Daniel Defoe

Most famous for his novel Robinson Crusoe, the English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer, and spy Daniel Defoe sadly died 24 April 1731. Daniel Foe (his original name) was probably born in Fore Street in the parish of St. Giles Cripplegate, London. Defoe later added the aristocratic-sounding “De” to his name, and on occasion claimed descent from the family of De Beau Faux. His birthdate and birthplace are uncertain, and sources offer dates from 1659–1662. His father James Foe was a prosperous tallow chandler and a member of the Worshipful Company of Butchers. In Defoe’s early life, he experienced some of the most unusual occurrences in English history: in 1665, 70,000 were killed by the Great Plague of London, and next year, the Great Fire of London left standing only Defoe’s and two other houses in his neighbourhood. In 1667, when he was probably about seven, a Dutch fleet sailed up the Medway via the River Thames and attacked the town of Chatham in the raid on the Medway. His mother Annie had died by the time he was about ten. Defoe was educated at the Rev. James Fisher’s boarding school in Pixham Lane in Dorking, Surrey. His parents were Presbyterian dissenters, and around the age of 14 he attended a dissenting academy at Newington Green in London run by Charles Morton, and he is believed to have attended the Newington Green Unitarian Church when the English government persecuted those who chose to worship outside the Church of England.

Defoe became a general merchant, dealing at different times in hosiery, general woollen goods, and wine. His ambitions were great and he was able to buy a country estate and a ship (as well as civets to make perfume), though he was rarely out of debt. In 1684, Defoe married Mary Tuffley, the daughter of a London merchant, receiving a dowry of £3,700. With his debts and political difficulties, the marriage may have been troubled, but it lasted 50 years and produced eight children. In 1685, Defoe joined the ill-fated Monmouth Rebellion but gained a pardon, by which he escaped the Bloody Assizes of Judge George Jeffreys. Queen Mary and her husband William III were jointly crowned in 1688, and Defoe became one of William’s close allies and a secret agent. Some of the new policies led to conflict with France, thus damaging prosperous trade relationships for Defoe, who had established himself as a merchant. In 1692, Defoe was arrested for debts of £700, though his total debts may have amounted to £17,000. His laments were loud and he always defended unfortunate debtors. However some of his financial dealings may have been “slightly irregular”. Following his release, he probably travelled in Europe and Scotland, and it may have been at this time that he traded wine to Cadiz, Porto, and Lisbon. By 1695, he was back in England, now formally using the name “Defoe” and serving as a “commissioner of the glass duty”, responsible for collecting taxes on bottles. In 1696, he ran a tile and brick factory in what is now Tilbury in Essex and lived in the parish of Chadwell St Mary.

Defoe’s first publication was An Essay upon Projects, a series of proposals for social and economic improvement, published in 1697. From 1697 to 1698, he defended the right of King William III to a standing army during disarmament, after the Treaty of Ryswick (1697) had ended the Nine Years’ War (1688–97). His most successful poem, The True-Born Englishman (1701), defended the king against the perceived xenophobia of his enemies, satirising the English claim to racial purity. In 1701, Defoe presented the Legion’s Memorial to the Speaker of the House of Commons, later his employer Robert Harley, flanked by a guard of sixteen gentlemen of quality. It demanded the release of the Kentish petitioners, who had asked Parliament to support the king in an imminent war against France. However The death of William III in 1702 once again created a political upheaval, as the king was replaced by Queen Anne who immediately began her offensive against Nonconformists. Defoe became a target, for his pamphleteering and political activities and he was arrest and placement in a pillory on 31 July 1703, principally on account of his December 1702 pamphlet entitled The Shortest-Way with the Dissenters; Or, Proposals for the Establishment of the Church, purporting to argue for their extermination, in which he ruthlessly satirised both the High church Tories and those Dissenters who hypocritically practised so-called “occasional conformity”, such as his Stoke Newington neighbour Sir Thomas Abney. Defoe was arrested and charged with seditious libel. He was found guilty after a trial at the Old Bailey in front of the notoriously sadistic judge Salathiel Lovell Who sentenced him to a punitive fine, to public humiliation in a pillory, and to an indeterminate length of imprisonment which would only end upon the discharge of the punitive fine. According to legend, the publication of his poem Hymn to the Pillory caused his audience at the pillory to throw flowers instead of the customary harmful and noxious objects and to drink to his health.

