World Pediatric Bone and Joint (PB&J) Day

World Pediatric Bone and Joint (PB&J) Day takes place annually on October 19th. Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends people be under pediatric care up to the age of 21.A medical doctor who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician, or paediatrician. The word pediatrics and its cognates mean “healer of children”; they derive from two Greek words: παῖς (pais “child”) and ἰατρός (iatros “doctor, healer”). Pediatricians work both in hospitals, particularly those working in its subspecialties such as neonatology, and as primary care physicians.

The root of Pediatric medicine can be traced back to ancient Greece where Hippocrates, Aristotle, Celsus, Soranus, and Galen understood the differences in growing and maturing organisms that necessitated different treatment Celsus stated: Ex toto non sic pueri ut viri curari debent ( “In general, boys should not be treated in the same way as men.”). Some of the oldest traces of pediatrics exist in Ancient India where children’s doctors were called kumara bhrtya. Sushruta Samhita an ayurvedic text, composed during the sixth century BC contains the text about pediatrics. Another ayurvedic text from this period is Kashyapa Samhita. A second century AD manuscript by the Greek physician and gynecologist Soranus of Ephesus dealt with neonatal pediatrics. Byzantine physicians Oribasius, Aëtius of Amida, Alexander Trallianus, and Paulus Aegineta contributed to the field. The Byzantines also built brephotrophia (crêches). Islamic writers served as a bridge for Greco-Roman and Byzantine medicine and added ideas of their own, especially Haly Abbas, Serapion, Avicenna, and Averroes. The Persian philosopher and physician al-Razi (865–925) published a monograph on pediatrics titled Diseases in Children as well as the first definite description of smallpox as a clinical entity. Among the first books about pediatrics was Libellus [Opusculum] de aegritudinibus et remediis infantium 1472 (“Little Book on Children Diseases and Treatment”), by the Italian pediatrician Paolo Bagellardo. In sequence came Bartholomäus Metlinger’s Ein Regiment der Jungerkinder 1473, Cornelius Roelans (1450–1525) no title Buchlein, or Latin compendium, 1483, and Heinrich von Louffenburg (1391–1460) Versehung des Leibs written in 1429 (published 1491), together form the Pediatric Incunabula, four great medical treatises on children’s physiology and pathology.

The Swedish physician Nils Rosén von Rosenstein (1706–1773) is considered to be the founder of modern pediatrics as a medical specialty, his book The diseases of children, and their remedies (1764) is considered to be “the first modern textbook on the subject”. Pediatrics as a specialized field of medicine continued to develop in the mid-19th century; German physician Abraham Jacobi (1830–1919) is known as the father of American pediatrics because of his many contributions to the field. He received his medical training in Germany and later practiced in New York City.

The first generally accepted pediatric hospital is the Hôpital des Enfants Malades (French: Hospital for Sick Children), which opened in Paris in June 1802 on the site of a previous orphanage. From its beginning, this famous hospital accepted patients up to the age of fifteen years, and it continues to this day as the pediatric division of the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, created in 1920 by merging with the physically contiguous Necker Hospital, founded in 1778. In other European countries, the Charité (a hospital founded in 1710) in Berlin established a separate Pediatric Pavilion in 1830, followed by similar institutions at Sankt Petersburg in 1834, and at Vienna and Breslau (now Wrocław), both in 1837. In 1852 Britain’s first pediatric hospital, the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street was founded by Charles West. The first Children’s hospital in Scotland opened in 1860 in Edinburgh. In the US, the first similar institutions were the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, which opened in 1855, and then Boston Children’s Hospital (1869). Subspecialties in pediatrics were created at the Harriet Lane Home at Johns Hopkins by Edwards A. Park.

The purpose of World Pediatric and Joint day is to increase awareness concerning certain bone and joint related conditions in growing children and young adults, and highlight the measures which can be taken to prevent these conditions. The most common muscoskeletal injuries are fractures, growth plate injuries, overuse, apophyseal pain and infections.

