Dutch post-Impressionist painter Vincent Willem van Gogh sadly passed away 29 July 1890 at the age of 37 years old in Auvers-sur-Oise, France. He was born 30th March 1853, his work is notable for its rough beauty, emotional honesty and bold color, had a far-reaching influence on 20th-century art. After years of painful anxiety and frequent bouts of mental illness, he died aged 37 from a gunshot wound, generally accepted to be self-inflicted (although no gun was ever found).His work was then known to only a handful of people and appreciated by fewer still.Van Gogh began to draw as a child, and he continued to draw throughout the years that led up to his decision to become an artist. He did not begin painting until his late twenties, completing many of his best-known works during the last two years of his life. In just over a decade, he produced more than 2,100 artworks, consisting of 860 oil paintings and more than 1,300 watercolors, drawings, sketches and prints. His work included self portraits, landscapes, still lifes, portraits and paintings of cypresses, wheat fields and sunflowers.
Van Gogh spent his early adulthood working for a firm of art dealers, traveling between The Hague, London and Paris, after which he taught for a time in England. One of his early aspirations was to become a pastor and from 1879 he worked as a missionary in a mining region in Belgium where he began to sketch people from the local community. In 1885, he painted his first major work The Potato Eaters. His palette at the time consisted mainly of somber earth tones and showed no sign of the vivid coloration that distinguished his later work. In March 1886, he moved to Paris and discovered the French Impressionists. Later, he moved to the south of France and was influenced by the strong sunlight he found there.
His work grew brighter in color, and he developed the unique and highly recognizable style that became fully realized during his stay in Arles in 1888. The extent to which his mental health affected his painting has been a subject of speculation since his death. Despite a widespread tendency to romanticize his ill health, modern critics see an artist deeply frustrated by the inactivity and incoherence brought about by his bouts of illness. According to art critic Robert Hughes, Van Gogh’s late works show an artist at the height of his ability, completely in control and “longing for concision and grace”.
Global Or International Tiger Day, is held annually on July 29 to educate the public and raise awareness concerning tiger conservation, It was created in 2010 at the Saint Petersburg Tiger Summit. The goal of the day is to promote a global system for protecting the natural habitats of tigers and to raise public awareness and support for tiger conservation issues.
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for their pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside. The species is classified in the genus Panthera with the lion, leopard, jaguar, and snow leopard. Tigers are apex predators, primarily preying on ungulates such as deer and bovids. They are territorial and generally solitary but social animals, often requiring large contiguous areas of habitat that support their prey requirements. This, coupled with the fact that they are indigenous to some of the more densely populated places on Earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans.
Tigers once ranged widely across eastern Eurasia, from the Black Sea in the west, to the Indian Ocean in the south, and from Kolyma to Sumatra in the east. Over the past 100 years, they have lost 93% of their historic range, and have been extirpated from Western and Central Asia, from the islands of Java and Bali, and from large areas of Southeast, Southern, and Eastern Asia. Today, they range from the Siberian taiga to open grasslands and tropical mangrove swamps. The remaining six tiger subspecies have been classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The global population in the wild is estimated to number between 3,062 and 3,948 individuals, down from around 100,000 at the start of the 20th century, with most remaining populations occurring in small pockets isolated from each other, of which about 2,000 exist on the Indian subcontinent. A 2016 global census estimated the population of wild tigers at approximately 3,890 individuals . Major reasons for population decline include habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and poaching. The extent of area occupied by tigers is estimated at less than 1,184,911 km2 (457,497 sq mi), a 41% decline from the area estimated in the mid-1990s. In 2016, wildlife conservation group at WWF declared that world’s count of wild tigers has risen for the first time in a century.
The tiger’s closest living relatives were previously thought to be the lion, leopard and jaguar, all of which are classified under the genus Panthera. Genetic analysis indicates that the tiger and the snow leopard diverged from the other Panthera species about 2.88 million years ago, and that both species may be more closely related to each other than to the lion, leopard and jaguar. The oldest remains of an extinct tiger relative, called Panthera zdanskyi or the Longdan tiger, have been found in the Gansu province of northwestern China. This species is considered to be a sister taxon to the extant tiger and lived about 2 million years ago, at the beginning of the Pleistocene. It was smaller than the modern tiger, being the size of a jaguar, and probably did not have the same coat pattern. Despite being considered more “primitive”, the Longdan tiger was functionally and possibly ecologically similar to its modern cousin. As Panthera zdanskyi lived in northwestern China, that may have been where the tiger lineage originated. Tigers grew in size, possibly in response to adaptive radiations of prey species like deer and bovids which may have occurred in Southeast Asia during the early Pleistocene.
The earliest fossils of true tigers are from Java, and are between 1.6 and 1.8 million years old. Distinct fossils are known from the early and middle Pleistocene deposits in China and Sumatra. A subspecies called the Trinil tiger (Panthera tigris trinilensis) lived about 1.2 million years ago and is known from fossils found at Trinil in Java. Tigers first reached India and northern Asia in the late Pleistocene, reaching eastern Beringia (but not the American Continent), Japan, and Sakhalin. As evidenced by Sandra Herrington, some fossil skulls that are morphologically distinct from lion skulls could indicate however that tigers might have been present in Alaska within the last 100,000 years during the last glaciation. Fossils found in Japan indicate the local tigers were, like the surviving island subspecies, smaller than the mainland forms, an example of insular dwarfism. Until the Holocene, tigers also lived in Borneo, as well as on the island of Palawan in the Philippines. As of the Middle Ages, Caspian tigers were noted to range in the Pontic-Caspian steppes of Ukraine and southern Russia.