After his three days in the pillory, Defoe went into Newgate Prison. Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, brokered his release in exchange for Defoe’s co-operation as an intelligence agent for the Tories. In exchange for such co-operation with the rival political side, Harley paid some of Defoe’s outstanding debts. Within a week of his release from prison, Defoe witnessed the Great Storm of 1703, which raged through the night of 26/27 November. It caused severe damage to London and Bristol, uprooted millions of trees, and killed more than 8,000 people, mostly at sea. The event became the subject of Defoe’s The Storm (1704), which includes a collection of witness accounts of the tempest. In 1704 he set up his periodical A Review of the Affairs of France which supported the Harley Ministry, chronicling the events of the War of the Spanish Succession (1702–1714). The Review ran three times a week without break until 1713. Defoe was involved in the Gregg Affair an unscrupulous clerk William Gregg committed treason After seeing vital state papers left lying in the open. After 1708, Defoe continued writing the Review to support Godolphin, then again to support Harley and the Tories in the Tory ministry of 1710–1714. The Tories fell from power with the death of Queen Anne, but Defoe continued doing intelligence work for the Whig government, writing “Tory” pamphlets that undermined the Tory point of view.

Not all of Defoe’s pamphlet writing was political. One pamphlet was originally published anonymously, entitled “A True Relation of the Apparition of One Mrs. Veal the Next Day after her Death to One Mrs. Bargrave at Canterbury the 8th of September, 1705.” It deals with interaction between the spiritual realm and the physical realm and was most likely written in support of Charles Drelincourt’s The Christian Defense against the Fears of Death (1651). It describes Mrs. Bargrave’s encounter with her old friend Mrs. Veal after she had died. As many as 545 titles have been credited to Defoe, ranging from satirical poems, political and religious pamphlets, and volumes. (Furbank and Owens argue for the much smaller number of 276 published items in Critical Bibliography (1998).

Sadly by 1692 His ambitious business ventures saw him bankrupt again with a wife and seven children to support. In 1703, he published a satirical pamphlet against the High Tories and in favour of religious tolerance entitled The Shortest-Way with the Dissenters; Or, Proposals for the Establishment of the Church and was once again prosecuted for seditious libel and was sentenced to be pilloried, fined 200 marks, and detained at the Queen’s pleasure. He wrote to William Paterson, the London Scot and founder of the Bank of England and part instigator of the Darien scheme, who was in the confidence of Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, leading minister and spymaster in the English Government. Harley accepted Defoe’s services and released him in 1703. He immediately published The Review, which appeared weekly, then three times a week, which became the main mouthpiece of the English Government promoting the Act of Union 1707. In 1709, Defoe authored a rather lengthy book entitled The History of the Union of Great Britain, which attempts to explain the facts leading up to the Act of Union 1707, dating to 6 December 1604 when King James was presented with a proposal for unification. Defoe began his campaign in The Review and other pamphlets aimed at English opinion, claiming that it would end the threat from the north, gaining for the Treasury an “inexhaustible treasury of men”, a valuable new market increasing the power of England.

In 1706, Harley despatched Defoe to Edinburgh as a secret agent to assist the Treaty of Union. Defoe was a Presbyterian who had suffered in England for his convictions, and as such he was accepted as an adviser to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland and committees of the Parliament of Scotland. For Scotland, he used different arguments, even the opposite of those which he used in England, usually ignoring the English doctrine of the Sovereignty of Parliament. In 1709 Defoe published a massive history of the Union and also used his Scottish experience to write his Tour thro’ the whole Island of Great Britain, published in 1726. Defoe’s description of Glasgow (Glaschu) as a “Dear Green Place” has often been misquoted as a Gaelic translation for the town’s name. The Gaelic Glas could mean grey or green, while chu means dog or hollow. Glaschu probably means “Green Hollow”. The “Dear Green Place”, like much of Scotland, was a hotbed of unrest against the Union and The “Dear Green Place” and “City of God” both required government troops to put down the rioters tearing up copies of the Treaty at almost every mercat cross in Scotland.

In 1715 He wrote apologia Appeal to Honour and Justice, a defence of his part in Harley’s Tory ministry and in 1717 he wrote The Family Instructor, a conduct manual on religious duty; Minutes of the Negotiations of Monsr. Mesnager , in which he impersonates Nicolas Mesnager, the French plenipotentiary who negotiated the Treaty of Utrecht. In 1718 he wrote A Continuation of the Letters Writ by a Turkish Spy, a satire of European politics and religion, ostensibly written by a Muslim in Paris. In 1719 Defoe published Robinson Crusoe, which relates the story of a man’s shipwreck on a desert island for thirty years and his subsequent adventures. It is based in part on the story of the Scottish castaway Alexander Selkirk, who spent four years stranded in the Juan Fernández Islands. Defoe’s family also met someone called Crusoe in Bedford, from whence the information in these books was gathered and Defoe went to school in Stoke Newington, London, with a friend named Caruso.