Growth plates are the weakest seams in a child’s skeleton and are the most susceptible to injury. All growing children have growth plates in their bones and are at risk for growth plate injuries until the soft tissue is eventually replaced with solid bone. Growth plate injuries “can have devastating effects on the overall growth of children.” Any injury or impact, such as twisting an ankle or knee, can cause harm to the growth plate. The Ligaments surrounding a child’s joint are not very strong and may not be able to fully stabilize a fracture. Treatment for growth plate injuries depends on several factors such as which bone is injured, the type of fracture, the age of the child, and other associated injuries and circumstances. Injured growth plates should be casted, immobilized, and then rested. If the injury is severe enough, surgical intervention may be needed.

Overuse is a pediatric musculoskeletal injury and is caused by too much participation in sports. Little league elbow is an example of overuse syndrome that affects the growth plate on the inside elbow of the throwing arm in a baseball player. It can do serious damage to the growth plate in the arm due to repetitive use and excessive throwing. This is the reason for strict limits on how many pitches or innings a young pitcher is allowed to throw. Physicians recommend rest coupled with rehabilitation to allow the bones to heal but sometimes surgery is necessary to reattach the growth plate to the bone.

Apophyseal pain is common in the pediatric population, especially during periods of rapid growth and while youth are very active. The apophysis is the site of tendon attachment prior to skeletal maturity. Dr. Spellmon recommends rest, ice, anti-inflammatories, and rehab to treat apophyseal overuse injuries, and immobilization, rest, and rehab for an avulsion injury. However, with an avulsion fracture, depending on the severity, surgical intervention may be necessary.

Several different types of bacteria live on the skin and are considered normal skin flora. If skin is broken it allows bacteria to enter the bloodstream.” While children are still growing there is an abundant supply of blood to the bone and sometimes bacteria seed in the bone and cause an infection. This bone infection is called osteomyelitis and typically requires a hospital stay with IV antibiotics followed by oral antibiotics. In addition, labs, radiographs, and a clinical exam are typically followed until all are normalized.

Pediatric musculoskeletal injuries, May also be exacerbated by obesity developed during childhood. World Pediatric Bone and Joint Day highlights obesity, screening, and prevention. The day also looks at symptoms, treatment and economic impact. When not diagnosed early and managed appropriately, Pediatric muscoskeletal injuries can result in long-term disabling conditions, chronic pain and disability later in life. Many of these conditions can be prevented by measures taken to lessen the chance of occurrence. Raising awareness of these conditions in young people may allow them to live healthier lives, free from pain and conditions such as osteoporosis and arthritis that may surface later in life.

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Conflic Resolution Day/ National Cupcake Day/ National no beard Day

Conflict Resolution day takes place annually on 18 October. Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution. Conflict Resolution Day is a global event, intended to promote the concept of peaceful conflict resolution. Created in 2005 by the Association for Conflict Resolution (ACR), it is now an annual celebration. Conflict Resolution Day is Primarily an educational event, the main purpose of Conflict Resolution Day is to increase awareness of the various peaceful, non-violent methods of conflict resolution available, such as mediation and arbitration. In addition, the ACR hopes to promote their use in various different avenues of life, including in schools, workplaces, within the legal system and even amongst families.

Conflict management refers to the long-term management of intractable conflicts. It is the label for the variety of ways by which people handle grievances—standing up for what they consider to be right and against what they consider to be wrong. Those ways include such diverse phenomena as gossip, ridicule, lynching, terrorism, warfare, feuding, genocide, law, mediation, and avoidance.[citation needed] Which forms of conflict management will be used in any given situation can be somewhat predicted and explained by the social structure—or social geometry—of the case.

Conflict management is often considered to be distinct from conflict resolution. In order for actual conflict to occur, there should be an expression of exclusive patterns which explain why and how the conflict was expressed the way it was. Conflict is often connected to a previous issue. Resolution refers to resolving a dispute to the approval of one or both parties, whereas management is concerned with an ongoing process that may never have a resolution. Neither is considered the same as conflict transformation, which seeks to reframe the positions of the conflict parties.