The tiger’s full genome sequence was published in 2013. It and other cat genomes were found to have similar repeat compositions. There are 11 recognised tiger subspecies. Two, the Trinil and Japanese tigers, became extinct in prehistoric times. The remaining subspecies all survived at least into the mid-20th century; three of these are also considered extinct. Their core historical range in South Asia (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan), Eastern Asia (China, Mongolia, North Korea, Siberia, South Korea) and South East Asia, including three Indonesian islands, is severely constricted today, and the populations in the Black Sea (Iran, Georgia, Southern Russia, Turkey) and Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan) are now extinct. Tigers are among the most recognisable and popular of the world’s charismatic megafauna. They have featured prominently in ancient mythology and folklore, and continue to be depicted in modern films and literature. They appear on many flags, coats of arms, and as mascots for sporting teams. The tiger is the national animal of Bangladesh, India, Malaysia and South Korea.
International and national events happening 29 July
Geddy Lee lead singer with rock band Rush) was born 29 July 1953. Rush were formed in August 1968, in the Willowdale neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario. The band is composed of bassist, keyboardist, an lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist and backing vocalist Alex Lifeson, and drummer, percussionist and lyricist Neil Peart. The band’s membership continually changed between 1968 and 1974, Neil Peart replaced original drummer John Rutsey in July 1974, two weeks before the group’s first United States tour, during which they played Agora Ballroom, Cleveland, which also became Rush’s very first radio broadcast and the concert is featured on the Album “ABC 1974″. In 1975 Rush played songs from the groups second album Fly by Night at the Agora and would go onto play many more shows at Agora Ballroom.
The original line-up formed in the neighbourhood of Willowdale in Toronto, Ontario, by guitarist Alex Lifeson, bassist and front man Jeff Jones, and drummer John Rutsey. Within a couple of weeks of forming, and before their second performance, bassist and lead vocalist Jones left the band and was replaced by Geddy Lee, a schoolmate of Lifeson’s. After several line-up reformations, Rush’s official incarnation formed in May 1971 consisting of Lee, Lifeson, and Rutsey. The name “Rush” was suggested by John Rutsey’s brother, Bill. The band was managed by local Toronto resident Ray Danniels, a frequent attendee of Rush’s early shows.Rush played at the local bar and high school dance circuit, the band members released their first single “Not Fade Away”, a cover of the Buddy Holly song, in 1973. Side B contained an original composition, “You Can’t Fight It”, credited to Lee and Rutsey. The band formed their own independent record label, Moon Records. With the aid of Danniels and the newly enlisted engineer Terry Brown, the band released its self-titled debut album in 1974, featuring he song “Working Man”. Immediately after the release of the debut album, Rutsey left the band due to health difficulties stemming from diabetes, and his distaste for touring. His last performance with the band was on July 25, 1974, at Centennial Hall in London, Ontario.
Rush selected Neil Peart as Rutsey’s replacement. Peart officially joined the band on July 29, 1974, two weeks before the group’s first US tour. They performed their first concert together, opening for Uriah Heep and Manfred Mann with an attendance of over 11,000 people at the Civic Arena in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on August 14. In addition to becoming the band’s drummer, Peart assumed the role of principal lyricist from Lee, who had very little interest in writing, despite having penned the lyrics of the band’s first album. Lee and Lifeson focused primarily on the instrumental aspects of Rush. Fly by Night (1975), Rush’s first album after recruiting Peart, saw the inclusion of the band’s first epic mini-tale “By-Tor and the Snow Dog”, replete with complex arrangements and a multi-section format. Lyrical themes also underwent dramatic changes because of Peart’s love for fantasy and science-fiction literature. Despite these many differences, some of the music and songs still closely mirrored the blues style found on Rush’s debut.
The band followed Fly by Night with Caress of Steel (1975), a five-track album featuring two extended multi-chapter songs, “The Necromancer” and “The Fountain of Lamneth”. Rush’s next album 2112 contained a 20-minute title track divided into seven sections. This was followed by a supporting tour including three-nights at Massey Hall in Toronto, which was recorded for Rush’s first live album, All the World’s a Stage. Following 2112, Rush ecorded A Farewell to Kings (1977) and Hemispheres (1978) at Rockfield Studios in Wales. Rush Began began to record lengthy songs, with a more progressive sound which included increased synthesiser usage and highly dynamic playing featuring complex time signature changes which became a staple of Rush’s compositions. Lifeson began to experiment with classical and twelve-string guitars, and Lee added bass-pedal synthesizers and Minimoog. Likewise, Peart’s percussion became diversified in the form of triangles, glockenspiel, wood blocks, cowbells, timpani, gong, and chimes. Rush Continued to compose long, conceptual songs with science fiction and fantasy overtones.