Defoe’s next novel was Captain Singleton (1720), an adventure story whose first half covers a traversal of Africa and whose second half taps into the contemporary fascination with piracy. In 1720 Defoe wrote Memoirs of a Cavalier, which is set during the Thirty Years’ War and the English Civil War. Defoe next novel A Journal of the Plague Year was published in 1722 and accounts the Great Plague of London in 1665. Defoe’s next novel Colonel Jack was written in 1722 and follows an orphaned boy from a life of poverty and crime to colonial prosperity, military and marital imbroglios, and religious conversion, driven by a problematic notion of becoming a “gentleman.” Defoe Also wrote Moll Flanders,in 1722, Defoe another first-person picaresque novel of the fall and eventual redemption of a lone woman in 17th-century England. The titular heroine appears as a whore, bigamist, and thief, lives in The Mint, commits adultery and incest, and yet manages to retain the reader’s sympathy before finding redemption. Defoe’s final novel, Roxana: The Fortunate Mistress (1724), narrates the moral and spiritual decline of a high society courtesan.

Defoe also wrote conduct manuals, including Religious Courtship (1722), The Complete English Tradesman (1726) in which He discusses the role of the tradesman in England in comparison to tradesmen internationally, arguing that the British system of trade is far superior. He also wrote The New Family Instructor (1727) and published a number of books decrying the breakdown of the social order, such as The Great Law of Subordination Considered (1724) and Everybody’s Business is Nobody’s Business (1725) and works on the supernatural, like The Political History of the Devil (1726), A System of Magick (1727) and An Essay on the History and Reality of Apparitions (1727). His works on foreign travel and trade include A General History of Discoveries and Improvements (1727) and Atlas Maritimus and Commercialis (1728). Between 1724 and 1727 he wrote A tour thro’ the whole island of Great Britain (1724–27), which provided a panoramic survey of British trade on the eve of the Industrial Revolution.

During his life Defoe was a prolific and versatile writer, producing more than five hundred books, pamphlets, and journals on various topics, including politics, crime, religion, marriage, psychology, and the supernatural. He was also a pioneer of economic journalism. His novels Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders have also both been adapted for film and television.

Fashion Revolution Day

Fashion Revolution Day takes place annually on 24 April. Fashion Revolution was created in 2013 in response to the Rana Plaza disaster in Bangladesh by Carry Somers and Orsola de Castro on the anniversary of the 2013 Rana Plaza building collapse when 1133 died and over 2500 were injured. In 2016, it expanded into Fashion Revolution Week. Somers and De Castro had previously worked as fashion designers in the UK for over two decades and saw that the factory collapse could act as a catalyst for change in the industry. Fashion Revolution is a not-for-profit global movement with teams in over 90 countries around the world. Fashion Revolution campaigns for systemic reform of the fashion industry with a focus on the need for greater transparency in the fashion supply chain. Fashion Revolution has designated the anniversary of the Rana Plaza disaster in Bangladesh as Fashion Revolution Day.

In 2014, 2015 and 2016 millions of people around the world called on brands to answer the question Who Made My Clothes? The hashtag #whomademyclothes was the no.1 global trend on Twitter. During Fashion Revolution Day 2015. The global reach from online news and broadcast media was 16.5 billion and 63 million people from across 76 countries made the hashtag #WhoMadeMyClothes the number one trend on Twitter The YouTube video The 2 Euro T-Shirt – A Social Experiment had over 6.5 million views and won a Cannes Lions award. The third Fashion Revolution Week took place from 18-24 April 2016, commencing with Fashion Question Time at the UK Houses of Parliament. On 18 April Fashion Revolution launched the first edition of the Fashion Transparency Index scoring 40 of the biggest global fashion companies on what information they disclose to stakeholders and the public about social and environmental issues across their supply chains.