The role of culture is not always fully appreciated and must be taken into account. In a piece on “the ocean model of civilization”, Prof Nayef Al-Rodhan argues that greater transcultural understanding is critical for global security because it diminishes ‘hierarchies’ and alienation, and avoids dehumanization of the ‘other’.

Counseling[edit]
When personal conflict leads to frustration and loss of efficiency, counseling may prove helpful. Although few organizations can afford to have professional counselors on staff, given some training, managers may be able to perform this function. Nondirective counseling, or “listening with understanding”, is little more than being a good listener—something every manager should be.[41]

Sometimes simply being able to express one’s feelings to a concerned and understanding listener is enough to relieve frustration and make it possible for an individual to advance to a problem-solving frame of mind. The nondirective approach is one effective way for managers to deal with frustrated subordinates and coworkers.[42]

There are other, more direct and more diagnostic, methods that could be used in appropriate circumstances. However, the great strength of the nondirective approach[nb 2] lies in its simplicity, its effectiveness, and that it deliberately avoids the manager-counselor’s diagnosing and interpreting emotional problems, which would call for special psychological training. Listening to staff with sympathy and understanding is unlikely to escalate the problem, and is a widely-used approach for helping people cope with problems that interfere with their effectiveness in the workplace.[42]

Steps to conflict resolution in the classroom[edit]
Step 1: Clarifying and focusing: problem ownership

Negative feelings such as annoyance, anger and discomfort can interfere with understanding exactly what is wrong in situations of confrontation and how to set things right again. Gaining a bit of distance from negative feelings is exactly what such moments call for, especially on the part of the person with (presumably) the greatest maturity. Problem ownership is defined as deciding who should take ownership of the behavior or conflict in the issue (Gordon, 2003). The main person who is bothered by the root problem is also the “owner” of the problem, and thus the owner of a problem needs to be the one who takes primary responsibility for solving the issue. Identifying ownership makes a difference in how behavior is dealt with, as well as how the problem is effectively solved. It is important to ask clarifying questions to really understand the root causes of the conflict.

Step 2: Active listening

Several strategies help with distinguishing who has a problem with a behavior and who takes ownership. One of those strategies is active listening. Active listening is attending carefully to all aspects of what a student says and attempting to understand or empathize as much as one can (Seifert & Sutton). Active listening consists of continually asking questions in order to test your understanding. It also requires giving encouragement to the student by letting them tell their story, and paraphrasing what the student says so you can form an unbiased conclusion. It is key not to move too quickly at solving the problem by just giving advice, instructions, or scolding. Responding too soon with solutions can shut down the student’s communication and leave you with inaccurate impressions of the source or nature of the problem (Seifert & Sutton).

Step 3: Assertive discipline and I-messages

Once you, as the teacher, have taken in the student’s point of view, form your comments around how the student’s behavior affects your role. Your comments should be assertive, emphasize I-messages, and encourage the student to think about the effects of his or her behavior. They should not be passive, apologetic, hostile or aggressive, but matter-of-fact, such as, “Charlie, you are talking while I am talking.” The comments should emphasize I-messages that focus on how the behavior is affecting the teacher’s teaching and the other students’ learning (Seifert & Sutton). An example of this would be, “You are making it hard for me to focus on teaching this math lesson.” Lastly, you should ask the student more open-ended questions that make him or her think about the consequences of his or her behavior, such as, “How do the other kids feel when you yell in the middle of class?” (Seifert & Sutton).