Rush gradually began playing shorter and sometimes softer arrangements. up to this point The lyrics had been heavily influenced by classical poetry, fantasy literature, science fiction, and the writings of novelist Ayn Rand. The next album Permanent Waves (1980) incroporated reggae, more synthesizers and new wave elements alongside hard rock. Permanent Waves included shorter, more radio-friendly songs such as “The Spirit of Radio” and “Freewill”. Peart’s lyrics dwelled less on fantastical or allegorical story-telling and more heavily on humanistic, social, and emotional elements. In 1980 Rush recorded “Battle Scar”with fellow Toronto-based rock band Max Webster for the album Universal Juveniles. Max Webster lyricist Pye Dubois offered the band lyrics to a song he had written which was reworked by Peart, to become “Tom Sawyer” which was released on the album Moving Pictures in 1981 alongside “Limelight”and the eleven-minute “The Camera Eye”. Following the success of Moving Pictures and having completed another four studio albums, Rush released a second live recording, Exit…Stage Left, in 1981. In 1982 Rush released the albumSignals Featuring the songs “Countdown”, New World Man”, “Subdivisions”,”Digital Man”, “The Weapon”, “Chemistry” and “Losing It” this incorporated ska, reggae, and funk.
Sadly long-time producer Terry Brown left in 1983 following creative differences with the band. In 1984 Rush released Grace Under Pressure the title was inspired by Ernest Hemingway. Rush hired Peter Henderson to co-produce and engineer the album instead. Neil Peart began incorporating more Simmons Electronic Drums, sequencers and synthesizers combined with Lifeson’s guitar playing using open reggae chords and funk and new-wave rhythms.With new producer Peter Collins, the band released Power Windows (1985) and Hold Your Fire (1987) which featured Lee’s multi-layered synthesizer work rather than Guitars. Lifeson, like many guitarists in the mid-to-late 1980s, experimented with processors that reduced his instrument to echoey chord bursts and razor-thin leads. A third live album and video, A Show of Hands (1989), was also released. In 1990 Mercury released a double platinum two-volume compilation of their Rush catalogue, Chronicles. Rush then released the albums Presto and Roll the Bones. Produced by record engineer and musician Rupert Hine, These were more guitar-centric than the previous two studio albums. Although synthesizers were still used in many songs. Roll the Bones (1991) extended the use of the standard three-instrument approach with even less focus on synthesizers than its predecessor. It also featured funk and hip hop elements, and the instrumental track “Where’s My Thing?” Plus several jazz components and a more streamlined rock formula.
In 1993 Rush released the albums Counterparts and Test for Echo in 1996. These are two of Rush’s most guitar-driven albums. The latter album also includes elements of jazz and swing drumming by Peart, and embarked on the North American tour, “An Evening with Rush”. Following the Test for Echo tour in 1997, Rush had a five-year break, due to personal tragedies in Peart’s life. Peart’s daughter Selena died in a car accident in August 1997, followed by the death of his wife Jacqueline from cancer in June 1999. Peart travelled extensively throughout North America on his BMW motorcycle, to mourn and reflect, covering 88,000 km (55,000 mi). Peart wrote the book Ghost Rider: Travels on the Healing Road is a chronicle of his journey and In 1998, a three-disc live album entitled Different Stages was released, dedicated to the memory of Selena and Jacqueline, Featuring performances from the band’s Counterparts, Test For Echo, and Farewell to Kings tours, marking the band’s fourth live album.
While visiting long-time Rush photographer Andrew MacNaughtan in Los Angeles, Peart was introduced to his future wife, photographer Carrie Nuttall. Peart married Nuttall on September 9, 2000. In 2002 Rush released the album Vapor Trails, featuring the song “One Little Victory”. This album was guitar driven with rapid guitar and drum tempos but no Synthesizers. In 2003 It was accompanied by A live album and DVD, Rush in Rio, featuring an entire concert performance recorded on November 23, 2002, at Maracanã Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to celebrate the band’s 30th anniversary. June 2004 saw the release of the EP Feedback featuring eight covers of songs by Cream, The Who and The Yardbirds, bands which the members of Rush cite as inspiration. Rush also embarked on a 30th Anniversary Tour in the summer of 2004 playing dates in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Sweden, the Czech Republic, and the Netherlands. The concert at The Festhalle in Frankfurt, Germany was also filmed for a DVD titled R30: 30th Anniversary World Tour, released in 2005.
In 2007 Rush released their next album Snakes & Arrows featuring the songs “Far Cry”, Spindrift” and “The Larger Bowl (A Pantoum)”. A tour in support of Snakes & Arrows began in Atlanta, Georgia, finishing at Hartwall Arena in Helsinki, Finland. The 2008 portion began in San Juan, Puerto Rico at José Miguel Agrelot Coliseum, and ended in Noblesville, Indiana at the Verizon Wireless Music Center. Rush also released Snakes & Arrows Live, a double live album recorded at the Ahoy arena in Rotterdam, Netherlands. A DVD and Blu-ray was also released including four songs recorded at Verizon Wireless Amphitheater in Atlanta, Georgia. In 2008 Rush appeared on The Colbert Report and performed “Tom Sawyer”, they also made a cameo appearance in the 2009 comedy film I Love You, Man, starring Paul Rudd and Jason Segel.