During Fashion Revolution Week over 70,000 people around the world asked brands #whomademyclothes with 156 million impressions of the hashtag on social media. G-Star Raw, American Apparel, Fat Face, Boden, Massimo Dutti, Zara and Warehouse were among more than 1200 fashion brands and retailers that responded with photographs of their workers saying #Imadeyourclothes. In 2016 Fashion Revolution reached an estimated 22 billion online and elsewhere. Fashion Revolution’s €2 video, A Social Experiment was ranked no. 7 in the top global PR campaigns of the year at the Global Sabre Awards ceremony. The video has received over 7.5 million views on YouTube. The #Haulternative campaign, in conjunction with the Daily Telegraph, featured fashion vloggers filming themselves doing an alternative fashion haul. Haulers who participated included CutiePieMarzia Noodlerella, Bip Ling, Grav3yardgirl and Shameless Maya with combined views of over 1.5 million on YouTube. In July 2015, a collection of social media postings showing how teachers and students got involved the Fashion Revolution was published on Pinterest, along with a ‘who made my clothes?’ film library, and a collection of ‘imaginative ways in which the work of artists, activists and others can be used to inspire and engage people in the Fashion Revolution’. These continue to be updated. In October 2015, the education packs were revised, expanded and published as a set of worksheets. They were, again, published freely online but educators were asked to register for them.

International Sculpture Day

International Sculpture Day, or IS Day, is a worldwide annual celebration of sculpture on April 24. It was established by the International Sculpture Center and is meant to raise awareness, appreciation and enjoyment of sculpture in communities across the globe. During the inaugural 2015 IS Day, over 50 events were held in 12 countries including Switzerland, China, Germany, England, Australia, Austria, Canada, Spain, New Zealand, and the USA. In its second year, over 200 events were held in 20+ countries including Australia, Denmark, Poland, Nigeria, Canada, France, Burkina Faso, Bolivia, Croatia and Mexico.

Types of IS Day events include open studios, demonstrations, workshops, public art tours, open museums, brown bag lunches, sculpture scavenger hunts, book signings, foundry pours, pop up exhibitions, opening receptions, competitions, artist talks, and more.

Nigel Harrison

Nigel Harrison, bass player with the band Blondie was born 24 April 1951. Blondie were founded by singer Deborah Harry and guitarist Chris Stein, and were pioneers in the early American New Wave and punk scenes of the mid-1970s. Their first two albums contained strong elements of these genres, and although successful in the United Kingdom and Australia, Blondie was regarded as an underground band in the United States until the release of Parallel Lines in 1978. Over the next three years, the band achieved several hit singles including “Call Me“, “Atomic” and Heart of Glass and became noted for its eclectic mix of musical styles incorporating elements of disco, pop, rap, and reggae, while retaining a basic style as a New Wave band.

Sadly though Blondie broke up after the release of their sixth studio album The Hunter in 1982. However Deborah Harry continued to pursue a solo career with varied results after taking a few years off to care for partner Chris Stein, who was diagnosed with pemphigus, a rare autoimmune disease of the skin. The band reformed in 1997, achieving renewed success and a number one single in the United Kingdom with “Maria” in 1999. During the following years The group toured and performed throughout the world, and were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2006. Blondie have sold 40 million records worldwide and are still active today. Their ninth studio album, Panic of Girls, was released in 2011. They have also played at Glastonbury Festival’s Sunday afternoon slot.

THE BEST OF BLONDIE http://m.youtube.com/#/watch?v=7ZM6UeOLing

Gideon Sundback

Most commonly associated with his work in the development of the zipper, Gideon Sundback was born April 24 in 1880. He was a Swedish-American electrical engineer who was born on Sonarp farm in Ödestugu Parish, in Jönköping County, Småland, Sweden.After his studies in Sweden, Sundback moved to Germany, where he studied at the polytechnic school in Bingen am Rhein. In 1903, Sundback took his engineer exam. In 1905, he emigrated to the United States. In 1905, Gideon Sundback started to work at Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1906, Sundback was hired to work for the Universal Fastener Company in Hoboken, New Jersey. Subsequently, Sundback was promoted to the position of head designer at Universal Fastener

Sundback made several advances in the development of the zipper between 1906 and 1914, while working for companies that later evolved into Talon, Inc. He built upon the previous work of other engineers such as Elias Howe, Max Wolff, and Whitcomb Judson. He was responsible for improving the “Judson C-curity Fastener”. At that time the company’s product was still based on hooks and eyes. Sundback developed an improved version of the C-curity, called the “Plako”, but it too had a strong tendency to pull apart, and wasn’t any more successful than the previous versions. Sundback finally solved the pulling-apart problem in 1913, with his invention of the first version not based on the hook-and-eye principle, the “Hookless Fastener No. 1″. He increased the number of fastening elements from four per inch to ten or eleven. His invention had two facing rows of teeth that pulled into a single piece by the slider, and increased the opening for the teeth guided by the slide.