The comments should encourage the student to think about the effects of his or her actions on others—-a strategy that in effect encourages the student to consider the ethical implications of the actions (Gibbs, 2003). Instead of simply saying, “When you cut in line ahead of the other kids, that was not fair to them”, you can try asking, “How do you think the other kids feel when you cut in line ahead of them?”
Step 4: Negotiation

Seifert and Sutton state that the first three steps describe desirable ways of handling situations that are specific and last for only a short time. These steps by themselves could potentially not be enough when conflicts persist over extended periods of time. Often it is better to negotiate a solution in these situations. Negotiating is defined as methodically deliberating various options and deciding on one if possible (Seifert & Sutton). Even though negotiation demands time and energy, it often demands less time or effort ultimately than continuing to cope with the problem. The results of negotiation can be valuable to everyone involved in the situation. Various experts on conflict resolution have suggested different ways to negotiate with students about problems that are continual (Seifert & Sutton). The theories differ in specifics, but typically are generally similar to the steps we previously discussed:

Determine what the problem is—involves active listening
Discuss and share possible solutions, consider their efficacy
Attempt to reach a consensus: Total agreement on the subject will not always be possible, but should be set as your end goal
Assess the success of the decision: Renegotiation might be necessary.

Committed group members attempt to resolve group conflicts by actively communicating information about their conflicting motives or ideologies to the rest of the group (e.g., intentions; reasons for holding certain beliefs) and by engaging in collective negotiation. Dimensions of resolution typically parallel the dimensions of conflict in the way the conflict is processed. Cognitive resolution is the way disputants understand and view the conflict, with beliefs, perspectives, understandings and attitudes. Emotional resolution is in the way disputants feel about a conflict, the emotional energy. Behavioral resolution is reflective of how the disputants act, their behavior. Ultimately a wide range of methods and procedures for addressing conflict exist, including negotiation, mediation, mediation-arbitration, diplomacy, and creative peacebuilding.

The term conflict resolution may also be used interchangeably with dispute resolution, where arbitration and litigation processes are critically involved. The concept of conflict resolution can be thought to encompass the use of nonviolent resistance measures by conflicted parties in an attempt to promote effective resolution.


National no beard day and National Cupcake Day also both take place on 18 October.

 

International Credit Union Day

International Credit Union Day (ICU Day)and Gets Smart about Credit Day both place annually on 18 October. INternational Credit Union Day celebrates the spirit of the global credit union movement. The day is recognized to reflect upon the credit union movement’s history, promote its achievements, recognize the hard work and share member experiences. International Credit Union (ICU) Day® has been celebrated on the third Thursday of October since 1948.

A credit union is a member-owned financial cooperative, controlled by its members and operated on the principle of people helping people, providing its members credit at competitive rates as well as other financial services. Worldwide, credit union systems vary significantly in terms of total assets and average institution asset size, ranging from volunteer operations with a handful of members to institutions with assets worth several billion U.S. dollars and hundreds of thousands of members. Credit unions operate alongside other mutuals and cooperatives engaging in cooperative banking, such as building societies. “Natural-person credit unions” (also called “retail credit unions” or “consumer credit unions”) serve individuals, as distinguished from “corporate credit unions”, which serve other credit unions.

The ultimate goal of International Credit Union Dayis to raise awareness about the tremendous work that credit unions and other financial cooperatives are doing around the world and give members the opportunity to get more engaged. The day of festivities for credit unions and financial cooperatives globally include fundraisers, open houses, contests, picnics, volunteering and parades.

World Menopause Day

World Menopause Day takes place annually on 18 October. World Menopause day is a worldwide awareness call for women who face health issues when approaching, during and beyond the menopause. It was founded by the The International Menopause Society (IMS) a UK based charity which was created in 1978 in Jerusalem during the second Menopause Congress. The aims of the IMS are “to promote knowledge, study and research on all aspects of aging in men and women; to organize, prepare, hold and participate in international meetings and congresses on menopause and climacteric; and to encourage the interchange of research plans and experience between individual members.” The International Menopause Society currently has members in 62 countries. In addition to organizing congresses, symposia, and workshops, the IMS owns its own journal: Climacteric, the Journal of Adult Women’s Health and Medicine, published by Informa Healthcare. The IMS has three sub-organs: CAMS, the Council of Affiliated Menopause Societies, the WSSM, the World School for the Study of the Menopause and the CPP, the Council of Past Presidents.