In 2009, Lee, Lifeson and Peart were awarded the International Achievement Award at the annual SOCAN Awards in Toronto. In 2010 Rush were inducted into the Canadian Songwriters Hall of Fame at the Toronto Centre for the Arts’ George Weston Recital Hall. The band was recognized for the songs “Limelight”, “Closer to the Heart”, “The Spirit of Radio”, “Tom Sawyer” and “Subdivisions”. In 2010 Rush embarked on the Rush Time Machine Tour, starting in in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and finishing in Santiago, Chile, at the National Stadium, Playing the album Moving Pictures together with “Caravan” and “BU2B”. They extended the Time Machine Tour. Starting in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and finishing in George, Washington. Rush also released Time Machine 2011: Live in Cleveland, a concert DVD, Blu-ray and double CD concert filmed at the Quicken Loans Arena in Cleveland, Ohio.
Rush’s next album Clockwork Angels was released in 2012 featuring the songs “Caravan” “Headlong Flight” and “BU2B” and Followed by a supporting Clockwork Angels Tour. Rush were also inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2013. Rush also played at the Sweden Rock Festival and The band’s performances in Phoenix, Arizona and Dallas, Texas were also recorded to make a live CD/DVD/Blu-ray. In 2014, the R40 box set was released to commemorate the fortieth anniversary of the release of the band’s self-titled debut album. Which included five previously released live video albums, as well as various previously unreleased footage from across the band’s career. In 2015, the band officially announced the Rush R40 Tour, celebrating the fortieth anniversary of drummer Neil Peart’s membership in the band. The tour started at the BOK Center in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and finished at The Forum in Los Angeles. In 2015, Alex Lifeson stated that R40 might be the final large-scale Rush tour due to his psoriatic arthritis and Peart’s chronic tendinitis, but said he would like to work on soundtracks with Geddy Lee. Rush also released a documentary, entitled Time Stand Still.
World Hepatitis Day takes place annually on 28 July to commemorate the birth of American physician and geneticist, Baruch Samuel Blumberg who was born July 28, 1925 in Brooklyn, New York and identified Hepatitis B. He began his education at the Orthodox Yeshivah of Flatbush elementary school, where he learned to read and write in Hebrew, and to study the Bible and Jewish texts in their original language. (That school also had among its students a contemporary of Blumberg, Eric Kandel, who is another recipient of the Nobel Prize in medicine.) Blumberg then attended Brooklyn’s James Madison High School, a school that Blumberg described as having high academic standards, including many teachers with Ph.D.s. After moving to Far Rockaway, Queens, he transferred to Far Rockaway High School in the early 1940s, a school that also produced fellow laureates Burton Richter and Richard Feynman. Blumberg served as a U.S. Navy deck officer during World War II. He then attended Union College in Schenectady, New York and graduated from there with honors in 1946
Originally entering the graduate program in mathematics at Columbia University, Blumberg switched to medicine and enrolled at Columbia’s College of Physicians and Surgeons, from which he received his MD in 1951. He remained at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center for the next four years, first as an intern and then as a resident. He then moved to the University of Oxford and began graduate work in biochemistry at Balliol College, Oxford and earned his DPhil there in 1957. He later became the first American to be master at Balliol College, Oxford
Throughout the 1950s, Blumberg traveled the world taking human blood samples, to study the genetic variations in human beings, focusing on the question of why some people contract a disease in a given environment, while others do not. In 1964, while studying “yellow jaundice” (hepatitis), he discovered a surface antigen for hepatitis B in the blood of an Australian aborigine. Blumberg identified the hepatitis B virus while an investigator at the NIH And his work later demonstrated that the virus could cause liver cancer. Blumberg and his team were able to develop a screening test for the hepatitis B virus, to prevent its spread in blood donations, and developed a vaccine. Blumberg later freely distributed his vaccine patent in order to promote its distribution by drug companies. Deployment of the vaccine reduced the infection rate of hepatitis B in children in China
In 1964, Blumberg became a member of the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) of the Lankenau Hospital Research Institute in Philadelphia, known today as the Lankenau Institute for Medical Research (LIMR), which later joined the Fox Chase Cancer Center in 1974, and he held the rank of University Professor of Medicine and Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania starting in 1977. Blumberg was also co-recipient of the 1976 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (with Daniel Carleton Gajdusek) for “discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases.”
In 1992, Blumberg participated in the founding of the Hepatitis B Foundation (HBF), a nonprofit organization dedicated to finding a cure for hepatitis B and improving the lives of those affected by hepatitis B worldwide. He served on the Scientific and Medical Advisory Board, and as its Distinguished Scholar from 1992 until 2011.[In 2001, Blumberg was named to the Library of Congress Scholars Council, a body of distinguished scholars that advises the Librarian of Congress. He was also President of the American Philosophical Society from 2005 until 2011, in November 2004, Blumberg was named Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Board of United Therapeutics Corporation, In 2010, Blumberg participated in the USA Science and Engineering Festival’s Lunch with a Laureate program, in which middle and high school students of the Greater Washington D.C., Northern Virginia and Maryland area got to engage in an informal conversation with a Nobel Prize–winning scientist
Sadly Blumberg died on April 5, 2011 shortly after giving the keynote speech at the International Lunar Research Park Exploratory Workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center.[ the time of his death Blumberg was a Distinguished Scientist at the NASA Lunar Science Institute, located at the NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California.