In 1914, Sundback developed a version based on interlocking teeth, the “Hookless No. 2″, which was the modern metal zipper in all its essentials. In this fastener each tooth is punched to have a dimple on its bottom and a nib or conical projection on its top. The nib atop one tooth engages in the matching dimple in the bottom of the tooth that follows it on the other side as the two strips of teeth are brought together through the two Y channels of the slider. The teeth are crimped tightly to a strong fabric cord that is the selvage edge of the cloth tape that attaches the zipper to the garment, with the teeth on one side offset by half a tooth’s height from those on the other side’s tape. They are held so tightly to the cord and tape that once meshed there is not enough play to let them pull apart. A tooth cannot rise up off the nib below it enough to break free, and its nib on top cannot drop out of the dimple in the tooth above it. U.S. Patent 1,219,881 for the “Separable Fastener” was issued in 1917.

The name zipper was created in 1923 by B.F. Goodrich, who used the device on their new boots. Initially, boots and tobacco pouches were the primary use for zippers; it took another twenty years before they caught on in the fashion industry. About the time of World War II the zipper achieved wide acceptance for the flies of trousers and the plackets of skirts and dresses.

Whitcomb L. Judson was a lover of gadgets and machines and the idea for his “clasp locker” came from when a friend had a stiff back from trying to fasten his shoes. Judson’s clasp locker was used mostly on mailbags, tobacco pouches and shoes. However, his design, like most first inventions needed to be fine-tuned. A more practical version came on the scene in 1913 when a Swedish-born engineer, Gideon Sundback revised Judson’s idea and made his with metal teeth instead of a hook and eye design. In 1917, Sundback patented his “separable fastener.” The name changed again when the B. F. Goodrich Co. used it in rubber boots, galoshes, and called it the “zipper” because the boots could be fastened with one hand. The 1940s brought about research in Europe of the coil zipper design. The first design was of interlocking brass coils. However, since they could be permanently bent out of shape, making the zipper stop functioning, it was rather bad for business and wasn’t too practical. The new design was improved after the discovery of stronger, more flexible synthetics.

Bill Gould (Faith no More)

Bill Gould, the bass Player, Songwriter and Producer of Faith No More, Harmful Fear and the Nervous System, Jello Biafra and the Guantanamo Bay School of Medicine was born 24 April 1963. Faith No More hail from San Francisco, California, and were regarded as one of the most influential metal/rock bands of the late 80s and early 90s, and credited for inventing alternative metal and as an influence on nu metal.It was formed originally as Faith No Man in 1981 by bassist Billy Gould, keyboardist Wade Worthington, vocalist M Morris, and drummer Mike Bordin.A year later when Worthington was replaced by keyboardist Roddy Bottum, who along with Gould and Bordin, formed Faith No More. After going through a series of singers which included Courtney Love, the band was joined by Chuck Mosley in 1983. The same year, Jim Martin was recruited to replace guitarist Mark Bowen. Faith No More underwent several line-up changes before releasing their first album, We Care a Lot, in 1985. Within a year the band signed up with Slash Records, and in 1987 their second album Introduce Yourself was released. Membership remained stable until vocalist Mosley was replaced by Mike Patton in 1988. In 1989, the band released their highly successful album, The Real Thing, which featured the songs“Epic, Falling To Pieces, From Out of Nowhere and Small Victory.

The band’s next album, 1992′s Angel Dust, was also highly successful and spawned the hit Midlife Crisis, , which became their sole #1 hit on the Modern Rock Tracks chart in their career. Angel Dust is widely considered to be one of the most influential albums of the 90′s. Faith No More however declined in popularity in the subsequent years. Longtime guitarist Jim Martin left the group in 1994 and was replaced by Mr. Bungle guitarist Trey Spruance. After the release of their next album, 1995′s King for a Day… Fool for a Lifetime, Spruance was replaced briefly by Dean Menta, who would eventually be replaced by their current guitarist Jon Hudson. After releasing one more album, Album of the Year, in 1997, Faith No More broke up in April 1998, and all members began work on side projects.

On February 24, 2009, Faith No More announced that they would be reforming for a European tour with the same lineup at the time of their breakup.In June 2009, they performed together for the first time in eleven years at the Brixton Academy in London, United Kingdom, as part of their The Second Coming Tour. Throughout 2010, the band continued to perform at multiple live venues. In September 2010, the band announced that the reunion tour would come to an end in December and plans for a new album had been scrapped. Faith No More returned again in November 14th 2011 at the SWU Music and Arts Festival, in the Brazilian city of Paulínia, as well on three other dates. Trey Spruance joined the band onstage for the very first time to perform the King for a Day, Fool for a Lifetime album in its entirety in Santiago, Chile in November 2011. Faith No More also released Their latest album Sol Invictus and double CD Deluxe editions of the albums “the Real Thing” and “Angel Dust” in 2015.