The Society’s official journal, Climacteric, the Journal of Adult Women’s Health and Medicine, was founded in 1998 and is listed in Index Medicus/MEDLINE. The editors-in-Chief are Anna Fenton (New Zealand), and Nick Panay (United Kingdom). It publishes international, original, peer-reviewed research on all aspects of aging in men and women, especially during the menopause and climacteric. The content of the journal covers the whole range of subject areas relevant to climacteric studies and adult women’s health and medicine, including underlying endocrinological changes, treatment of the symptoms of the menopause and other age-related changes, hormone replacement therapies, alternative therapies, effective life-style modifications, non-hormonal midlife changes, and the counselling and education of perimenopausal and postmenopausal patients. Menopause Live is another weekly service offered via email by the International Menopause Society. It offers recently published commentaries on scientific papers that may be of interest to members of the IMS.

Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women’s lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children. Menopause typically occurs between 49 and 52 years of age.Medical professionals often define menopause as having occurred when a woman has not had any vaginal bleeding for a year.It may also be defined by a decrease in hormone production by the ovaries. In those who have had surgery to remove their uterus but still have ovaries, menopause may be viewed to have occurred at the time of the surgery or when their hormone levels fell.Following the removal of the uterus, symptoms typically occur earlier, at an average of 45 years of age.

In the years before menopause, a woman’s periods typically become irregular, which means that periods may be longer or shorter in duration or be lighter or heavier in the amount of flow. During this time, women often experience hot flashes; these typically last from 30 seconds to ten minutes and may be associated with shivering, sweating, and reddening of the skin. Hot flashes often stop occurring after a year or two. Other symptoms may include vaginal dryness, trouble sleeping, and mood changes. The severity of symptoms varies between women. While menopause is often thought to be linked to an increase in heart disease, this primarily occurs due to increasing age and does not have a direct relationship with menopause. In some women, problems that were present like endometriosis or painful periods will improve after menopause.

Menopause is usually a natural change.It can occur earlier in those who smoke tobacco.Other causes include surgery that removes both ovaries or some types of chemotherapy. At the physiological level, menopause happens because of a decrease in the ovaries’ production of the hormones estrogen and progesterone.While typically not needed, a diagnosis of menopause can be confirmed by measuring hormone levels in the blood or urine. Menopause is the opposite of menarche, the time when a girl’s periods start.

Specific treatment is not usually needed.Some symptoms, however, may be improved with treatment. With respect to hot flashes, avoiding smoking, caffeine, and alcohol is often recommended.Sleeping in a cool room and using a fan may help.The following medications may help: menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), clonidine, gabapentin, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.Exercise may help with sleeping problems. While MHT was once routinely prescribed, it is now only recommended in those with significant symptoms, as there are concerns about side effects. High-quality evidence for the effectiveness of alternative medicine has not been found.There is tentative evidence for phytoestrogens.

In observation of World Menopause Day , the IMS and the member national societies of CAMS distribute materials and organize activities to inform women about menopause, its management and the impact of estrogen loss. Since it is not always possible for local societies to arrange activities for this specific day, the IMS has now designated October as World Menopause Month. Local societies can also collaborate with other organizations working in the field of adult women’s health, such as societies for osteoporosis and breast cancer, to organize joint events. World Menopause Month can also be a call to implement policies that support research and treatment in the area of menopausal health. Our Menopause World is published on a monthly basis and sent via e-mail to members of the Society. It aims to share news from the world of menopause and promote the current initiatives of the Society. Members are encouraged to submit their own articles for inclusion to share news of events and activities from their part of the world.

Spreadsheet day

Spreadsheet day takes place annually on October 17. The purpose of Spreadsheet day Is to commemorate the date that VisiCalc, the first spreadsheet program for personal computers, was released – October 17th, 1979.

A spreadsheet is an interactive computer application for organization, analysis and storage of data in tabular form. Spreadsheets are developed as computerized simulations of paper accounting worksheets.The program operates on data entered in cells of a table. Each cell may contain either numeric or text data, or the results of formulas that automatically calculate and display a value based on the contents of other cells. A spreadsheet may also refer to one such electronic document. Spreadsheet users can adjust any stored value and observe the effects on calculated values. This makes the spreadsheet useful for “what-if” analysis since many cases can be rapidly investigated without manual recalculation. Modern spreadsheet software can have multiple interacting sheets, and can display data either as text and numerals, or in graphical form.