In 2011, the Library of Congress and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announced the establishment of the Baruch S. Blumberg NASA/Library of Congress Chair in Astrobiology, a research position housed within the Library’s John W. Kluge Center, which explores the effects of astrobiology research on society. The chair was named for Blumberg in recognition of his service to the Library of Congress Scholars Council, and his commitment to “research and dialogue between disciplines. The Department of Biochemistry and the Glycobiology Institute, at Oxford University also established the Baruch Blumberg Professorship in Virology
English author, illustrator, natural scientist and conservationist Beatrix Potter was Born 28th July 1866. She is best known for her imaginative children’s books featuring animals such as those in The Tale of Peter Rabbit which celebrated the British landscape and country life. She was born into a privileged Unitarian family, and along with her younger brother, Walter Bertram, grew up with few friends outside her large extended family. Her parents were artistic, interested in nature and enjoyed the countryside. As children, Beatrix and Bertram had numerous small animals as pets which they observed closely and drew endlessly. Summer holidays were spent in Scotland and in the English Lake District where Beatrix developed a love of the natural world which was the subject of her painting from an early age.She was educated by private governesses until she was eighteen. Her study of languages, literature, science and history was broad and she was an eager student. Her artistic talents were recognized early. Although she was provided with private art lessons, Potter preferred to develop her own style, particularly favouring watercolour. Along with her drawings of her animals, real and imagined, she illustrated insects, fossils, archeological artefacts, and fungi. In the 1890s her mycological illustrations and research on the reproduction of fungi spores generated interest from the scientific establishment.
After illustrating cards and booklets, Potter wrote and illustrated The Tale of Peter Rabbit publishing it as a small, three-colour illustrated book with Frederick Warne & Co. Potter then went on to write many other books (such as The Tale of Ginger and Pickles, about the local shop in Near Sawrey and The Tale of Mrs. Tittlemouse, a wood mouse) which reflected her increasing participation in village life and her delight in country living. Between 1902 & 1922 Potter Wrote, illustrated and designed spin-off merchandise based on her children’s books for Warne and published over twenty-three books.With the proceeds from the books and a legacy from an aunt, Potter bought Hill Top Farm Near Sawrey, a tiny village in the English Lake District near Ambleside in 1905. Over the next several decades, she purchased additional farms to preserve the unique hill country landscape. Realising she needed to protect her boundaries she sought advice from Solicitors W.H. Heelis & Son. With William Heelis acting for her she bought contiguous pasture. In 1912 Heelis proposed and Beatrix accepted and The couple moved immediately to Castle Cottage, the renovated farm house on Castle Farm. Hill Top remained a working farm but was now remodelled to allow for the tenant family and Potter’s private studio and work shop.
Potter settled into country life with her solicitor husband and his large family, her farms, the Sawrey community. The Tale of Jemima Puddle-Duck and The Tale of Tom Kitten are representative of Hill Top Farm and of her farming life, and reflect her happiness with her country life. Potter also became a prize-winning breeder of Herdwick sheep and a prosperous farmer keenly interested in land preservation. She also established a Nursing Trust for local villages, and served on various committees and councils responsible for footpaths and other country life issues, Potter had been a disciple of the land conservation and preservation ideals of her long-time friend and mentor, Canon Hardwicke Rawnsley, the first secretary and founding member of the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty. She supported the efforts of the National Trust to preserve not just the places of extraordinary beauty, but those heads of valley and low grazing lands that would be irreparably ruined by development. She was also an authority on the traditional Lakeland crafts, period furniture and stonework and restored and preserved the farms that she bought or managed, making sure that each farm house had in it a piece of antique Lakeland furniture. Potter was interested in preserving not only the Herdwick sheep, but the way of life of fell farming.
In 1930 the Heelises became partners with the National Trust in buying and managing the fell farms included in the large Monk Coniston Estate. The estate was composed of many farms spread over a wide area of western Lancashire, including the famously beautiful Tarn Hows. Potter became the de facto estate manager for the Trust for seven years until the National Trust could afford to buy most of the property back from her. Her stewardship of these farms earned her wide regard. She was notable in observing the problems of afforestation, preserving the intake grazing lands, and husbanding the quarries and timber on these farms. All her farms were stocked with Herdwick sheep and frequently with Galloway cattle.
Beatrix Potter sadly passed away 22 December 1943 near Sawry. Following her death she left almost all her property to the National Trust including over 4,000 acres (16 km2) of land, sixteen farms, cottages and herds of cattle and Herdwick sheep. Potter is credited with preserving much of the land that now comprises the Lake District National Park and left almost all the original illustrations for her books to the National Trust. The copyright to her stories and merchandise was given to her publisher Frederick Warne & Co, now a division of the Penguin Group. Hill Top Farm was opened to the public by the National Trust in 1946 her artwork was displayed there until 1985 when it was moved to William Heelis’s former law offices in Hawkshead, also owned by the National Trust as the Beatrix Potter Gallery. Potter gave her folios of mycological drawings to the Armitt Library and Museum in Ambleside before her death. The Tale of Peter Rabbit is owned by Frederick Warne and Company, The Tailor of Gloucester by the Tate Gallery and The Tale of the Flopsy Bunnies by the British Museum. The largest public collection of her letters and drawings is the Leslie Linder Bequest and Leslie Linder Collection at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. In the United States, the largest public collections are those in the Special Collections of the Free Library of Philadelphia, and the Lloyd Cotsen Children’s Library at Princeton University. To this day Potter’s books continue to sell throughout the world, in multiple languages, and Her stories have been retold in song, film, ballet and animation.
