most of their attention to the Turks’ weak point, the Hejaz railway that supplied the garrison. This vastly expanded the battlefield and tied up even more Ottoman troops, who were then forced to protect the railway and repair the constant damage. Lawrence developed a close relationship with Faisal. In 1917, Lawrence arranged a joint action against the strategically located but lightly defended town of Aqaba. On 6 July, Aqaba fell to Lawrence and the Arab forces. After Aqaba, Lawrence was promoted to major. In January 1918, the battle of Tafileh, an important region southeast of the Dead Sea, was fought using Arab regulars under the command of Jafar Pasha al-Askari which was described as a “brilliant feat of arms” and Lawrence was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for his leadership at Tafileh, and was also promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and described as a very inspiring gentleman adventurer.

Lawrence was also involved in the build up to the capture of Damascus in the final weeks of the war, the newly liberated Damascus had been envisaged by Lawrence as the capital of an Arab state and he was was instrumental in establishing a provisional Arab government under Faisal. Faisal’s rule as king, however, came to an abrupt end in 1920, after the battle of Maysaloun, when the French Forces of General Gouraud, under the command of General Mariano Goybet, entered Damascus, destroying Lawrence’s dream of an independent Arabia.

Following the war, Lawrence worked for the Foreign Office, and also as as an advisor to Winston Churchill at the Colonial Office. In 1919 his flight to Egypt crashed at the airport of Roma-Centocelle. The pilot and co-pilot were killed; Lawrence came off with a broken shoulder blade and two broken ribs. He continued serving in the RAF based at Bridlington, specialising in high-speed boats. Lawrence was also a keen motorcyclist, and, at different times, had owned seven Brough Superior motorcycles. His seventh motorcycle is on display at the Imperial War Museum. Sadly In May 1935, At the age of 46, Lawrence was fatally injured in an accident on his Brough Superior SS100 motorcycle in Dorset, close to his cottage, Clouds Hill, near Wareham. A dip in the road obstructed his view of two boys on their bicycles; he swerved to avoid them, lost control and was thrown over the handlebars. He died six days later on 19 May 1935. The spot is marked by a small memorial at the side of the road.

Good Omens

Good Omens, by Terry Pratchett and Neil Gaiman is being made into a six-part humorous fantasy drama, for Amazon and BBC Two. Equal parts humour and horror, fantasy and drama, the series is written by Neil Gaiman (American Gods), who will also serve as Executive Producer

It is based on the internationally best selling novel Good Omens by Terry Pratchett (Hogfather) and Neil Gaiman. The story stretches from the beginning of time to quite near the end of time. It stars Multi-award-winning actor Michael Sheen, OBE (Masters Of Sex, Passengers and the upcoming films Home Again and Brad’s Status) as the somewhat fussy angel and rare-book dealer Aziraphale”. It also stars David Tennant (Broadchurch, Doctor Who, Jessica Jones) as the fast living demon Crowley, both of whom have lived amongst Earth’s mortals since The Beginning and have grown rather fond of the lifestyle and of each other. However they find out that if Heaven and Hell have their way, the world will end on Saturday. Next Saturday, in fact. Just before dinner. So The armies of Good and Evil amass, Atlantis rises, tempers flare. The Four Horsemen Of The Apocalypse make ready to ride and Everything appears to be going according to Divine Plan. Except that someone seems to have misplaced the Antichrist…

Good Omens is being produced by the comedy team at BBC Studios including Chris Sussman, Head of Comedy at BBC Studios and Executive Producer plusthe BBC’s commercial production arm, Narrativia under Rob Wilkins, Executive Producer and Narrativia MD, and The Blank Corporation, in association with BBC Worldwide. It was commissioned for Amazon by Roy Price, Head of Amazon Studios and Prime Video content globally, and for BBC Two by Patrick Holland, Controller, BBC Two; Shane Allen, Controller, BBC Comedy Commissioning and BBC commissioning editor Gregor Sharp. Neil Gaiman, Writer and Executive Producer. It will be directed by acclaimed director Douglas Mackinnon, whose credits include Doctor Who, Outlander and the standalone Victorian episode of Sherlock: The Abominable Bride, winner of the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Television Movie last year.