William Wordsworth

English Romantic Poet William Wordsworth sadly died 23 April 1850. He was born 7 April 1770 in Wordsworth House in Cockermouth, Cumberland, in the Lake District. His sister was the poet and diarist Dorothy Wordsworth and his eldest brother Richard, became a lawyer; while his brother John, died at sea in 1805 when the ship of which he was captain, the Earl of Abergavenny, was wrecked off the south coast of England. His younger brother Christopher, entered the Church becoming Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. Wordsworth was taught to read by his mother and attended, first, a tiny school of low quality in Cockermouth, then a school in Penrith for the children of upper-class families, where he was taught by Ann Birkett. Wordsworth was taught both the Bible and the Spectator, but little else. It was at the school in Penrith that he met the Hutchinsons, including Mary, who later became his wife. After the death of his mother, in 1778, Wordsworth’s father sent him to Hawkshead Grammar School in Lancashire (now in Cumbria) and sent Dorothy to live with relatives in Yorkshire.

Wordsworth made his debut as a writer in 1787 when he published a sonnet in The European Magazine and began attending St John’s College, Cambridge. He received his BA degree in 1791. He returned to Hawkshead for the first two summers of his time at Cambridge, and often spent later holidays on walking tours, visiting places famous for the beauty of their landscape. In 1790 he went on a walking tour of Europe, visiting France, Switzerland, and Italy. In November 1791, Wordsworth visited Revolutionary France supporting the Republican movement. He fell in love with a French woman, Annette Vallon, who in 1792 gave birth to their daughter Caroline. However Financial problems and Britain’s tense relations with France forced him to return to England alone in 1793. When the Peace of Amiens again allowed travel to France, Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy visited Annette and Caroline in Calais in 1802. Afterwards he wrote the sonnet “It is a beauteous evening, calm and free,” recalling a seaside walk with Caroline.

Wordsworth first poems were published in 1793, in the collections An Evening Walk and Descriptive Sketches. In 1795 he received a legacy of 900 pounds from Raisley Calvert and became able to pursue a career as a poet. he also met Samuel Taylor Coleridge in Somerset. The two poets quickly developed a close friendship. In 1797, Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy moved to Alfoxton House, Somerset, just a few miles away from Coleridge’s home in Nether Stowey. Together Wordsworth and Coleridge produced Lyrical Ballads, which contained Wordsworth’s poem Tintern Abbey”, along with Coleridge’s “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”. A second edition, was published in 1800 and the next edition, of Lyrical Ballads was published in 1802 In which Wordsworth gives his famous definition of poetry as “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings: it takes its origin from emotion recollected in tranquility,”. A fourth and final edition of Lyrical Ballads was published in 1805. Between 1795-97, Wordsworth wrote his only play, The Borderers, a verse tragedy set during the reign of King Henry III of England, when Englishmen in the North Country came into conflict with Scottish rovers. He attempted to get the play staged in November 1797, but but was thwarted by Thomas Harris, the manager of the Covent Garden Theatre. In 1798 Wordsworth, Dorothy and Coleridge travelled to Germany. Between 1798–99 Wordsworth lived with Dorothy in Goslar, and, despite extreme stress and loneliness, began work on the autobiographical piece titled The Prelude and also wrote a number of other famous poems in Goslar, including “The Lucy poems”.

In 1799, Wordsworth and his sister returned to England and visited the Hutchinson family at Sockburn. When Coleridge arrived back in England he travelled to the North with their publisher Joseph Cottle to meet Wordsworth and tour the Lake District. They settled at Dove Cottage in Grasmere in the Lake District, with poet, Robert Southey nearby. Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey became known as the “Lake Poets”. Between 1798–99 he started an autobiographical poem, “poem to Coleridge” as an appendix or prologue to a larger work called The Recluse. In 1804 he began expanding this autobiographical work. He completed the first version of The Prelude, in 1805, but did not publish it until he had completed The Recluse. The death of his brother John, in 1805, also affected him deeply. In 1807 Wordsworth published Poems in Two Volumes, including “Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood”. In 1813, he and his family, moved to Rydal Mount, Ambleside (between Grasmere and Rydal Water). Sadly In 1810, Wordsworth and Coleridge fell out over Coleridge’s opium addiction, and in 1812, his son Thomas died at the age of 6, six months after the death of 3-year-old Catherine. The following year he received an appointment as Distributor of Stamps for Westmorland. In 1814 Wordsworth published The Excursion as the second part of the three-part work The Recluse, he also wrote a poetic Prospectus to “The Recluse”. By 1820, he was enjoying considerable success accompanying a reversal in the contemporary critical opinion of his earlier works.