Richard Wright, English keyboard player and songwriter (Pink Floyd) was born July 28 1943. Pink Floyd were founded in 1965 and originally consisted of students Roger Waters, Nick Mason, Richard Wright, and Syd Barrett. They first became popular playing in London’s underground music scene in the late 1960s. Under Barrett’s leadership they released two charting singles, “Arnold Layne” and “See Emily Play”, and a successful début album, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn . In 1968 Syd Barratt departed from the group due to his deteriorating mental health however Gilmour joined Pink Floyd as the fifth member several months prior to this. Following the loss of their principal songwriter, Pink Floyd bassist and vocalist Roger Waters became the band’s lyricist and conceptual leader, with Gilmour assuming lead guitar, taking on most of the band’s music composition, and sharing lead vocals. With this line-up Pink Floyd achieved worldwide critical and commercial success with their progressive and psychedelic rock music, which used philosophical lyrics, sonic experimentation, innovative album art, and elaborate live shows. and release of many concept albums such as concept albums such as The Dark Side of the Moon, Wish You Were Here, Animals and The Wall.
Pink Floyd are ranked at number 51 on Rolling Stone magazine’s list of “The 100 Greatest Artists of All Time”, with David Gilmour ranking 14th in the greatest guitarists list. Largely due to the success of their albums the band was ranked No. 3 in Colin Larkin’s the ‘Top 50 Artists Of All Time’, a ranking based on the cumulative votes for each artist’s albums that appear in the All Time Top 1000 Albums.
Sadly though Richard Wright passed away in 2008 but Pink Floyd still remain popular and numerous artists have been influenced by their work: David Bowie has called Syd Barrett a major inspiration, The Edge (U2) also bought his first delay pedal after hearing the opening to Animals; and the Pet Shop Boys paid homage to The Wall during a performance in Boston; Marillion guitarist Steve Rothery has cited Wish You Were Here as a major inspiration; and many other bands, such as the Foo Fighters, Dream Theater, My Chemical Romance, Porcupine Tree, The Mars Volta, The La’s, Queen, Oasis, Iron Maiden, Stone Temple Pilots, Coheed and Cambria, Tool, Queensryche, 30 Seconds to Mars, Scissor Sisters, Rush, Radiohead, Gorillaz, Mudvayne, Nine Inch Nails, Korn, Primus and the Smashing Pumpkins, some of whom have recorded Pink Floyd covers, have been influenced by them.
Pink Floyd have been nominated for and won multiple awards Technical awards include a “Best Engineered Non-Classical Album” Grammy in 1980 for The Wall and BAFTAs award for ‘Best Original Song’ (awarded to Waters) and ‘Best Sound’ (awarded to James Guthrie, Eddy Joseph, Clive Winter, Graham Hartstone and Nicholas Le Messurier) in 1982 for the The Wall film. They won A Grammy in 1995 for “Rock Instrumental Performance” on “Marooned”and In 2008 Pink Floyd were awarded the Polar Music Prize for their contribution to contemporary music; Waters and Mason accepted the prize from King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on 17 January 1996, the UK Music Hall of Fame on 16 November 2005 and the Hit Parade Hall of Fame in 2010 and are one of the most commercially successful and influential rock music groups of all time, having sold over 230 million albums worldwide. The band were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996.
Since then they have continued to enjoy worldwide success and are one of the most commercially successful and influential rock music groups of all time.Since Pink Floyd disbanded Pink Floyd minus Waters and Wright have released the album ‘The Endless River’ based on session material from The Division Bell and featuring contributions from Richard Wright before he died. Roger Waters and David Gilmour have also released a few solo albums such as “On An Island” in 2006 and Rattle that Lock. Roger Water latest solo albums The Wall and ‘Amused To Death’ were both released In 2015 and David Gilmour’s latest solo album ‘Rattle that Lock’ was also released In 2015.
Careless Love is the 25th exciting crime murder mystery by Peter Robinson. It features Detective Chief Inspector Banks of North Yorkshire Police who is called to investigate the apparent suicide of A young local student After Her dead body is found on a lonely country road in an abandoned car which looks to have been involved in an accident. However She didn’t even own a car. Didn’t even drive. How did she get there? Where did she die? Who moved her, and why?
Elsewhere a man in his sixties is found dead in a gully up on the wild moorland. He is wearing an expensive suit and carrying no identification. Post-mortem findings indicate he died from injuries sustained during the fall. Why was he there and how did he get there? Could the Suicide, the car accident and the fatal fall all be connected?