A spreadsheet consists of a table of cells arranged into rows and columns and referred to by the X and Y locations. X locations, the columns, are normally represented by letters, “A”, “B”, “C”, etc., while rows are normally represented by numbers, 1, 2, 3, etc. A single cell can be referred to by addressing its row and column, “C10” for instance. This electronic concept of cell references was first introduced in LANPAR (Language for Programming Arrays at Random) (co-invented by Rene Pardo and Remy Landau) and a variant used in VisiCalc, and known as “A1 notation”. Additionally, spreadsheets have the concept of a range, a group of cells, normally contiguous. For instance, one can refer to the first ten cells in the first column with the range “A1:A10”. LANPAR innovated forward referencing/natural order calculation which didn’t re-appear until Lotus 123 and Microsoft’s MultiPlan Version 2.

Besides performing basic arithmetic and mathematical functions, modern spreadsheets provide built-in functions for common financial and statistical operations. Such calculations as net present value or standard deviation can be applied to tabular data with a pre-programmed function in a formula. Spreadsheet programs also provide conditional expressions, functions to convert between text and numbers, and functions that operate on strings of text. Spreadsheets have replaced paper-based systems throughout the business world. Although they were first developed for accounting or bookkeeping tasks, they now are used extensively in any context where tabular lists are built, sorted, and shared.

LANPAR, the first electronic spreadsheet on mainframe and time sharing computers was introduced in 1969. LANPAR was an acronym: LANguage for Programming Arrays at Random. VisiCalc was the first electronic spreadsheet on a microcomputer, and it helped turn the Apple II computer into a popular and widely used system. Lotus 1-2-3 was the leading spreadsheet when DOS was the dominant operating system. Excel now has the largest market share on the Windows and Macintosh platforms. A spreadsheet program is a standard feature of an office productivity suite; since the advent of web apps, office suites now also exist in web app form. Web based spreadsheets are a relatively new category.

Since its beginnings, Spreadsheet Day has grown to become a day for celebrating both the advantages and the aggravations of working with spreadsheet software. The idea for spreadsheet day came about on February 2010, when the importance of spreadsheets in day to day business operations, and in fact living, became apparent to its creator. By the following October, celebrations were underway.

17 October is also

  • Black poetry Day
  • Hagfish Day
  • Four Prunes Day
  • Mulligan Day
  • National Edge Day
  • National Pasta Day
  • Wear something Gaudy day
  • National Support your local Chamber of Commerce Day
  • Medical Assistants Recognition Day

National Fossil Day

National Fossil Day takes place annually on 17 October. It was established in the United States to promote the scientific and educational values of fossils. A fossil is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or microbes, objects preserved in amber, hair, petrified wood, oil, coal, and DNA remnants. The totality of fossils is known as the fossil record. Paleontology is the study of fossils: their age, method of formation, and evolutionary significance. Specimens are usually considered to be fossils if they are over 10,000 years old. The oldest fossils are from around 3.48 billion years old to 4.1 billion years old. The observation in the 19th century that certain fossils were associated with certain rock strata led to the recognition of a geological timescale and the relative ages of different fossils. The development of radiometric dating techniques in the early 20th century allowed scientists to quantitatively measure the absolute ages of rocks and the fossils they host.

There are many processes that lead to fossilization, including permineralization, casts and molds, authigenic mineralization, replacement and recrystallization, adpression, carbonization, and bioimmuration. Fossils vary in size from one micrometer bacteria to dinosaurs and trees, many meters long and weighing many tons. A fossil normally preserves only a portion of the deceased organism, usually that portion that was partially mineralized during life, such as the bones and teeth of vertebrates, or the chitinous or calcareous exoskeletons of invertebrates. Fossils may also consist of the marks left behind by the organism while it was alive, such as animal tracks or feces (coprolites). These types of fossil are called trace fossils or ichnofossils, as opposed to body fossils. Some fossils are biochemical and are called chemofossils or biosignatures.