Following the death of his friend the painter William Green in 1823, Wordsworth also mended his relations with Coleridge and in 1828 they toured the Rhineland together. Sadly Dorothy suffered from a severe illness in 1829 that rendered her an invalid for the remainder of her life. In 1838, Wordsworth received an honorary doctorate in Civil Law from the University of Durham and the following year he was awarded the same honorary degree by the University of Oxford. In 1842, the government awarded him a Civil List pension of £300 a year. Following the death of Robert Southey in 1843 Wordsworth became Poet Laureate After assurances from Prime Minister, Robert Peel, Wordsworth thus became the only poet laureate to write no official verses. Sadly His daughter Dora suddenly died in 1847 at the age of only 42 and in his depression, he completely gave up writing new material. Then William Wordsworth died at home at Rydal Mount from an aggravated case of pleurisy on 23 April 1850. He was buried at St Oswald’s Church, Grasmere.

Steve Clark

Steve Clark, the former Guitarist with Def Leppard was born 23 April 1960. Def Leppard were Formed in 1977 in Sheffield as part of the New Wave of British Heavy Metal movement and their strongest commercial success came between the early 1980s and the early 1990s. Their 1981 album High ‘n’ Dry was produced by Robert John “Mutt” Lange, who helped them begin to define their style, and the album’s stand out track “Bringin’ On the Heartbreak” became one of the first metal videos played on MTV in 1982. The band’s next studio album Pyromania in 1983, with the singles Photograph and Rock of Ages, turned Def Leppard into a household name. In 2004, the album ranked number 384 on Rolling Stone’s 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. Def Leppard’s fourth album Hysteria, was released in 1987, and topped the U.S and UK album charts. As of 2009 it has 12x platinum sales in the United States, and has gone on to sell over 20 million copies worldwide. The album contained loads of absolutely fantastic songs, including “Love Bites”, “Pour Some Sugar on Me , “Hysteria,” Armageddon It , “Animal” Rocket“, Gods of War and Women.

VIVA HYSTERIA http://youtu.be/b0HcoJ8irqg

Def Leppard’s next studio album Adrenalize reached number one on the U.S. Billboard 200 and UK Album Chart in 1992, this contained several hits including, “Let’s Get Rocked” and “Have You Ever Needed Someone So Bad”. Their 1993 album Retro Active contained the acoustic hit song “Two Steps Behind”, while their greatest hits album Vault released in 1995 featured track “When Love & Hate Collide. Sadly though Clarke passed away 8 January 1991. However he was replaced by Vivian Campbell who has remained with Def Leppard ever since. Def Leppard’s latest album Def Leppard was released in 2015 as part of a limited edition fan pack containing a magazine, limited edition prints and a Key ring. It contains the songs Let’s go, Dangerous, Man Enough, we belong, Invincible, Sea of Love, Energized, All time high, Battle of my own, Broke & Broken-hearted, Forever Youmg, Last Dance, Wings of an Angel, Blind Faith, We Belong (Alternate mix), Let’s Go (UK Radio edit).

Roy Orbison

Known by the nickname ‘The Big O’ and remembered for his distinctive, powerful voice,the American singer, guitarist, and songwriter Roy Orbison was Born April 23, 1936 Roy Kelton Orbison, he grew up in Texas and began singing in a rockabilly/country and western band in high school until he was signed by Sun Records in Memphis. His greatest success came with Monument Records between 1960 and 1964, when 22 of his songs placed on the Billboard Top Forty, including “Only the Lonely”, “Crying”, and “Oh, Pretty Woman”. His career stagnated through the 1970s, but several covers of his songs and the use of “In Dreams” in David Lynch’s Blue Velvet revived his career in the 1980s. In 1988, he joined the supergroup Traveling Wilburys with George Harrison, Bob Dylan, Tom Petty, and Jeff Lynne and also released a new solo album.