Then Annie’s father’s new partner, Zelda, then comes up with a shocking piece of information that alerts DCI Banks and Annie to the return of an old enemy in a new guise. This is someone who will stop at nothing, not even murder, to get what he wants – and suddenly the stakes are raised and the hunt is on…
Prolific UK novelist Jack Higgins (Harry Patterson) was born 27 July 1929. most of his novels have been thrillers. His first novel The Eagle Has Landed sold over fifty million copies and nearly all his others have been bestsellers. Patterson was born in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. He moved to Belfast, Northern Ireland, with his mother after his parents’ marriage foundered, and was raised there amid religious and political violence. First in Belfast and later in Leeds, Patterson proved to be an indifferent student and left school without completing his studies.
He found a home in the British Army, however, and served two years as a non-commissioned officer in the Household Cavalry (the Blues and Royals) on the East German border during the 1950s. Patterson found, during his military service, that he possessed both considerable sharpshooting skills and considerable intelligence (scoring 147 on an army intelligence test. Patterson’s early novels, were written under his own name as well as under the pseudonyms James Graham, Martin Fallon, and Hugh Marlowe, and are brisk, competent, but essentially forgettable thrillers that typically feature hardened, cynical heroes, ruthless villains, and dangerous locales. Patterson published thirty-five such novels (sometimes three or four a year) between 1959 and 1974, learning his craft. East of Desolation (1968), A Game for Heroes (1970) and The Savage Day (1972) stand out among his early work for their vividly drawn settings (Greenland, the Channel Islands, and Belfast, respectively) and offbeat plots. Patterson began using the pseudonym Jack Higgins in the late 1960. The novels The Savage Day and A Prayer For The Dying became minor bestsellers, but it was the publication of his thirty-sixth book, The Eagle Has Landed, in 1975 that made Higgins’ reputation., . Its plot concerned a German commando unit sent into England to kidnap Winston Churchill and is reminiscent of Alberto Cavalcanti’s wartime film Went the Day Well?, which itself was directly based on the 1942 Graham Greene short story The Lieutenant Died Last). Higgins followed The Eagle Has Landed with a series of equally ambitious thrillers, including Touch the Devil, Confessional, The Eagle Has Flown.
The third phase of Patterson’s career began with the publication of Eye of the Storm in 1992, a fictionalized retelling of an unsuccessful mortar attack on Prime Minister John Major by a ruthless young Irish gunman-philosopher named Sean Dillon, hired by an Iraqi millionaire. Dillon is also Cast as the central character over the next series of novels. Among Jack Higgins best known novels are: Year of the Tiger,The Keys of Hell, Midnight Never Comes, Dark Side of the Street, A Fine Night for Dying, The Savage Day, Day of Judgement, The Graveyard Shift, Brought in Dead, Hell Is Always Today, The Eagle Has Landed, Touch the Devil, Confessional, The Eagle Has Flown, Night of the Fox, Cold Harbour, Flight of Eagles, Eye of the Storm, Thunder Point, On Dangerous Ground, Angel of Death, Drink with the Devil, The President’s Daughter, The White House Connection, Day of Reckoning, Edge of Danger, Midnight Runner, Bad Company, Dark Justice, Without Mercy, The Killing Ground, Rough Justice, A Darker Place, The Wolf at the Door, The Judas Gate, A Devil is Waiting, Sure Fire,Death Run, Sharp Shot, First Strike, Wrath of the Lion, East of Desolation, In the Hour Before Midnight, Night Judgement At Sinos, The Last Place God Made, The Savage Day, A Prayer for the Dying, Storm Warning, Solo, Luciano’s Luck, Exocet, A Season in Hell, Memoirs of a Dance Hall Romeo, Sheba, Pay The Devil, Sad Wind from the Sea, Cry of the Hunter, The Thousand Faces of Night, Comes the Dark Stranger, Hell is Too Crowded, The Dark Side of the Island, Toll For The Brave, The Valhalla Exchange ,To Catch a King and Dillinger. There have also been many Films adapted from the novels, including, The Violent Enemy, The Wrath of God, The Eagle Has Landed, To Catch a King, A Prayer for the Dying, Confessional Night of the Fox, Midnight Man, On Dangerous Ground, Windsor Protocol and Thunder Point.
Prolific British fantasy novelist Robert Fleming Rankin was born 27 July 1949 in Parsons Green, London, he started writing in the late 1970s, and first entered the bestsellers lists with Snuff Fiction in 1999, by which time his previous eighteen books had sold around one million copies. His books are a mix of science fiction, fantasy, the occult, urban legends, running gags, metafiction, steampunk and outrageous characters. According to the (largely fictional) biography printed in some Corgi editions of his books, Rankin refers to his style as ‘Far Fetched Fiction’ in the hope that bookshops will let him have a section to himself.
Many of Rankin’s books are bestsellers and most are set in Brentford, a suburb of London where the author grew up, and which, in his novels, is usually infested with alien conspiracies and/or ancient evil. During 2012, Rankin published his first 23 novels (up to and including Fandom of the Operator) on Kindle through his own publishing enterprise – Far Fetched Books – with new cover artwork, making them available to a wider audience, despite many of them being out of print.