National Fossil Day was first held on October 13, 2010, during Earth Science Week. The National Park Service and over 270 partners, including museums, institutions, organizations and other groups, joined together to educate the public about the value of fossils. Hundreds of activities were hosted across the United States aimed at improving public understanding of the world’s fossil heritage. The second National Fossil Day was observed on October 12, 2011 with events at museums, parks, universities, and non-profit organizations. National Fossil Day 2012 was celebrated on October 17, 2012 with an opening event held on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.. Similar events have been held annually.

Each year a new educational National Fossil Day logo is created and announced in mid-January on the event website, depicting a prehistoric organism. The original National Fossil Day logo in 2010 and featured a fossil titanothere, a prehistoric mammal. In 2011, a marine reptile, the mosasaur, was used. For 2012, the mammoth was used for the annual logo. For 2013, a Paleozoic invertebrate known as the eurypterid was featured. For 2014 a fossil of an aetosaur, a Triassic reptile, was used.For 2015, a large herbivore mammal known as a chalicothere was used. For 2016, the prehistoric saber-toothed cat Smilodon fatalis was used For 2017, a jawless fish known as a heterostracan was used.

World Trauma Day

World Trauma Day is celebrated annually on October, 17th. The purpose of World Trauma day is to highlight the increasing rate of accidents and injuries causing death and disability across the world and the need to prevent them. World Trauma Day was created in New Delhi in 2011 , in collaboration withThe Trauma Society of South Africa (which has the highest road mortality rate in the world with 40 deaths per day) joining the year after. Its purpose was to set a day aside to consider the impact, prevention and treatment of traumatic injuries and deaths.

Trauma refers to “any injury caused to the body”. The injury may be caused due to many reasons like road accidents, fires, burns, falls, acts of violence and crimes against the vulnerable population including women, children and elderly. trauma is any injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death. There are many causes of major trauma, blunt and penetrating, including falls, motor vehicle collisions, stabbing wounds, and gunshot wounds. Depending on the severity of injury, quickness of management and transportation to an appropriate medical facility (called a trauma center) may be necessary to prevent loss of life or limb. The initial assessment is critical, and involves a physical evaluation and also may include the use of imaging tools to determine the types of injuries accurately and to formulate a course of treatment.

Injuries may be caused by any combination of external forces that act physically against the body. The leading causes of traumatic death are blunt trauma, motor vehicle collisions, and falls, followed by penetrating trauma such as stab wounds or impaled objects. Subsets of blunt trauma are both the number one and two causes of traumatic death. injuries are classified as either intentional such as suicide, or unintentional, such as a motor vehicle collision. Intentional injury is a common cause of traumas. Penetrating trauma is caused when a foreign body such as a bullet or a knife enters the body tissue, creating an open wound. In the United States, most deaths caused by penetrating trauma occur in urban areas and 80% of these deaths are caused by firearms.. Blast injury is a complex cause of trauma because it commonly includes both blunt and penetrating trauma, and also may be accompanied by a burn injury. Trauma also may be associated with a particular activity, such as an occupational or sports injury.

Amongst all the causes, Road Traffic Accident (RTA) is the leading cause of trauma across the world. Many injuries may lead to temporary or permanent disability while others may even cause death. Every year, about 5 million people die from injuries across the world. In India alone, it is estimated that one million people die and 20 million are hospitalized every year due to injuries.

According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), about 1,37,000 people died in road accidents in India in 2013. The burden of disease due to trauma is increasing at an alarming rate. This not only increases the morbidity and mortality rate, but also affects the national productivity on account of younger population being mainly involved in road accidents. Therefore, we should all take the required precautions in order to prevent any injuries. Road designing plays an important role in preventing trauma. But the rate of injuries due to trauma cannot only be reduced by adequate road designing. It is the duty of every citizen of every country to act responsibly. Remember, prevention is always better than cure. Trauma is no accident. It can be easily prevented by staying alert. So, help yourself as well as others by acting responsibly.