His life was marred by tragedy, including the death of his first wife and his two eldest sons in separate accidents.Orbison was a natural baritone, but music scholars have suggested that he had a three- or four-octave range. The combination of Orbison’s powerful, impassioned voice and complex musical arrangements led many critics to refer to his music as operatic, giving him the sobriquet “the Caruso of Rock”. Elvis Presley and Bono have stated his voice was, respectively, the greatest and most distinctive they had ever heard. While most men in rock and roll in the 1950s and 1960s portrayed a defiant masculinity, many of Orbison’s songs instead conveyed a quiet, desperate vulnerability. He was known for performing dark emotional ballads while standing still and solitary, wearing black clothes and dark sunglasses which lent an air of mystery to his persona.

Unfortunately on December 6 1988 Orbison sadly died during a resurgence in his fortunes as part of the Travelling Wilbury’s, after suffering a heart attack. Nevertheless he produced many classic songs during his career and gained many plaudits. He was initiated into the second class of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1987 by longtime admirer Bruce Springsteen. The same year he was inducted into the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, and the Songwriters Hall of Fame two years later. Rolling Stone placed Orbison at number 37 on their list of The Greatest Artists of All Time, and number 13 on their list of The 100Greatest Singers of All Time. In 2002, Billboard magazine listed Orbison at number 74 in the Top 600 recording artists

Roy Orbison – Black & White Night Live http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=HWCBwaNvHbE

William Shakespeare

Often referred to England’s national poet, the “Bard of Avon”, and widely regarded as the world’s pre-eminent dramatist and greatest writer in the English language. The English poet and playwright William Shakespeare was believed to have been born on ths day 23rd April1564 (based on his baptism 26 April 1564). Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and Judith. Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, later known as the King’s Men.

His surviving works, including some collaborations, consist of about 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems. The first recorded works of Shakespeare include Richard III and the three parts of Henry VI, written in the early 1590s during a vogue for historical drama. He then wrote Titus Andronicus, The Comedy of Errors, The Taming of the Shrew, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Two Noble Kinsmen and Cardenio. During the mid-1590s Shakespeare wrote his most acclaimed comedies A Midsummer Night’s Dream, a witty mixture of romance, fairy magic, and comic lowlife scenes. The equally romantic Merchant of Venice, which contains a portrayal of the vengeful Jewish moneylender Shylock, which reflects Elizabethan views but may appear derogatory to modern audiences. He also wrote the Plays Much Ado About Nothing which is full of wit and wordplay, As You Like Which is set in a charming rural setting of and Twelfth Night which contains lively merrymaking.

While Richard II, was written almost entirely in verse, Shakespeare infused prose comedy into the histories of the late 1590s, and wrote Henry IV, parts 1 and 2, and Henry V. He also wrote two tragedies: Romeo and Juliet, the famous romantic tragedy of sexually charged adolescence, love, and death and Julius Caesar—based on Sir Thomas North’s 1579 translation of Plutarch’s Parallel Lives. During the early 17th century, Shakespeare wrote the so-called “problem plays” such as Measure for Measure, Troilus and Cressida, and All’s Well That Ends Well, Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus. In his final period, Shakespeare turned to romance or tragicomedy and completed three more major plays: Cymbeline, The Winter’s Tale, and The Tempest, as well as the collaboration, Pericles, Prince of Tyre. Less bleak than the tragedies, these four plays are graver in tone than the comedies of the 1590s, but they end with reconciliation and the forgiveness of potentially tragic errors.

His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. He was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon.  Shakespeare was probably educated at the King’s New School in Stratford, a free school chartered in 1553, about a quarter-mile (400 m) from his home. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but grammar school curricula were largely similar: the basic Latin text was standardised by royal decree. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, although there is some speculation that he was also married to his childhood sweetheart Anne Whately, who may have been The Dark Lady referred to in the sonnets. He had three children with Hathaway: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and Judith. Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, later known as the King’s Men. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613 at age 49.

Few records of Shakespeare’s private life survive, and there has been considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance, sexuality, religious beliefs, and whether the works attributed to him were written by others.  Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy during his lifetime. In 1623, two of his former theatrical colleagues published the First Folio, a collected edition of his dramatic works that included all but two of the plays now recognised as Shakespeare’s.

During his life Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright, but his reputation did not rise to its present heights until the 19th century. The Romantics, in particular, acclaimed Shakespeare’s genius, and the Victorians worshipped Shakespeare with a reverence that George Bernard Shaw called “bardolatry”. In the 20th century, his work was repeatedly adopted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance. Sadly though Shakespeare passed away on 23rd April 1616 but he left behnd an endurng legacy and his books Sonnets & plays remain highly popular today and are constantly studied, performed, and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world and remain as popular today as they’ve always been.

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