In addition to his novels, Rankin held a position as the Writer in Residence of Brentford’s Watermans Arts Centre during the 1980s, and organised a regular poetry event there which he claims was the largest in Britain. He also has performed on stage with bands. Rankin’s fan club, The Order of the Golden Sprout (named after Rankin’s fixation with the vegetable), maintain a website and arrange events, many around Brentford. In 2009 he was created the first Fellow of The Victorian Steampunk Society in recognition of his contribution to the genre. He lives in Brighton with his wife, Dr. Rachel Heywood-Rankin.
British aviation pioneer and aircraft engineer Captain Sir Geoffrey de Havilland, OM, CBE, AFC, RDI, FRAeS, was born 27 July 1882 at Magdala House, Terriers, High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, And was educated at Nuneaton Grammar School, St Edward’s School, Oxford and the Crystal Palace School of Engineering (from 1900 to 1903).
Upon graduating from engineering training, de Havilland pursued a career in automotive engineering, building cars and motorcycles. He took an apprenticeship with engine manufacturers Willans & Robinson of Rugby, after which he worked as a draughtsman for The Wolseley Tool and Motor Car Company Limited in Birmingham, a job from which he resigned after a year. He then spent two years working in the design office of Motor Omnibus Construction Company Limited in Walthamstow. While there he designed his first aero engine and had the first prototype made by Iris Motor Company of Willesden. He married in 1909 and almost immediately embarked on the career of designing, building and flying aircraft to which he devoted the rest of his life.
Geoffrey de Havilland’s first aircraft took two years to build before he crashed it during its first very short flight at Seven Barrows near Litchfield, Hampshire in 1910. A memorial marks the event. Subsequent designs were more successful: in 1912 he established a new British altitude record of 10,500 feet (3.2 km) in an aircraft of his design, the B.E.2. De Havilland was the designer and his brother Hereward the test pilot. In December 1910, de Havilland joined HM Balloon Factory at Farnborough, which was to become the Royal Aircraft Factory. He sold his second aeroplane (which he had used to teach himself to fly) to his new employer for £400. It became the F.E.1, the first aircraft to bear an official Royal Aircraft Factory designation. For the next three years de Havilland designed, or participated in the design of, a number of experimental types at the “Factory”.In January 1914, de Havilland was appointed an inspector of aircraft in the Aeronautical Inspection Directorate. Unhappy at leaving design work, in May he was recruited to become the Chief Designer at Airco, in Hendon. He designed many aircraft for Airco, all designated by his initials, DH. Large numbers of de Havilland designed aircraft were used during the First World War, flown by the Royal Flying Corps and later the Royal Air Force.Airco was bought by the BSA Company, but BSA was only interested in using the company factories for car production.
After Raising £20,000, de Havilland bought the relevant assets he needed and in 1920 formed the de Havilland Aircraft Company at Stag Lane Aerodrome, Edgware, where he and his company designed and built a large number of aircraft, including the Moth family. In 1933 the company moved to Hatfield Aerodrome, in Hertfordshire. One of his roles was as test pilot for the company’s aircraft, in all of which he liked to fly. He was believed to have said “we could have had jets” in reference to the ignoring of jet engine possibilities prior to the start of the 1939-45 world war. The company’s aircraft, particularly the Mosquito, played a formidable role in the Second World War. Until it was bought by the Hawker Siddeley Company in 1960, de Havilland controlled the company.
Geoffrey De Havilland also developed and built the The de Havilland DH 106 Comet which was the first production commercial Jetliner at its Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom headquarters, the Comet 1 prototype first flew on 27 July 1949(see Below). Following many accidents the Comet was extensively redesigned with oval windows, structural reinforcement and other changes. Rival manufacturers meanwhile heeded the lessons learned from the Comet while developing their own aircraft. Although sales never fully recovered, the improved Comet 2 and the prototype Comet 3 culminated in the redesigned Comet 4 series which debuted in 1958 and had a productive career of over 30 years. The Comet was adapted for a variety of military roles such as VIP, medical and passenger transport, as well as surveillance; the most extensive modification resulted in a specialisedmaritime patrol aircraft variant, the Hawker Siddeley Nimrod. Nimrod remained in service with the Royal Air Force (RAF) until June 2011, over 60 years after the Comet’s first flight.
Geoffrey, de Havilland retired from active involvement in his company, in 1955, though remaining as president. He continued flying up to the age of 70. Throughout his life De Havilland garnered many awards. In 1918, de Havilland was made an OBE and CBE in 1934. He received the Air Force Cross in 1919, in recognition of his service in theFirst World War, and was knighted in 1944. He was appointed to the Order of Merit in 1962. He received numerous national and international gold and silver medals and honorary fellowships of learned and engineering societies. De Havilland sadly died aged 82, of a cerebral haemorrhage, on 21 May 1965 at Watford Peace Memorial Hospital, Hertfordshire.
A statue of de Havilland was erected in July 1997 in Memory of Geoffrey de Havilland near the entrance to the College Lane campus of the University of Hertfordshire in Hatfield. He was in effect a benefactor of the university, as in 1951 the de Havilland company had given land adjoining the A1 to Hertfordshire County Council for educational use in perpetuity; the Hatfield Technical College then founded was a precursor of today’s university. The statue was unveiled by His Royal Highness, The Duke of Edinburgh.